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Foreign News-[Continued]

ald Cabinet was understood to have assented to this.

Later, President Cosgrave, Lord Londonderry (representing Sir James Craig), Premier MacDonald and some of his Ministers met at the Colonial Office in Whitehall. After hours of fruitless discussion, the Conference broke up.

Unless some new development were to arise, early introduction of the bill to force Northern Ireland's hand was looked for in Parliamentary circles.


Major E. D. Metcalfe, a temporary equerry to the Prince of Wales, arrived in Manhattan to make arrangements for the Prince's visit to the U. S. at the end of this month. Said he: "His Royal Highness is one of the best men to hounds in England. When you consider that he hunts three times a week and rides as hard as he does, it is surprising he doesn't have more falls. If he weren't the Prince of Wales his falls would not be mentioned as anything extraordinary. I train all the Prince's horses. If I were to fall twelve times a week no one would ever give it a thought. But if the Prince is thrown, the news is flashed all over the world. It has been figured out by the press that he has been thrown or fallen about four times a year in the last four years."

Malcolm MacDonald, 22-year-old son of Premier MacDonald, recently graduated from Oxford, spoke thus in an interview at London: "You see, people like me come down from Oxford full of ideas, but they are other people's ideas. They are second-hand. I want some experience to confirm them or else to get a new set of my own. It will probably be some time before I go in for politics. In the meantime I should like to study every phase of life, and I think that can best be done as a reporter."

That abortion of a monument to Edith Cavell, British nurse shot as a spy by the Germans in 1915, is to suffer a slight alteration. At present it has written on it the words "For King and Country." Her last words are now to be included: "Patriotism is not enough. I must have no hatred or bitterness for anyone."

The repeal of the McKenna duties on automobiles, watches, clocks, etc., became effective with the passing of July. It

was rumored that thousands of

American automobiles were in bond awaiting the expiration of the 33% ad valorem duty imposed in 1915 as a war measure by Chancellor of the ExBritish chequer Reginald McKenna. manufacturers were gloomy at the prospect of having to compete on an equal footing with Americans. Great loss of business was envisaged. The decision to repeal the duties was contained in Chancellor of the Exchequer Philip Snowden's budget (TIME, May 12).

Some 13,000 Boy Scouts assembled in the stadium at the British Empire Exhibition for an "Imperial Jamboree." Every Dominion, Colony and dependency in the British Commonwealth of Nations was represented. There were white scouts, black scouts, chocolate scouts, bekilted scouts, befezzed scouts and beturbaned scouts. The Duke of Connaught, President of the Boy Scouts Association, opened the Jamboree. Chief Scout of Wales, Edward Windsor, Prince of Wales, officiated at the opening of the Jamboree ceremonies.


Le Parlement

Sitting in solemn silence, the Senate and Chamber of Deputies heard the reading of a telegram from Premier Herriot, who was in London attending the Premiers' Conference (see INTERNATIONAL).

The Premier's telegram reviewed the progress of the Conference and explained his inability to appear personally before Parliament. By far the most significant and, therefore, important passage in his message was:

"The French delegation, while seeking to afford the lenders all legitimate security, is taking care that there shall be no impairment of the Versailles Treaty and no infringement upon French rights in the event that the rights of France are not safeguarded by collective action."

Senators and Deputies continued to sit in solemn silence until the icy atmosphere of the two Houses of Parliament caused them to stand up and march forth into the sunshine.

The Amnesty Bill, passed by the Chamber of Deputies (TIME, July 21), was recently referred for report to a

special Commission of the Senate after a peevish debate. The Commission came forward last week and stated that it was impossible for it to make an immediate report.

Le Sénateur de Monsies proposed a temporary measure of amnesty pending the passage of the main bill. This was too much for old, die-hard Royalist, le Sénateur Dominique Delahaye. Cried he: "You love the Boches too much!" The usually calm Senators became much agitated. White-haired old men became almost inarticulate with rage. Left Senators pounded, with bony and with fat hands, the tops of their desks, loudly calling upon the President of the Senate, le Sénateur de Selves, to call the spirited Delahaye to order.

