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Council of Catholic Women, of which she is President.

Roman beggars sent a resolution of protest to the Pope. The dress reform edict, they say, has cut down church attendance, has reduced their income.


As Jesus of Nazareth called fishermen to be "fishers of men," so an organization today calls upon salesmen to be sellers of the gospel.

At Madison, Wis., met the Gideons,* otherwise known as the Christian Commercial Travelers' Association of America, to celebrate 25 years of service. Speaking of its early growth from 3 to 3,500 members, J. H. Nicholson, Denver, its first Secretary-Treasurer, said:

"In those days we were

other. Now, as everyone knows, the Protestant Episcopal Church has never claimed infallibility, except in a sense so metaphysical that its infallibility is of no practical significance. Hence, says the Bad Bishop, the Protestant Episcopal Church cannot logically pronounce upon heresy. Hence, the Bishop is no heretic.

Thus, before he is through, this charming old villain may very well persuade the Protestant Episcopal Church to abandon heresy-trials, to protect itself from the uncongenial members by divorcing them from the Church on the much simpler grounds of incompatibility. So wisdom will be justified of its eccentric children.

den noise or loss of support, but it is not of itself ever afraid. The fears of children who see bogeymen in the dark are unnatural, can be prevented These are deductions from experiments conducted by Dr. John B. Watson and Dr. Bess Cunningham, under the auspices of the Institute of Educational Research, with the purpose of finding a way to break down the terrors of childhood.

When a child, lying awake, thinks he sees a horrifying shape in the corner, or hears all night long in the dark and rain a man go riding by. the direct cause of his fear is always slight. Light huddles the darkness in a queer way, or someone has told

not afraid to walk up to every travel- MEDICINE him a story about highwaymen.

ing man we saw on a train and ask him if he was a Christian." President Boggs, of Philadelphia, praised the Gideons for placing the Bible in every room of every sizable hotel in the U. S. and Canada. Said he: "The Bible does not so much need to be rewritten as it needs to be read."


Bad Bishop Brown (TIME, June 9), found guilty of heresy by eight good P. E. bishops and true, at Cleveland, May 31, has appealed to a special Court of Review which will meet in October and of which Bishop William A. Leonard of Cleveland is President.

The attorneys for the heretic cited 20 "assignments in error" for example that one of the Bishop-Judges was not a lawful member of the Court, that another was not properly notified.

But all this is the merest trivia triviarum. The simple truth is that, if ever there was, or is, or shall be a heretic, Bishop Brown is a heretic and knows it. Furthermore, the Bishop, having long since retired and being in fairly comfortable circumstances, cannot be materially injured by being condemned a heretic. Why, then, his vigorous law-suit? The answer is simple. Bishop Brown is teasing the Protestant Episcopal Church. And he is doing it with the childish delight of eccentric genius.

The annoying old heretic maintains that the Protestant Episcopal Church cannot define heresy until it has first defined orthodoxy. It cannot say: "That is Error," until it has first said: "This is Truth."

In other words-the trick is a masterpiece of dialectical neatness-it is impossible to have heresy on the one hand without having infallibility on the

*Gideon was otherwise known as Jerubbaal because he cast down the altar of Baal by night.

Fewer Women M.D.'s

The number of women physicians in the U. S. is now 6% of the total, whereas ten years ago women comprised about 10%. Dr. Kate C. H. Mead, former President of the Medical Women's National Association, ascribes the decrease to the increased cost of medical education and to increased opportunities of women in social and laboratory work, which attracts women who might otherwise study Medicine.

New Anesthetic

If certain despatches may be believed, Dr. Fredet of l'Hôpital de la Pitié (Paris) has evolved a new anesthetic. He calls it "sommifere." In doses of 10-15 cubic centimetres, it is injected into the veins after previous injections of morphine or scopolamine, produces anesthesia complete enough for the longest and most serious operation. "This soporific has all the effectiveness of chloroform without its disadvantages." No sickness follows it. No ill effects on liver and kidneys. The patient remains plunged in torpor from 24 to 36 hours afterwards, but can be roused for a few minutes at a time to take nourishment.

Terrors of Childhood

Fear is not inherent in man's nature. It is a defect born of experience, suckled by confusion. A young child can be startled by a sud


is only the trick of associating a slight concrete thing with a vast intangible one that makes such fear formidable. The fears of children in variably depend on this sort of confused association, Dr. Watson's experiments have shown.

To ascertain whether infants were susceptible to fear, a snake was shown to 15 children, aged from 14 to 27 mos. Seven betrayed no fear at all; they tried to grasp the snake and play with it or else disregarded it. The eight others showed guarded reactions; only two were afraid. Both were older than any of those in the first group.

