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termand, to order the contrary of what was ordered before, &c.
CONTRARIUS, Contrary; CONTRARIETAS, Contra
Ов (EPI), upon, to, before, for, &c.: OBLIGO, Oblige (LIGO, bind), bind to; Occur (Curro), run to, meet, happen.
TRANS, contracted into Tra (It.), and cor. into Through, (and Très, Fr.) Thorough (Durch, Ger.): it answers to through, over, beyond: Transgress, Trespass, to pass over; Transatlantic, beyond the Atlantic; Translucid, shining through, clear. Très is employed by the French as we employ very, exceedingly.
ULTRA, (cor. into Outre, Fr.), beyond, above, high, &c.; Ultra-royalist, one who has very high notions of royalty, a high tory.
SINE, without, (i. e. SIT NE, be not,) contr. into SE, is strictly a separative or disconnective; Segregate, to separate from the flock; SELIGO, SELECTUM, Select, to choose out of. This prefix has much the same use as De, Dis, Di, and Un, In.
RE, again, back: Re-enact, enact again; Restate, state again; Rebound, bound back.
In Dutch Re is corrupted into Her; as, Herplant, replant; Hermaak, remake.
It is unnecessary to explain those words sometimes employed as prefixes, which have a separate existence in the language: such as, With, Down,
&c. There is but one Anglo prefix that appears to require notice, viz. Be: as in Befriend, Bespeak, Belie, &c.
This prefix is possibly the verb Be; but we rather think it is the preposition By (Bey, Ger), i. e. Abu, Goth., i. e. AB.
In some cases this prefix gives a particular meaning to a verb: as, Belie, Bespew, &c. Some nouns are formed into verbs, in connexion with it, which do not exist as verbs in a simple or separate stateas, Befriend, Behead, &c.; but frequently it imparts 'no meaning: thus, Becalm, to calm; Becloud, to cloud, &c.
Arch, i. e. ARCH-OS, chief, is employed as a prefix: Arch-priest, a chief-priest; Archbishop, a chief bishop; Arch-rogue, a chief or great rogue, &c.; Arch-heretic, a chief or remarkable heretic.
AFFIXES OR POSTFIXES, i. e. WORDS ADDED TO THE END OF OTHER WORDS.
AFFIXES OF ADJECTIVES.
We will arrange these under the following heads: 1. Simple Adjectives or Connectives: an, en, in, on, &c.; ad, ed, id, &c.; ate, ite, &c.; al, el, ile, &c.; ar, er, ary, &c.; ic, ick, ig, contr. into y and cor. into ish (isch, Ger.; esco, It.; esque, Fr.): Human from HUMO, now HoмO; Golden, Frigid, Par
tial, Singular, Customary, Domestic, Frostig, now Frosty, Spanish, Waspish, Picturesque.
All these affixes which the modern have in common with the learned languages, might, as already intimated, be called possessive or genitive: thus, Conditio hominis, Humana conditio, Man's condition, the condition of man, the human condition, are all equivalent expressions.
Observe, such affixes are frequently redundant, i. e. two or more are put where one is sufficient: as Philosophical; Etymological; Eastern; Western, &c. &c., instead of philosophic, &c.
Concerning the etymology of these affixes, it is, perhaps, idle to offer a conjecture, as they are mere fragments of words: id, &c., seems a contraction of EIDOS (used adjectively), ic or ik, &c., of EIKOS, Like (which word is also employed as an adjective affix); and, perhaps, all the rest have a similar derivation; but we cannot be confident respecting them.
2. Separative or negative affixes of adjectives. We have one of this description, which answers exactly to the negative prefix in or un, viz. less, i. e.
Los, i. e. lost, deprived of, without: as, Witless, Friendless, Careless; without wit, without a friend, without care the Ger. is los: as, Gottlos, Godless; Grundlos, Groundless. Our present form of this affix seems to have originated (like many other modern spellings) in etymologic error; by supposing it to be the adjective Less, or comparative of little.
See Loose, Lose, &c., under LAXO and LUO, LUSO, in the Dictionary.
3. Diminutive affixes of adjectives. We have one of this description, viz. ish: as, Sweetish, a little sweet; Saltish, a little salt: ish is a cor. of the Greek diminutive ISK; which is in Italian, uccio and uzzo, and in Span. ico.
4. Augmentive adjective affixes: these are Sam, Sum, Some, ful, ous.
Sam, Sum, now Some, is the Latin superlative affix, ssim-us or sum-us, i. e. SUMM-us, highest, greatest, most, much, very: Troublesome, lightsome, causing much trouble, giving much light. In Ger. this affix is Sam; our present spelling originated in the etymologic error of supposing it to be some; which still exists as a separate word, but which has an opposite meaning..
Ful, i. e. Full, requires no explanation here. Ous, is the French form of Os, (like our for or,) a Latin augmentive affix: CALAMITOS-us, Calamitous, having or causing much calamity.
These three affixes are equivalent though not always interchangeable; for it is not customary to put the one for the other at choice: we say troublesome; but troubleful, troublous, seem awkward: the old writers, indeed, took more liberty in this way.
The Latin affix os, is manifestly the same as ox, ax, and seems to be a fragment of MAXIM-us, greatest, most, much, very.
There are some adjective affixes that cannot be
ranged under any of the above designations: as able, (i. e. HABILIS, HABILE-See HABEO,) which might be termed potential passive:. Teachable, Moveable, Mutable, MUTABILE, &c.; i. e. that may be taught, that may be moved. But there are instances in which it is employed as active rather than passive: Forcible, Conversable, &c., i. e. Forceful, that can converse. This use of the affix is not frequent; and, perhaps, it ought to be discontinued.
It is almost unnecessary to mention that our adjec tive able is the same word; only it is hardly ever applied as passive: we say, able to see, but not able to be seen.
Alike, Like, often contr. into ly, (Lich, Ger. and Gleich, i. e. Ge-leich, Lyk, Dut.,) i. e. ALIGKI-os, perhaps a cor. of EIKEL-os, Æqual-is, equal : Gentlemanlike or Gentlemanly, or Gentlemanly, Friendlike, or Friendly, &c., i. e., like a gentleman, as a friend : this is generally what is termed an adverbial termination: as, boldly, in a bold manner, proudly, in a proud manner, &c.
Horne Tooke derives Like from the compound Gelyk or Gleich; but he does not attempt to inform us what Gleich is derived from..
We may notice the affixes ward and wise here: as in homeward, backward, sidewise, longwise, &c., in the direction of home, in the direction of the back, in the direction of the side, in the long direction or manner ward is a corrup. of VERSUS. See Ward