« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
At Williamstown, Mass., 200 persons, acluding not a few personages (TIME, uly 28), were ushered to seats of privlege in Chapin Hall. There was just oom for them all. Some were bearded, ome were bald; all looked interested. They were the chosen few of more than ,000 who had applied to Chairman Harry Augustus Garfield, President of Williams College for membership in the ourth annual session of the Institute of International Politics. How, why, by whom the 200 were selected were natters for conjecture. But there they at, wise men from far and near; and Dr. Garfield mounted the platform to velcome them.
It was not theirs, said he, to inaugtrate a program, nor to wield the stamp of approval on others' programs. It vas theirs to help the U. S. decide whether or not to "pursue the old paths f local, so-called national self-interest r to venture upon the highway of in=ernational coöperation."
The first to speak was Sir Valentine Chirol, onetime foreign Editor of The London Times and Royal Commissioner n Indian Public Service. His theme vas The Reawakening of the Orient. jaid he: "Never before has the white nan stressed the color bar as he does oday; never before has the Orient enied his claim to racial superior tv is it does today. . . . Hostility to all oreigners has never been so deliberatey and insolently displayed as it is tolay."
Richard Henry Tawney, economic tenchman of Ramsay MacDonald, reiewed the British Labor movement: We may be on the verge of another vatershed, analogous to that of the teform Bill, whence new streams will lescend to carve English political cenery into new shapes."
Using figures that curled into space ke the tail of the mouse in Alice in Vonderland, Dr. Henry Pratt Fairhild, social economist of New York Jniversity, speculated with his hearers pon the world's population at the end f the 20th Century, at the end of 100 enturies.
Dwight W. Morrow, one of the parters of J. P. Morgan and Co., made an ddress on international banking, seting forth the claim that international ankers are not the sinister forces which they are pictured, that instead hey really perform an essential brokerge function in the modern world, mak1g the savings of the comparatively mall investors of one country available 1 stabilizing the finances of the world. Between orations in Chapin Hall, the embers went off in little knots to put eir heads together over Round Tables.
Magna Cum Laude
At the request of Boris III, King of the Bulgars, Dr. Mary Mills Patrick set out from Constantinople, crossed the Bosphorus, made her way to Sofia. There King Boris pinned upon her his
Now she will rest
Order for Women, first class. gesture, Boris explained to Dr. Patrick, was by way of thanks for all she had done for Bulgar women, who have attended the American College for Girls at Constantinople during the 34 years that Dr. Patrick has been head of that institution.
Dr. Patrick, aged 74, has announced that she will now rest from her long educational labors. They say, in Bulgaria, that she was good, helpful to the many Bulgar lasses at her college, letting Bulgar village girls pay their fees in corn and wheat when poverty was upon their land; that she spent nearly 50 vacations in the U. S. raising funds to run the College. They say it was she who mothered Bulgaria's WomanSuffrage Movement.
Educated at Lyons College, Ia., at the University of Iowa, at Heidelberg, Zürich, Berne, Leipzig, Berlin, Dr. Patrick has long been charmed by "divine philosophy." Also, she is a linguist, a Classics devotee. It was not announced whether or not she would now return to the U. S.
Ah got shoes, yo' got shoes,
Ev'body talkin' 'bout Hebben
Gwine tuh walk all ober God's Hebben!
Ah got a harp, yo' got a harp, Etc.
Ah got wings, yo' got wings, Etc.
Other folk-songs are Swing Low, Sweet Chariot; Juba; Oh, Doo Da Day; Polly-wolly-doodle. One hears them at college reunions, glee club concerts or when a few blithe spirits are assembled at a wedding, a banquet or, in the South, at any casual soirée. They constitute a much-cherished portion of our native melody.
Yet few of such songs are to be found in print. They have been perpetuated chiefly by touring companies of Negro singers. Of these companies the two most famed are those sent out from Tuskegee Institute, in Tuskegee, Ga., and from Fisk University, in Nashville, Tenn., to raise funds for the support of Negro education at these two places. Fifty years ago the original band of Fisk Jubilee Singers serenaded Queen Victoria. If King George and Queen Mary attend a gar'den party to be given by Lady Astor, they, too, will be serenaded by Fiskians now abroad on tour.