To trace the transference of fear from one object to another, a rabbit was given a child and at the same time an iron bar was banged against a piece of metal. This was repeated. The child confused the noise, which he feared, with the rabbit, made the same response to both. This process of association was also used to effect cures. One baby, long under observation, was afraid of fur or anything resembling fur. cure consisted in bringing animals into his presence while he ate. A lump of sugar was given to him and an animal brought close at the same time. After a period, his relish of the sugar offset his fear of the animal.


Through such methods, the experi menters approached the problem of banishing the bogeyman. Should they be completely successful, much tearful wailing, much downright agony will be done away with.


Under the Hudson

Through solid rock, shifting sand, sliding mud, two great shields are boring toward each other under the Hudson River. When they have come together there will be a new vehicular tunnel from Manhattan to New Jersey. The moment of their marriage is, for the engineers in charge, the zero hour. The latter will not know till then whether they have calculated perfectly this blind meeting underground or whether their plans have gone awry.

Last week the shields were less than 500 ft. apart. In spite of their huge weight, the distance they have been propelled, and the many difficulties, Chief Engineer Clifford Holland and his staff were confident that the calculations will not be wrong by more than an inch. Each shield weighs 400 tons. The one from New Jersey has taken a snake-like course through mud, the one from Manhattan has had to eat through stone. They move in shoves of 21⁄2 ft.; and after each shove, "sand hogs" probe for obstructions with long iron bars. Manhattan skyscrapers are used as observation points on which the lines of progress are sighted. Completion of the tunnel is predicted for October.

Career's End

In 1879 there was graduated from Edinburgh University a young man named William Abbott Herdman. He devoted his life to Science and made Ichthyology his specialty. His rise was steady. In 1881 he became Professor of Zoology at Liverpool University. He devoted not only his talents but his very considerable fortune to Science. In 1904 he was President of the Lennean Society. In 1907 he was President of the Zoology Section of the British Association. He founded the Marine Biological Station at Port Erin, Isle of Man, and also the Sea-Fish Hatchery at Piel. In 1909 Harvard made him a Doctor of Science. In 1910 Edinburgh, his alma mater, made him Doctor of Laws. He gave largely to the scientific departments of several Universities to Liverpool and to the University of London. At the latter institution he and his wife endowed a chair in Geology in memory of their son who was killed in the War.

His several publications include such treatises as Invertebrate Fauna of the Firth of Forth and other studies which he made while diverting himself aboard his yacht, the Runa. His hobby was the destruction of prejudice against seafood. He was wont to say:

"The sooner all classes of the population learn to appreciate the value of fish as a highly nutritious food, the bet

ter it will be for the welfare of the community!"

Thus did he carry on through a long and honorable career of public service. Last week his death was reported under dramatic circumstances.

He was 65 and in good health except that he had suffered from heart trouble. His daughter Winifred was to be married to a London physician. He went to London to attend the wedding. The wedding took place as scheduled except that no guests were present but members of the immediate families. The reason was that the night before Dr. Herdman had died of heart trouble in a London hotel.

In the U. S., the Hearst press described the manner of his death as follows:

"After dinner he took a stroll, meeting a woman who accompanied him to a back street hotel.

"A gentleman came in with a lady and asked for a room about ten thirty last night,' said the manager. 'A few minutes after 11 o'clock the woman rushed downstairs and announced that her companion had collapsed. We found his partly dressed body, lifeless.''

Concerning the dead there is no libel.

Synthetic Gold

All business today involves credit,

point of cheapening Miethe's process. Over ten years ago an engineer

named Lohmann built an electrical smelting furnace which succeeded in dissolving iron, aluminum, sodium and other metals into new and different substances, as well as making diamonds out of wolframite. The latest model of Lohmann's furnace can create a heat of 4,000 degrees centigrade. German scientists are debating what will happen when Miethe's experiment is tried in Lohmann's furnace.


It is obvious to economists and bankers that should a commercially feasible method of manufacturing gold be worked out, it would have far-reaching results. Probably huge period of inflation would follow. Bonds would on paper remain still, but actually depreciate in value measured in commodities. Stocks would soar unless their dividend rates were fixed. All commodity prices would rise. Another basis for money all over the world would have to be discovered, legislated upon, adopted. America, the richest nation in the world, would find herself loaded with tons of yellow metal useful only to fill teeth or roof houses.

and all credit involves the metal gold. THE PRESS

The yellow metal has been chosen over an experience of centuries as the best known substance out of which to coin money, for many reasons. Among these is the fact that gold is scarce, and a supposedly elementary substance.