M. de Selves vowed he had not heard the insult. This angered still more the Left Senators, who, headed by shrill voices from the ministerial seats, began to call for de Selves' resignation. In vain did the latter try to pacify the irate gray-beards and others less bewhiskered; finally he was forced to put on his hat, thus suspending the session.

A motion to transfer to le Panthéon, last resting place of France's great men, the bones of Jean Jaurés, Socialist, who was assassinated on the eve of the outbreak of the War, was passed by the Chamber by 346 to 110 votes, and by the Senate with only five opposing votes. The bill will become law after it has been signed by President Doumergue. The Government will then appoint a date for the exhumation and reburial.

Parliament adjourned for the Summer vacation. The Presidents of both Houses made it clear to members that they might be recalled when Premier Herriot arrived from London. Failing this, Parliament will not meet again until October.


The Paris press waxed sacastic over Premier MacDonald's kind invitation to Premier Herriot to attend the great naval review off Spithead (TIME, Aug. 4). It emphasized the fact that Britain referred to her Navy as a "guarantee of peace" and to the French Army as a "menace of war."

Le Journal des Debats, Paris quotidian, in a scathing editorial, suggested that invite Premier Herriot should now Premier MacDonald to France to see

Foreign News-[Continued]

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Mighty Dicta

When dawn swept away night's covering and revealed the first day of August, Germany thought of another first of August, ten years ago, when the Empire declared war on Imperial Russia.

What were the old leaders of the German Imperial Army doing? The The answer was soon forthcoming. ex-Crown Prince, Field Marshals von Hindenburg and von Mackensen, Generals von Ludendorff and von Kluck celebrated the day by delivering themselves of mighty dicta to the German people:

Ex-Crown Prince: The memory of our fallen and badly wounded comrades should be a lasting summons to us to bend every effort toward bringing our beloved Fatherland from the depths to the heights."

Field Marshal von Hindenburg: "May the spirit of 1914 again be the common property of all Germans."

General von Ludendorff to the Prussian Fusiliers: "Your regiment was a thoroughly worthy part of the old Prussian Army. May its members never forget that and remain conscious of what they still owe the

The produce or designated commodity itself, as distinguished from its value in money.

Fatherland in view of the deeds they have already accomplished."

General von Kluck: Comrades of that old army, which was as hard as steel, remember the greatness of our fathers and the heroism of our comrades who fell in battle. Let us con


VON MACKENSEN "Soft, sweet manner; quiet firmness"

tinue to be true to our calling and let us place manly Truth and Honor above everything."

But word had yet to come from the Saxon Field Marshal von Mackensen, reputed the first cavalry leader in the world, thought by many the ablest soldier Germany had in the War. What would the hero of a dozen Russian victories say? The white-haired soldier, now 74 years of age, gave his message: "We old soldiers are You bearers of the spirit of 1914. comrades must see that it continues to live in the breasts of the rising generation."

Not very different from the other messages, but from a different man. The old man, once a god of the Death's Head Hussars, is regarded by even so discriminating a people as the French as the greatest tactician of the War and referred to by them as having "the soft, sweet manner, the quiet firmness in giving orders, the unruffled pose at Headquarters and the coolness that belong to a great military genius."


On an August day that was cold and gray, with flags at half-mast, Germany tearfully commemorated the tenth an

niversary of plunging the world into


The climax of Berlin's tremendous open-air tribute to her fallen soldiers was reached when an orderly, blackdense crowd assembled before the Reichstag, packed all the side streets around that building and filled the treelined avenues of the Tiergarten.

President Ebert, standing outside the Reichstag beneath an inscription, To the Living Spirit of Our Dead, said in a speech: "We swear today that we will do all in our power to help Germany resume her proper place among the nations... Let us swear to build in memory of our dead and our sacrifices a memorial more permanent than iron-a free Germany."