Many newspaper-readers these facts last week when it was announced that Fisk University had completed the first million-dollar endowment fund ever to be established at a Negro college. The sum was made possible by matching scattered gifts with a conditional offer of $500,000 from the General Education Board of New York. From the Carnegie Corporation, of Manhattan, came $250,000; other contributions came from the John F. Slater fund, of Charlottesville, Va., and the J. C. Penny Foundation, of Manhattan. Individuals contributing: Julius Rosenwald, Cyrus H. McCormick, Harold H. Swift, Mrs. Emmons Blaine, all of Chicago; Samuel Mather and Mrs. Francis F. Prentiss,
of Cleveland; Miss Fanny T. Cochran and Miss Juliana Wood, of Philadelphia; Joseph Lee, George Wigglesworth, Charles E. Mason, of Boston; Edward S. Harkness, George Foster Peabody, Paul D. Cravath (Chairman of Fisk's Board of Trustees, whose father was a Fisk founder and its President for 25 years), V. Everit Macy, Arthur Curtiss James, Dwight W. Morrow, James H. Post, all of Manhattan. Samuel Sachs, of Manhattan, a trustee, has established the Ella Sachs Piotz Memorial Professorship.
Citizens of Nashville organized to raise a supplementary $50,000, said to be the unprecedented contribution of a Southern city to Negro education.
Fisk was founded by Northerners in Nashville in 1866 as a school for emancipated slaves. A disused army
barracks first sheltered its classes. General G. B. Fisk then Head of the Freedman's Bureau for Tennessee and adjoining States, took a lively interest in the founding; his friends named the school for him. In 1869, the American Missionary Association (sustained by Congregational churches in the North) took over the ownership and administration, is still in control. The charter as a university was issued in 1867.
There are now 20 buildings, valued at $500,000. There are a high school (enrolment 261) and a college (266)— both co-educational. Tuition and board come to $82.50 for each of the four semesters into which the twelve months are divided. The curriculum includes: accounting, agriculture, banking, business law, insurance, manual arts, home economics, in addition to the usual classical subjects. Graduate work and the M. A. degree can be taken.
Fisk's President is Dr. Fayette Avery McKenzie, Lehigh graduate, who has spent much of his time on the Red Indian as well as on the Negro problem.
What President Roosevelt called "the most American thing in America" began to happen again. What Philosopher James called "the best fruits of what mankind has striven for under the name of civilization for centuries"
ripened once more and were culled by glad thousands.
With richly caparisoned pageantry, with fine democratic speechmaking, with orchestras, choirs, choruses, soloists, with lecturers, clergymen, suffragettes, scientists, with the President of the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America, Inc., and the
© Keystone PRESIDENT OF THE M. P. P. & D. OF A., INC.
President of the Rockefeller Foundation, the annual program of Chautauqua Institution was launched upon the sylvan shores of Lake Chautauqua, N. Y.
It was the 50th anniversary of the coming together of a little band of people who studied the Bible together in a Summer camp in 1874. They had been invited by Dr. John H. Vincent, preacher, later bishop, and his friend Lewis Miller, mowing-machine maker. The little band reassembled the next year and the next and many more. Their numbers grew. The original program of religious contemplation grew, reached out into other fields of human interest-Music, Education, Art, Politics. Each year the object was to make Chautauqua a richer, more colorful, more "improving" experience. As decades passed, "Chautauqua" became a word of many meanings. It meant, as well as the parent gathering and the name of a lake, town and county in New York, a great many similar gatherings in all parts of the country. It meant a kind of rock, of that geologic period known as the Upper Devonian, outcroppings of which are plentiful at Chautauqua, N. Y. Most of all it meant the "Chautauqua idea"-Democracy's endeavor to educate itself, as now practiced by "well over 10,000,000
people" despite the mountains of odium that have been heaped upon it by intellectuals.
Said William James: "I went in curiosity for a day. I stayed for a week, held spellbound by the charm and ease of everything, by the middle-class paradise, without a sin, without a victim, without a blot, without a tear. . . . You have culture, you have kindness, you have cheapness, you have equality. . .
At Christiania, Norway, the International Federation of University Women finished its Convention in the Grand Hall of Christiania University; the visiting educators set forth for their 19 respective countries. During their stay, the women had marched in solemn procession through the streets, to be welcomed at the Grand Hall as guests of the Norwegian Government; had been addressed on individual morals in politics by Fridtjof Nansen, famed explorer, scientist, statesman, author; had elected, as President of their Congress, Virginia Gildersleeve,* Dean of Barnard College, Manhattan; had resolved to collect a $1,000,000 fund for international fellowships for university women; had been entertained by the American Legation, by Queen Maud at her country estate near Christiania, by the Christiania Municipality; had received telegraphic congratulations from Charles E. Hughes, Ramsay MacDonald, Lady Astor and many another.