Much water, however, has gone over the dam since the Metchnikoff table of elementary substances was formulated as the axiomatic basis of modern chemistry. Under certain rays, supposedly elemental substances have broken down into two or more other elements. Now comes the story that Professor Miethe of the Berlin Technical High School has succeeded in obtaining gold artificially by breaking down mercury into other substances.

Professor Miethe is no quack or sensationalist, but a well-known and conservative scientist. He manufactured his gold only in infinitesimal quantities by passing an electric current through a mercury lamp for periods up to 200 hours. He estimated that at this rate the manufactured gold would cost $2,164,000 a pound, against its currency rate of $331 a pound. Unless Professor Miethe's method of gold production is improved upon, it is apparent that his discovery will have no commercial value or significance.

There has been much conjecture in Germany, however, on just this

Singing the Unsung

Many are the sneers cast at the poor journalist. Of all the literary men his work is generally regarded as the lowest, the cheapest, the least valuable. It remained for a newspaper man to defend the newspaper fraternity, at least as compared with their magazine cousins. Laurence Stallings of The New York World had something to say on the subject in a recent article:

I know of one newspaper man who was receiving $25 for Sunday articles, and who failed to please his Sunday editor with a certain interview. It was The a botch job. editor rejected it. The newspaper man, who had to submit regularly in order to secure his main income, was delighted. He sent the piece to the editor of a weekly magazine, one which carried heavy advertising, and straightway received a check for $250 and a request for more of the same. That day the newspaper lost an intelligent, active fellow, a good writer with a talent for facts. The ex-newspaper man is now supplying more of the same, with his tongue in his cheek and a $150 tailored suit on his back.

Most magazine articles read exactly for what they are: scrapings from the reporter's kettle.

Then suddenly he gave a new turn to his remarks:

This is all by way of launching a compliment at the editors of the American Mercury for the use they are making of newspaper men. It is also by way of calling your attention to the taming of the shrewish Mr. Mencken. For twenty years Mr. Mencken has jeered, snorted and chortled at the American newspaper man. Now he is, with the cooperation of Mr. Nathan, editing the best of current magazines and depending upon newspaper men for a large part of his copy.

In the nine issues of the Mercury you will find piece after piece by some one described in the contributors' column as being "for years city editor of the Wee-Wee Daily Argus or as "dean of the correspondents," etc. Again, he departed on another tack: But while on the subject it may be well to call attention to another sudden idiosyncracy of Mr. Mencken's. For twenty years he has brutally tweaked the noses of professors. Now, as in the case of the newspaper men, he cannot edit a good magazine without them.

The Mercury's table of contents invariably includes three or four names wearing Ph.D.'s at their tails, letters boastfully included by Mr. Mencken among the virtues and credits of his performers. And again he has done a singular thing. He seems to have discovered some lost tribe of white professors, a warring tribe who truss up their gowns and take the field against the sacred bulls of American letters, arts, sciences.

Having stoned the reporters and the professors for twenty years, Mencken and Nathan now squawk for their help as they begin to endow America with a first-rate magazine.

This is honor for the unhonored and singing for the unsung, if ever there was. Editors may profitably use it in place of tobacco for a week or so before returning to their accustomed equanimity.


Interlocking businesses-the trust idea has always been a good way of making money. The publishing business has been witness to it. The Hearst publications are a good example. With several publications under one control, it is only natural that one of them should advertise in another. But the typical tactics of the trust idea in publications are to go beyond the mere exchange of overt advertising and to boost one another editorially.

The Hearst papers do this continually. The result of such attempts may almost invariably be diagnosed by a glance at the "puff" which is printed as news or comment. It is usually fatuous, vapid.

Its very effort to spread butter is nauseous and flat. The best publishing ethics has not yet forbidden this type of matter. Occasionally it turns up in the most respected journals.

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Said the opening sentence: August issue of Current History offers objective evidence of the broad diversity and superior utility of the valuable information which it conveys."

Perhaps so. But the discerning reader is more likely to find in this sentence objective evidence of the Times' belief in the broad diversity and superior utility of group control of publications. If the Times occasionally gave similar column-and-a-half treatment to issues of The World's Work, The Yale Review, The American Review of Reviews, The Atlantic Monthly, The North American Review, it might easily escape the charge of puffing. In this matter, however, the

Times allows itself to be placed in the category of the Hearst press.

"Fifth Estate"

At the World Advertising Convention in London, President O. C. Harn of the Audit Bureau of Circulations (touchstone of the publishing business) reminded his hearers of un mot credited to Stanley Clague of Chicago, also prominent in the A. B. C. Mr. Clague once saluted advertising as "the Fifth Estate" of contemporary society, recalling a salutation of Edmund Burke, famed English orator, who styled the Press "a Fourth Estate," more powerful than the three recognized estates of England in his day-the lords temporal, the lords spiritual, the Commons.