A gun boomed its dull, monotonous roar, the crowd became bareheaded, two minutes' silence was observed with reverential solemnity. Then, thousands of melancholy voices sang the old German hymn: Wir treten zum Beten. As the vibrant notes of the hymn found thundering echoes of grief in thousands of hearts, tears welled, men and women allegedly fainted-not from heat, for it was cold-not from crowd roughness, for there was order-but from grief.

The crowd dispersed to the strains of Deutschland über Alles. The only disturbance occurred when Communists, hung like monkeys in the trees, booed, yelled, scattered propaganda leaflets among the crowd during the two minutes of silence. Several Communists were caught by the infuriated mourners, were badly mauled, taken to hospitals.

In the Pariserplatz, where stands the French Embassy, police mounted, and on foot, solid contingents of Reichswehr prevented any hostile demonstration.



Pilsner beer is still manufactured at Pilsen, which, since it became a CzechoSlovakian city, spells its name Plzen. Certain German patriots urged a boycott of the famed Bohemian beer, pointing out that the breweries were forced to donate part of their profits to Czecho-Slovakian schools in which German children are forced to learn Czech. They also reminded German "beer-swuzzlers" that there was plenty of good German beer with which to "swuzzle," and that Czechs never "swuzzled" with any but their own beer.


Pearly Passion

Foreign News-[Continued]

Viennese tongues clacked because Baroness Alice Konrad von Konradsheim was sentenced to six months' imprisonment at Grätz, Czecho-Slovakia, for having broken strings of pearls worn by the two plaintiffs and having stolen a considerable number of the pearls while they were being picked up.

A plea of kleptomania was entered by the defense and medical evidence also was introduced to show that the Baroness had an uncontrollable passion for pearls; but despite the fact that she owned a large palace in Grätz and many houses in Vienna, she was found guilty.


On hearing the sentence, Baroness swooned and was carried unconscious from court.

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Apropos of the untimely death (TIME, July 28) of U. S. Consul Robert W. Imbrie, there came from Teheran to Washington a note in answer to the stern warning sent by the U. S. State Department (TIME, Aug. 4). Excerpts:

Many of the persons who were either suspected or were accused of committing the crime have, regardless of the class to which they belong, been arrested. Other persons who participated will shortly, as a result of the vigorous efforts of the Government, be apprehended and the culprits will receive drastic punishment after their trial.

Considering the official status of Mr. Imbrie, the deceased, the Persian Government agrees with the suggestion of the United States Government that the body of Mr. Imbrie be acThe corded honors during its transportation. Persian Government is concerned over this

matter to such an extent that it would ship
the remains of the deceased Consul to America
aboard a Persian man-of-war if Persia pos-
sessed one.
But inasmuch as it is unable to
do so, it agrees to pay the expenses which
may be incurred by the despatch of an Amer-
ican man-of-war to receive the remains.

The Persian Government declared the
protection of Americans to be a "posi-
tive duty," promised that no stone would
in the future be left unturned to guard
American life and property. It also
said that "the Government and people
of Persia are extremely chagrined and
depressed" by the violent death of
Major Imbrie at the hands of a fanati-
cal mob.


La Consulta

The Council of Ministers, at whose head was the omnipresent Benito, met to consider:

1). Whether the Government's press curb should remain;

the should 2). Whether Fascisti forthwith be placed under State control.

The first restriction was attacked by the Opposition as an unwarranted interference with the rights and liberties of Italians.

The second problem has been the basis for every attack by the Opposition on the Government since the Matteotti murder (TIME, June 23, et seq.). The Opposition has, at present, no intention of taking its seats in Parliament next Fall. As a sine qua non of its reëntry into parliamentary activities, it has demanded the aboliton of the Fascist militia.

