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and without any denial; promptly, and without delay; conformably to the law.
" That the people of this state, by their legal representatives, have the sole, inherent, and exclusive right of governing and regulating the internal police of the
“ That all power being originally inherent in, and consequently derived from, the people; therefore, all officers of government, whether legislative or executive, are their trustees and servants, and at all times, in a legal way, accountable to them.
“That government is, or ought to be, instituted for the common benefit, protection, and security of the people, nation, or community, and not for the particular emolument or advantage of any single man, family, or set of men, who are a part only of that community; and that the community hath an indubitable; unalienable, and indefeasible right to reform or alter government, in such manner as shall be, by that community, judged most conducive to the public weal.
“That all elections ought to be free and without corruption, and that all freemen, having a sufficient evidence, common interest with, and attachment to the community, have a right to elect officers, and be elected into office, agreeably to the regulations made in this constitution.
“ That every member of society hath a right to be protected in the enjoyment of life, liberty, and property, and therefore is bound to contribute his proportion towards the expense of that protection, and yield his personal service, when necessary, or an equivalent thereto; but no part of any person's property can be justly taken from him, or applied to public uses, without his consent, or that of the representative body of freemen; nor can any man, who is conscientiously scrupulous of bearing arms, be justly compelled thereto, if he will pay such equivalent; nor are the people bound by any law but such as they have in like manner assented to, for their common good; and previous to any law being made to raise a tax, the purpose for which it is to be raised ought to appear evident to the legislature to be of more service to the community than the money would be if not collected.
“That, in all prosecutions for criminal offences, a person hath a right to be heard by himself and his counsel ; to demand the cause and nature of his accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses; to call for evidence in his favor, and a speedy public trial, by an impartial jury of his country ; without the unanimous consent of which jury, he cannot be found guilty; nor can he be compelled to give evidence against himself; nor can any person be justly deprived of his liberty, except by the laws of the land, or the judgment of his peers.
" That the people have a right to hold themselves, their houses, papers, and possessions, free from search or seizure; and, therefore, warrants without vath or affirmation first made, affording sufficient foundation for them, and whereby any officer or messenger may be commanded or required to search suspected places; or to seize any person or persons, his, her, or their property, not particularly described, are contrary to that right, and ought not to be granted.
“That when an issue in fact, proper for the cognizance of a jury, is joined in a court of law, the parties have a right to trial by jury, which ought to be held sacred.
“ That the people have a right to a frcedom of speech, and of writing and publishing their sentiments, concerning the transactions of government, and therefore the freedom of the press ought not to be restrained.
“ The freedom of deliberation, speech, and debate, in the legislature, is so essential to the rights of the people, that it cannot be the foundation of any accusation or prosecution, action or complaint, in any other court or place whatsoever. “ The
power of suspending laws, or the execution of laws, ought never to be exercised but by the legislature, or by authority derived from it, to be exercised in such particular cases as this constitution, or the legislature, shall provide for.
“That the people have a right to bear arms for the defence of themselves and the state ; and, as standing armies in time of peace are dangerous to liberty, they ought not to be kept up; and that the military should be kept under strict subordination to, and governed by, the civil power.
“ That no person in this state can, in any case, be subjected to law martial, or to any penalties or pains by virtue of that law, except those employed in the army, and the militia in actual service.
“ The frequent recurrence to fundamental principles, and firm adherence to justice, moderation, temperance, industry, and frugality, are absolutely necessary to preserve the blessings of liberty, and keep government free; the people ought, therefore, to pay particular attention to these points, in the choice of officers and representatives, and have a right, in a legal way, to exact a due and constant regard to them, from their legislators and magistrates, in making and executing such laws as are necessary for the good government of the state.
“ That all people have a natural and inherent right to emigrate from one state to another that will receive them.
" That the people have a right to assemble together to consult for their common good: to instruct their representatives : and apply to the legislature for redress of grievances by address, petition, or remonstrance.
“ That no person shall be liable to be transported out of this state for trial of any offence committed within the same."
$ 85. The legislature of the commonwealth of Vermont, according to its constitution, is vested in a House of Representatives, and consists of persons most noted for wisdom and virtue, chosen by ballot annually. They have power to elect their own officers, prepare bills and enact them into laws, judge of the election and qualifications of their own members, expel or punish them for misdemeanors, impeach state criminals, grant charters of incorporations, constitute towns, cities and counties, and elect judges, sheriffs, and justices; and together with the council, elect all military officers, and have all power necessary for the legislature of a free state. of the laws passed is, “ It is hereby enacted by the General Assembly of the state of Vermont."
By sec. 16 of chapter 2, it is provided, “To the end that laws, before they are enacted, may be more maturely considered, and the inconvenience of hasty determinations, as much as possible, prevented, all bills which originate in the assembly shall be laid before the governor and council for their revision and concurrence, or proposals of amendment; who shall return the same to the assembly, with their proposals of amendment, if any. in writing; and if the same are not agreed to by the assembly, it shall be in the power of the governor and council to suspend the passing of such bill until the next session of the legislature: Provided, that if the governor and council shall neglect or refuse to return any such bill to the asscmbly, with written proposals of amendment, within five days, or before the rising of the legislature, the same shall becoine a law.”
§ 86. The Constitution of Connecticut contains the following preamble and declaration of rights:
• The people of Connecticut, acknowledging, with
gratitude, the good providence of God, in having permitted them to enjoy a free government, do, in order more effectually to define, secure, and perpetuate the liberties, rights, and privileges which they have derived from their ancestors, hereby, after a careful consideration and revision, ordain and establish the following constitution and form of civil government.
“ That the great and essential principles of liberty and free government may be recognized and established, we declare :
“That all men, when they form a social compact, are equal in rights : and that no man, or set of men, are entitled to exclusive public emoluments or privileges from the community.
" That all political power is inherent in the people, and all free governments are founded on their authority, and instituted for their benefit; and that they have at all times an undeniable and indefeasible right to alter their form of government in such manner as they may think expedient.
“ The exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, without discrimination, shall for ever be free to all persons in this state, provided that the right hereby declared and established shall not be so construed as to excuse acts of licentiousness, or to justify practices inconsistent with the peace and safety of the state.
“No preference shall be given by law to any Christian sect, or mode of worship.
Every citizen may freely speak, write, and publish his sentiments on all subjects, being responsible for the abuse of that liberty.
“No law shall ever be passed to curtail or restrain the liberty of speech or of the press.
"In all prosecutions or indictments for libels, the truth may be given in evidence, and the jury shall have a right