The public was surprised, gratified last week when the readers of the Chicago Daily Tribune declined that paper's offer to broadcast the LoebLeopold murder-trial proceedings. The public was further surprised, further gratified when the Tribune editors took counsel over this rebuff, recovered their poise, came out with an open confession of the journalistic soul and a sincere proposal for reform that would have done credit to the most reputable paper in the land.

Said The Tribune:

"Criminal justice in America is now a Roman holiday. The courts are in the Colosseum. The state's attorney's office often is an open torture room of human souls. Exposure of the processes of justice, originally a public safeguard, has been perverted into a public danger. They have been exploited as a field of popular amusement. They are a rich forage for sensation mongers and the yellow press. Their publicity uncontrolled is debasing American thought. It is contributing to the delinquency of criminal justice.

"The injury to justice is in publicity before the trial. Newspaper trials before the case is called have become an abomination. The dangerous initiative that newspapers have taken in judging and convicting out of court is journal. istic lynch law. It is mob murder or mob acquittal in all but the overt act. It is mob appeal. Prosecuting attorneys now hasten to the papers with their theories and confessions. Defense attorneys do the same. Neither dare do otherwise. Half wit juries or prejudiced juries are the inevitable result.

"The Tribune has its share of blame in this. No newspaper can escape it. They have met demand, and in meeting it stimulated public appetite for more.

"General reform must be undertaken or The nation's press must act tonone at all. gether. "There is one remedy. Drastic restriction of publicity before the trial must be imposed by law. England by custom and by law imposes such restrictions. English papers print only the briefest and coolest statement of the facts before the trial. Three papers there were fined heavily not long ago for news reports that to us were mild. Publicity before the trial should be restricted, it may be, to official statements by police or state's attorney. If that be unfair to the defense, some other rule should be worked out. It is a problem suitable for the American Bar Association to

take up. In conjunction with representatives of the press a fair but stringest law could be devised.

The Tribune advocates and will accept drastic restriction of this preliminary pub. licity.

"This must be balanced by full publicity for the trial itself. The hard-won principle of public justice cannot be denied. No matter what the sacrifice, the administration of justice in principle must be public. The wider that publicity, the better."



A rotund little Frenchman, perspiring, slovenly, excited as a bake: chasing stolen buns, rushed, dithering and gesticulating about the prize ring in the Polo Grounds, Manhatan. In frothing, broken accents b screamed at the referee, judges, and journalists, crowded about below him. that foul play was at hand. For proof, he pointed to a sagging figure who staggered weakly over the boards, doubled up with pain. He grabbed at the staggerer's blue silk shorts, tried to rip them off and expose dire injury.

This demented man was François Descamps, Manager of Georges Carpentier, French light heavyweight, arguing in his French way that the "Gorgeous Orchid Man," now a wilted frond, had been crushed by Gene Tunney with a blow below the belt in the 14th (penultimate) round of their fight for Tunney's U. S. light Policeheavyweight boxing title.

men subdued Descamps. Referee Griffin seized Tunney's right hand. held it aloft, said: "You win, Gene!"

The scene had taken place on a brilliantly illuminated platform in the centre of a gloom-filled amphitheatre. At Griffin's gesture, pandemonium burst from the darkness on all sides. Some 40,000 throats concatenated anger and approval but none save the fighters knew certainly whether a foul blow had been struck. A majority of sport experts, craning from the ringside, exonerated Tunney, credited him with a technical knockout. The public, too, exonerated Tunney, conduct persuaded by his throughout the fight that he was incapable of low action. From the moment Carpentier first sprang at him, with back arched, on cat-like toes, Tunney fought like a gentleman. And the public was grieved that so gallant a fighter as Carpentier should come under suspicion of "play ing up" his injury to win applause and sympathy. For nine rounds, the handsome, blond ring-idol of Europe had assaulted a dangerous foe, taken hard battering. In the tenth round, he had grovelled horribly on the floor, all but unconscious, then had arisen and torn into Tunney with dizzy, desperate courage, thunderously cheered by the crowd.

Stretched limp in his dressing room afterwards, Carpentier assured ques tioners that he had been struck foully. Descamps echoed his charge. only adding that he felt sure the thrust had been accidental. Asked if he would now retire from the ring having been beaten by Dempsey, Gib

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The few athletes remaining in Paris paid bills, packed trunks, bought ickets, caught steamer-trains, held postmortems. Led by the London Times, British newspapers chimed in on the post-mortems with notes for the most part sour.