Thus Benito and his ministers decided to dispose of No. 1 problem by instructing the Ministers of the Interior and of Justice to draft a bill regulating the activities of the press.

No. 2 problem was disposed of in right royal fashion. An imperial decree was drawn up for the King's signature, was unanimously approved by direction of Benito. The decree made the Fascist militia part of the State forces, subjected them to military law, stipulated that they must take an oath of fealty to the King.

However, the Opposition were quick to find a bug in the healing ointment. There were certain modifications. Paragraph 7 stated that membership in the militia would be open to all Italian subjects between the ages of 17 and 50 who have the necessary "physical,

moral and political" qualifications. Paragraph 11 stated, in part, that the militia "will be employed for those duties which he [presumably the King] will consider both in the Kingdom of Italy and in the colonies."

The Opposition continued to be oppositional.

"Clear and Loud"

The Fascisti of Bologna were to hold their annual Congress. Benito, Premier of all Italy, commissioned one Deputy Arpinati to salute the Bologna Fascisti for him.

In a letter to Signor Arpinati, Benito excoriated the Opposition and told his proxy to speak "clear and loud." The instructions were not simple:

In these days we are assisting at a kind of babel, a confusion of tongues, the whole hulla. baloo being dominated by that long word "normalization," whose consistent ambiguity I have already clearly denounced. According to the Opposition we should become good Liberals and continue the traditions of the risorgimento for which the Liberals alone claim credit, while as a matter of fact some of its chief figures were Republicans, like Mazzini and Garibaldi, or Federalists, like Cattaneo, or even Socialists, like Pisacane.

Nobody has yet explained in intelligible fashion what normalization means. I will repeat myself, even at the risk of boring others as much as we are already bored by this subject. If by normalization it is meant that we must go before the Italian people without assuming the mask of false pastors, this we have done and will continue to do. If it is meant that we must punish anyone who breaks our laws, this we are doing and will continue to do. If it is meant that we must repress illegalities, I reply that illegalities are being and will be repressed despite the persistent moral illegalities which the Opposition is daily perpetrating against Fascism. If it is meant that we must govern in the interests of all Italians and not the interests of only one party, this has always been the fundamental hinge of my actions as Premier. What does the Opposition want? Nobody cares to say it openly, but the secret hope is to place Fascism at the mercy of Parliamentarianism and to return to what were some of the darkest days of our history.

The Opposition asks, for instance, that I resign as head of the Fascist Party, which is "preposterous." If facts are facts and not illusions, it would appear that in Republican France the head of the State is also the head of the radical Socialist Party; that in superdemocratic England MacDonald is head of the State and also head of the Labor Party, so much so that he did not hesitate to attend a Parliamentary and anti-Fascist meeting in the Houses of Parliament. I have never reached such extremes, and the Grand Council of Fascism has never-I repeat, never-discussed concrete problems of Government, especially when foreign Powers were concerned.

Even on this point the delectable Opposition, which poses as our mentor, should be so enchantingly good as to speak with sufficient clearness to be comprehensible by average Italians.

Advice and demands are showered upon us. We are surrounded by pedagogues and mentors. Every one has a dilemma on whose horns he wishes to impale us. They all forget that Fascism fought in 1919, 1920 and 1921, leaving some thousands of glorious dead, some

Foreign News-[Continued]

of them hardly more than boys, on its way and dared to carry out the Revolution in 1922 without first asking anyone's leave. My dear pedagogues, please confer the inestimable boon on us of reserving at least part of your sermons for those gentlemen who militate in the Opposition camp because the pacification which we sincerely want cannot be obtained by exercise of one-sided and therefore useless patience on our part

Dear Arpinati, if memory does not lead me into error, the City of Bologna alone has given 46 dead to our cause. Let us remind all those who are forgetful of them. Let us evoke them all, one by one, those unforgettable comrades of ours. Has so much blood been shed in vain? Fascist Bologna cries out to me its passionate, fiery "No." Long live Fascismo!