The Chicago Federation of Labor glowered at "intelligence tests" for children, adopted a report condemning their use in Chicago. To the Chicago Teachers' Federation this position seemed admirable; it, too, has.attacked the school board's methods, has filled whole newspaper pages with opposition.
Said the Laborites' report: "To place the suggestion of inferiority in the thought of a little child is in itself outrageous, and to do this in the public schools, through an alleged 'scientific' system which shows more than 40% error, is a crime against childhood. ...
"The so-called 'intelligences test,' as an alleged means of measuring native ability and intelligence,' is of very recent origin. . . . Group tests proved to be both cheap and speedy and were quickly injected into the public schools after the War."
*Miss Virginia Crocheron Gildersleeve has been Professor of English and Dean of Barnard College since 1911. Born in 1877, educated at Brearly School (Manhattan). she received an A.B. degree at Barnard, an M.A. and a Ph.D. at Columbia, an LL.D. at Rutgers.
There were days when Sir John Mandeville and Baron von Münchhausen told tales and people swallowed them. People were no more credulous then than now, but less was known of the geography of the world and of what strange things might be discovered in unknown parts. It was unwise to doubt too much for fear of being damned later by the facts.
The average man today is in much the same position in regard to science. It is on this account that many tall stories about the miracles of glandtransplanting have gained popular credence.
The press recently broadcasted from Liége, Belgium, the announcement that Surgeon Serge Voronoff, famed French. gland-grafter, had stated that it was possible to increase the wool crop of sheep by gland-transplanting. He added that he hoped, by repeating the process on several generations of sheep, to create a special breed unusually woolproductive. He said that he was experimenting on a flock of 3,000 sheep in Algeria.
It has long been known that the growth of hair, plumage, etc., is largely a secondary sex characteristic―i.e., that it is a sort of by-product of the activity of the sex glands. But Dr. Voronoff's claims-if, indeed, he has made them-go a great deal further than this simple scientific knowledge suggests. At the present stage of matters, these claims are a press reportno more; and it is well to keep in mind that the press's reports on scientific matters are generally about as reliable and discriminating as a plumber's reports on pharmacy or a cook's reports on literature.
The city of Chicago is flat. Around it the country is flat as it stretches away in all directions-except to the East, where there is fresh water. On this surrounding prairie, there lies a town called Clearing. Here on piece of open ground, workmen have been busy laying a great amount of twelve-inch water-mains. They are the most curious water-mains that have ever been laid. There are 72,000 linear feet of them, connected with seven tons of lead to make the
joints air-tight. The labor of laying them alone is said to have cost $7,500. There is no water nearby nor anybody to use water. What is more, the pipe runs approximately in a rectangle 1,800 ft. long and 1,200 ft. wide, with mirrors in the corners and a double row of pipe on one of the short sides, to provide a check on the accuracy of the work. Pumps are provided to exhaust the air from the pipes.
The purpose of this great project is experiment-experiment that deals with the Einstein theory. Chicago University, endowed by John D. Rockefeller, has had the money to obtain the best equipment, both in men and material, for experimental purposes. One of the men is the famous Physics Prof. Albert Abraham Michelson, who not so long ago measured the star, Betelgeuse, although he has other equally famous research and theories to his credit.
The object of this new experiment is best explained in the words which one of the experimenting physicists used to simplify the idea of the experiment for the understanding of the press:
"The object of the experiment is to determine whether or not two beams of light, traveling in opposite directions around the rectangle, require exactly the same time to complete the circuit. The system of mirrors at the four corners of the rectangle constitutes an interferometer -which is one of the most celebrated inventions of Prof. Michelson-and will make it possible to compare the time required for the two beams of light to make the circuit.
"The comparison will be brought down to within a fraction of the time required for light to make a single vibration. This time is exceedingly minute. The unit of time used in the experiment will be about 2,000,000 times 900,000 tirnes 256 times smaller than the second.
"An observer recording the play of light on the mirrors will be able to detect the slightest variation in the velocity of the beams through the longer and the shorter legs of the rectangle. If no difference in the time of the rival beams is perceived it will be apparent that light is not affected by the earth's rotation; in other words, that the ether rotates with the earth.
"It is at this point that the actual bearing of the experiment on the Einstein theory of relativity enters, for, according to that theory, one beam should travel around the circuit in slightly less time than the other. Generally speaking, proof that the ether rotates with the earth will be considered as contradicting the Einstein theory."