The Times flatly asserted that the games had inflamed international animosities, bluntly suggested they be discontinued. The chief British grievances were: a boxing episode, when a Frenchman bit his English opponent on the chest; the hooliganism of the French crowd at the fights. The Times also said: "It should be clearly put on record that the Americans behaved admirably."

Italians were exercised over the disqualification of an overweening swordsman. Holland grumbled at general illtreatment. France grumbled at a $500,000 deficit.

American correspondents sat back in their chairs, deprecated the discontent, called it excitement of the moment, the complaining of tired children, mountainous molehills. They called attention, too, to the good feeling between the three leading competitors-England, Finland, America.

Colonel Robert M. Thompson, President of the American Olympic Committee, and the French officials were impatient with the attacks upon their cause, characterized them as unfair, out of focus, absurd.


At Wuchang, China, athletes from North China won the third annual national athletic meeting with 51 points. East China 49, Central China 8, South China 2. These celestial games followed the occidental Olympic schedule, had 500 entrants.


Over the sun-parched, hilly Hinsdale links, near Chicago, a company of overheated golfers drove, brassied, mashied their many balls. The mirage that led them on was the Western Amateur title. They challenged


CHAMPION JOHNSTON "Scornful of worm casts

one another's right to continue the quest and in the end Albert Seckel of Chicago and Harrison R. ("Jimmie") Johnston of St. Paul played on alone.

At the 31st tee, Seckel led 4 up, Goldy-haired Johnston then squinted more keenly at the holes, won five in a row with deadly accuracy. Dormydown, Seckel planned his 45-foot putt in the 36th hole for a birdie 3. Scornful of worm casts and slippery undulations, Johnston quashed that feat with a 35-footer to the back of

the cup. For him the mirage had


It was a tournament where strong men wilted. Charles ("Chick") Evans Jr., of Chicago, who had ruled the West as champion eight different years, yielded this last of many major titles in the third round, by 8 and 7, and slid further than ever into the limbo that has been his of late. His conqueror, James Manion of St. Louis, trans-Mississippi champion, went down before Seckel, who has not appeared on a golfing pinnacle since 1911, when, as a Princeton unWestern dergraduate, he became Champion.


At Halle, Germany, the cynosure of a field hockey game between two women's clubs was a handsome, skilful creature who tended goal for the winning side. Play over, this goal-keeper was discovered to be no woman, but a prominent local sportsman dressed up in skirts, wig, etc. The sportsman and the conniving Captain of the offending team were disqualified for a year by authorities.


At Peterboro, N. H., Dudley Allen Sargent, M.D., 75-year-old "apostle of exercise for everybody," died. Why will he be remembered? Because he was trail-blazer for all that is reliable in modern physical culture and gymnastic training, particularly in schools and colleges. Because he directed Hemenway Gymnasium at Harvard University for 40 years and various physical training schools as well. Because he invented and perfected most gymnastic apparatus in use in the U. S. today. Because of late he pioneered the field of athletics and sane body-building for women. Because, throughout his career, he served no end ulterior to his avowed' one-health, fresh air, well-being for


Dr. Sargent was of Maine Puritan stock. His bodily vigor and passion for exercise revealed themselves during his school days. As a lad of 20, he was invited to direct the gymnasium of Bowdoin College. He accepted, sat to a tutor when not teaching the Bowdoinians to flex their limbs, became a Freshman himself.

That was in 1871. The next year, Yale College, awakening to the new movement for physical education, sent for Sargent. Without interrupting his studies at Bowdoin, he supervised both the Yale and Bowdoin gymnasia for three years. In 1875,

he was graduated by Bowdoin, entered the Yale Medical School, set about formulating his contributions to reliable physical culture.



In a day when the human body not thought a wholly fitting topic for conversation, a day when athletes "trained" on beer and cigars, young Sargent dared announce that two physiques have the same flaws, that each should be made the object of close scrutiny and the subject of carefully calculated exercises. To him it was obvious that running a mile or otherwise expending energy wholesale, would not strengthen a weak neck or flabby arms so fast as studied exertion of the neck muscles or of the biceps. He invented ingenious strength and endurance tests, opened a gymnasium in Manhattan, set out to prove his theories upon his pupils.

In 1879, Harvard engaged this promising "radical" to direct Hemenway Gymnasium. When he relinquished the position, 40 years later, he had furnished the country with "chest weights" and other bodybuilding machinery, had brought Harvard's strength-index up 25%, had introduced an "anthropometric" (strength-measuring) formula now in wide use, had supervised the physical education of scores of athletes and hundreds of gymnastic teachers.

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