At the opening session of the National Fascisti Council, Benito uttered words of advice to Fascisti. Said he: "The Fascisti must put the big stick in the attic. That does not mean donning dressing-gowns and slippers, for no real man is worth anything unless he I can face the tempests. While the Opposition is calling on the Fascisti to march about with olive branches, they never show the least sign of a desire to disarm themselves. The recent crisis was useful because it clearly showed who Fascismo's real friends and foes are. The party does not want lukewarm adherents who will cast it off. The new Directorate which the Council meets to elect must be strong and disciplined."

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managed to leave Russia. Biased Bolsheviki think he is a gawk; hence the expression, "Gawky Gorky." Of course, Maxim Gorky is neither awkward nor stupid, as War Lord Leon Trotsky pointed out in an inflammable speech:

"Gorky is indisputably one of the greatest contemporary Russian authors. Unfortunately, however, he does not comprehend the Russian revolutionary movement.

"I will not allude to his attitude toward the Russian working classes, but his attitude toward the Russian peasant is for us an interesting psychological problem which needs to be studied. Maxim Gorky warns us thus: 'Leaders of the Bolshevists, remember my words! The day is not distant when the Russian peasants will revolt against your terrorism, and then, woe unto you! They will ruthlessly "unscrew" your heads!'

"This is expressed in a most picturesque manner, but Gorky forgets that, should the Russian peasant rise against the Bolshevist government and

a peasant revolution, indeed, break out, the heads, not only of the best part of the Russian intellectuals, but also those of the working classes, will be 'unscrewed.'

"Maxim Gorky understood how to throw dust in the eyes of our government by writing excellent eulogies of Lenin, and was allowed to go abroad. But no sooner had he crossed the Russian frontier than he tore off his mask and showed himself in his true colors. He is now inflaming the Russian peasants and stirring them up to revolt against the Bolshevist government-an activity which cannot be too strongly condemned."




The great Spanish littérateur, Professor Don Miguel de Unamuno, recently liberated by general amnesty (TIME, July 28), arrived in France, where he intends to continue his campaign against Dictator Primo. He declared that he could not accept Primo's amnesty, asserted that Primo needed amnesty, not he.

"I cannot accept the Spanish amnesty," he said, "but I can accept French hospitality. My banishment consisted of being thrown onto the island of Fuerteventura, which nature dropped into the ocean like a slice of the Sahara Desert. I lived for months on this arid island, many times suffer

Foreign News-[Continued]

ng from thirst. I cannot return to Spain and retain my dignity."


From the Iberian Peninsula came another growling voice which paid no compliments to Dictator Primo de Rivera.

Ex-Premier Antonio Mauro declared that the Spanish Government is in the hands of a "notorious military officers' committee" which controls the Directory headed by Primo. He said that the present régime has done nothing to restore normal conditions in Spain or to favor the restoration of an elected government.


Growing Pains

Growing pains are a healthy feeling. Even nations suffer from them. At present, Hungary is experiencing them in the regions of her financial anatomy.

The gist of communiqués issued by the Royal Hungarian Government was to the effect that revenues from the tax on commodities exceeded the expectations of the League of Nations (now administering Hungary's finances) by nearly 50 per cent for the first six months and by almost 30 per cent for the second six months of the year.


"Grave Consequences"

Hardly had the little feet of smiling Masanao Hanihara, Japanese Ambassador to the U. S., touched his native soil when eager reporters "nailed" him. "What about that 'grave consequences' note you sent to Secretary of State Charles E. Hughes?" (TIME, Apr. 28) chanted they.

Retorted the Ambassador: "I believe that I committed no wrong in the use of the phrase 'grave consequences' contained in my first note to Secretary Hughes; and the evidence of this is that I offered no apology or excuse in my second note, but only explained the term and emphasized it. . . . I am inclined to be of the opinion that the American Congress would have passed exclusion legislation even without my use of the phrase.