One result of the steady deforestation of the U. S. by timber-cutting concerns has been a steady rise in the price of lumber. The day was when few commodities in this country were as cheap as building-lumber. This condition has now become definitely a thing of the past.
Now the proposal is advanced to make synthetic lumber on a wholesale scale out of waste sugar-cane fibre and other such industrial by-products. B. G. Dahlberg of Chicago is the proponent of this idea and a frank enthusiast over its practical possibilities.
Synthetic lumber, according to Mr. Dalhberg, is actually superior to natural lumber in several ways. For one thing, it possesses superior insulating qualities; homes built of it would be cooler in Summer and warmer in Winter in consequence and coal bills would thereby be reduced. Secondly, it
deadens sound and would thus make dwellings more comfortable and even more healthy. Finally, it is cheaper than natural timber, and being lighter as well, would incur lower transportation charges, which are an important element in lumber costs. As Mr. Dahlberg sees it, the rapid depletion of U. S. forests is bound to make of synthetic lumber manufacturing one of world's greatest future industries.
On June 21, 1919, the German fleet lay at anchor in Scapa Flow. Its pride had long since been broken and it lay captive with only skeleton crews of Germans aboard. In accordance with a preconcerted plan, the Germans opened the sea cocks, let their High Seas Fleet sink to the bottom. There were some 74 ships at anchor at the time and many of them sank before the British could beach them.
Last week, the British Admiralty sold two battle cruisers, the Hindenburg and the Seydlitz, and 24 destroyerssold them as they lie upon the bottom. They went "cheap"-from $1,250 to $7,500 each, depending less upon the size of the vessel than on the depth at which it lies. Cox & Danks, the buyers, have the business of "unscuttling" the ships and junking them. The vessels lie in from 60 to 160 ft. of water. It is one of the greatest salvaging problems which have ever been undertaken.
To raise the destroyers, which is the easier task, Cox & Danks bought a floating marine dry-dock which formerly belonged to the Germans. This was remodeled to act as a double pontoon. By passing cables under the hull of a destroyer and attaching hooks, it was hoped that the destroyer could be lifted in two days. The first attempt was a failure. The cables
snapped after the destroyer had been lifted seven feet; the lifting-gear was badly damaged.
On another destroyer a different method is being used. Cables are attached to the sunken vessel and to floating barges. When the tide goes out, the cables are tightened; the incoming tide then lifts the barges and the vessel together. The whole group is thereupon towed into shallower water until the sunken vessel grounds-and the process is repeated.
say, this is slow work.
The procedure with the large battle cruisers will be somewhat different. The Hindenburg lies in 66 ft. of water, on an even keel, with its upper works projecting above water. Divers have examined it. Seaweed has completely mantled its lower surfaces. The interior is fairly well intact, even to champagne bottles in the wardroom, Barnacles and muscles encrust the sides; mud and sand have drifted in. The divers will be called upon to shut the seacocks, to close all the openings with metal patches and concrete plugs. Then a six-foot pipe will be sunk through the decks; pumps having a lifting capacity of 5,000 tons of water an hour will be lowered. If everything is plugged up, the ship will become buoyant and rise to the surface. There are many "ifs" in the process, however. The divers may have great trouble in discovering all the openings. Bulkheads may be weak or damaged, may give way when pressure is put on them. It will be a great task.
If the job is successful, the cruiser, when floated, will be relieved of its heavy upper parts and used as a pontoon for raising other ships.
Home from the Hill
The Mt. Everest Expedition of 1924 returned to humanity and civilization. Gen. Bruce, head of the expedition, who was forced to retire because of an attack of malaria (TIME, June 16) rode out of Darjeeling and met the returning party several miles in the country. When the party reached the town, Lady Lytton and her guests gave it a handsome welcome. Gen. Bruce and Lieut. Col. Norton settled down to wind up the affairs of the expedition before returning to Calcutta.
The returned men were generally in good health, particularly the native porters, who were professing they had enjoyed the trip as a sort of great picnic at high wages.
In the last of a series of articles for the London Times, Lieut. Col. Norton discussed several questions:
1) Should Everest be attempted? 2) Will Everest be reattempted? 3) Can Everest be climbed?
1) In reply to those who pointed out that seven porters lost their lives in the unsuccessful attempt of 1922 and
that Mallory and Irvine lost their lives this year, without the prospect of any material gain for either the climbers or the human race, he answered with a question: "Isn't it a goodish thing to run some risks, undergo some hardships for an ideal divorced from sordid considerations?"