"The American people are, however, beginning to understand the Japanese

The League began to control Hungarian finances the first of this year. Jeremiah Smith Jr., of Boston, accepted the position of League Commissioner General in March (TIME, Apr. 14).

immigration question since the controversy has assumed the present proportion; and I hope their understanding will lead to a future solution of the problem.

"I do not know when the Japanese. Government will send a new note to the American Government on this question; but further notes will be exchanged. I do not believe there is any urgency in dispatching another note. Mr. Hughes is now away in Europe and is not expected to return to Washington until the end of August."

Questioned as to whether he thought Japanese living in California would stay there or move to another part of the U. S., he replied: "I personally believe that a majority are determined to remain where they are. There is a group of exclusionists who are agitating to deprive American-born Japanese of their American citizenship, but I do not believe there will be any trouble if the Japanese population does not increase much. I hear some Japanese immigrants arriving at Seattle were mistreated by immigration officials, but I do not believe this is the fault of the American Government, but probably

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due to the attitude of the officials from that locality, who acted out of prejudice."

Concluding, he made it clear that he would not return to the U. S., and said he did not know who would succeed him in the Embassy.



Clad in immaculate evening clothes, shod in shining leather, gloved in white kid, and wearing a glossy silk hat, Comrade L. M. Karakhan, first Bolshevik Ambassador to China, entered a golden state coach drawn by six ebony horses. He was accompanied by General Huang Kai-wen, Master of Ceremonies, and escorted by 24 cavalry outriders, as he was whisked off to present his credentials to Marshal Tsao Kun, President of China.

Despite the gorgeous capitalist disguise of Comrade Karakhan, he was an Ambassador without an Embassy. The Diplomatic Corps at Peking is composed entirely of Ministers, none of whom relish giving presence to a Bolshevik Ambassador, and they have done much to hinder the Chinese Government from handing over the old Russian Legation. But, through the reported efforts of Dr. Jacob Schurman, U. S. Minister to China, they were expected to acquiesce in handing over the exRussian Legation to Comrade Karakhan.

LATIN AMERICA Mexican Murder

Down a Mexican road went a buggy. Inside were Mrs. Rosalie Evans, American wife of an Englishman, and her paymaster, John Strauss, with 2,000 pesos on his person.

When nearing her hacienda in Puebla, a group of armed men appeared suddenly, opened fire on the buggy. Five bullets entered the left side of Mrs. Evans; she was instantly killed. As her body fell out of the buggy, her hair caught in the wheels, the frightened horse tore off at breakneck speed, 'dragging the body with it, causing terrible mutilations to the face. Strauss was removed to a hospital, seriously wounded.

The Mexican Government said that robbery was the motive of the crime, promised enquiries by civilian and military authorities and apprehension and punishment of the murderers.

Mrs. Rosalie Evans was engaged in a long fight with the Mexican Government which had tried to expropriate her hacienda, transformed by her late husband and herself from a barren wilderness into "one of the beauty spots of agricultural Mexico."

During her fight, Mrs. Evans enlisted the support of the British Chargé des Archives, H. A. C. Cummins, who wrote many letters on the subject to the Mexican Government. The Government called these letters impudent and discourteous, ordered Mr. Cummins to leave the country (TIME, June 23, et seq.). The whole matter was brought up in the British Parliament. Premier MacDonald defended Mr. Cummins, said his letters were not insulting.

The Mexican Government thereupon decided to expel Mr. Cummins, but Mr. Cummins was not easy to expel; he shut himself up in the British Legation building and would not budge. The Government did not carry out its threat and Mr. Cummins, recalled by the British Government, was allowed to leave the country peacefully.

Honduran Strife

In Honduras, Generals Julio Peralta, Jeremias Fonseca and Toribio Ramos, followed by 400 insurgents, swooped upon the town of San Marcos de Colon, killed many, wounded more.

It was hardly two months ago that the last rebellion was put down (TIME, May 12).

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