2) As to the question of a second attempt, the financial backing, of course, depended on the Mt. Everest Committee. But the members of the expedition felt, on account of the loss of friends and the setbacks endured, that Everest must be climbed.
3) The last question, "Can Everest be climbed?" Colonel Norton answered with one word, "Assuredly." His reasons were that much more had been accomplished this year than in 1922 and many things had been learned. Only about 800 ft. of the mountain remained to be climbed. Indeeed, this may have been climbed by the two men who were lost. It was established that porters could carry the necessary equipment to nearly 27,000 ft. Under favorable conditions, he believed, a camp could be established at 27,300 ft. The main struggle was to have the party in good physical condition before making the last attempt. By making 250 ft. more on each of the two days before the final "dash," only about 1,800 ft. need be made on the last day. This year the parties made between 1,400 and 1,500 ft. on the last day, but their physical condition was poor because of earlier hardships. If the higher camps could be made more comfortable, as Col. Norton believed they could be, the climbers would be in better physical condition.
A novelty, but hardly a stunt, in radiocasting was turned loose upon the air by Station WIP, the Gimbel Brothers store in Philadelphia. A diver was sent down to the ocean bottom at Atlantic City. A telephone in his helmet was attached to a cable connected with the shore. Here there was an amplifier connected by telephone with the broadcasting station in Philadelphia. From the scientific standpoint there was nothing very difficult in this achievement.
The diver on the sea bottom, 50 ft. down, described what he saw. As anybody knows who has been there, the sea bottom is no more interesting than an equal stretch of dry land, unless one is especially interested in seaweed or fish. The diver was on the bottom for only six or seven minutes, but he managed to find two sunken ships and several bottles of bootleg rum with the corks removed. The romance of the sea bottom is generally in inverse proportion to the extent of one's familiarity with it.
East vs. West
A writer for Newspaperdom, journalistic trade-sheet, compared newspapers of the West and East, noted diiferences. He proposed that Eastern editors learn from Westerners :
1) "Greater local pride and booster spirit." (Said he: "The booster spirit of the Far West is familiar to everyone.")
2) "Greater attention to school news."
3) "Higher subscription prices." That the West learn from the East 1) "More attention to the man wha writes to the papers" (i.e., cinema sport, health, politics, joke fans.) 2) "Better sporting departments." 3) "Better first pages."
4) "Snappier news and editorial writing."
The writer then closed, mellifluously: "Papers everywhere are splendidly good."
There are, obviously, exceptions to the rules thus laid down. What newspaper, save the Chicago Tribune, could "boost" its home town with more incessant ardor than the Brooklyn Daily Eagle, the Baltimore Sun, the Bridgeport Post, the Philadelphia Public Ledger or the New York World? What newspaper could, in fairness to its readers, carry more educational news than that earnest sheet, the Christian Science Monitor? What newspaper would dare charge more than five cents, as do the New York Evening Post and that earnest sheet, the Christian Science Monitor?
Or, to face about, what could be "snappier" news writing than: "They're digging up some of the wildest riding buckaroos that ever forked a Texas bronco right here in New Orleans."-(New Orleans Item, in a story on an American Legion rodeo.)
"State's Attorney Crowe and his staff of picked assistants, assigned to prosecute the murderers of little Bobby Franks, jumped into their fighting regalia last night and launched a doublefisted attack upon the defense.”—Chicago Tribune.
"There is one bootlegger in Oakland who will think twice hereafter be ! fore he calls prospective customers on the telephone.
"Chief McSorley answered his private telephone yesterday and was dumbfounded when a voice asked if he wanted those 'two cases of real, old Scotch today.'
"This is the Chief of Police.
"'Suffering cats! I've been doublecrossed again,' the man on the tele phone cried savagely, as he slammed
Conrad paint the elusive Nina, the girl who married a white-trader nayer's Folly.
Certain streets have an atmosphere of their own. One of such streets is annebiere. If Paris had a Canne
it would be a little Marseilles.'"
begins The Arrow of Gold in a street of sunny southern France, le romance of Dona Rita.
Through the mesh of scattered hair her face looked like the ace of a golden statue with living eyes. Her lips were composed raceful curve, the upward poise of the half averted head gave to hole person the expression of a wild defiance. Then she smiled.
re beautiful,' he whispered."-From the picture of a native prinhom blundering, voluptuous Willems discovers in the jungle durwonderfully dramatic moment in An Outcast of the Islands.
His strength was immense, and in his great lumpy paws, bulging ke brown boxing gloves on the end of furry forearms, the st objects were handled like playthings."-Such was the ex