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participles put substantively: AUDITIO is the same as hearing; Visio, (VISIONE, Vision,) seeing. There can in general be no necessity, therefore, for explanation to such words, when the verbs have been explained from which they are derived.

As these verbal nouns follow the spelling of the supine or participle, they occasion some orthographic embarrassment to mere English scholars; for whose sake it would have been well, perhaps, if one consonant had been adhered to in naturalizing such words. There is no difficulty with those verbs and adjectives which we have from the Latin supine or participle: as, communicate, communication; promote, promotion; profuse, profusion; pollute, pollution; contrite, contrition; profess, profession. Of those verbs which have d, the nouns have's: deride, derision; protrude, protrusion: but those which assume another syllable terminate in ation; as commend, 'commendation, from Commendatum.

Nouns terminating in ant and ent are Latin participles: as, servant, from SERVO; patent, from PAteo, &c. In these and in nouns generally adopted entire from the Latin, we, as well as our neighbours, have what is in that language called the ablative case.

The termination or changed into er, ar, and in French eur, is generally applied to indicate an agent : Creator, he who creates; lover, one that loves; liar, one that lies; beggar, one that begs; AMATOR, Amateur, Fr. a lover. In Latin, or like os is merely

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a masculine sign or affix: as amor, love, as well as amator, lover, honor or honos. The French have changed or into eur, when an agent is indicated, and into our when agency, state, quality, &c., are indicated; and Johnson has followed in this as in several other instances, the French mode of spelling: as, labour, honour, favour, instead of labor, honor, favor.

The termination ist adopted from Greek, answers exactly to er, i. e. or from the Latin: as, reformer or reformist; etymologer or etymologist. One of these seems more fit and graceful in some connexions than the other: er having been longer and more generally used does better in connexion with vernaeular words: reformer is better than reformist; but etymologist seems better than etymologer; geographer again seems more graceful than geographist. Much in all such cases depends on custom; which has mighty sway over our mental and moral habitudes.

The adjective affix an or ian, is employed in connexion with many nouns ending in ic, to form a new noun indicating an agent: as, from music, musician; logic, logician; optics, optician; metaphysics, metaphysician.

The Latin termination ura, in French and English ure, frequently occurs: as creature from create; picture from PICTUM, PINGO to paint.

The Latin termination tia is changed into ice, ce,

cy: as, MAL-us, MALITIA, Malice; FREQUENS, Frequent, FREQUENTIA, Frequency; PRÆVALENTIA, Prevalence.

The Greek termination ism, is frequently appended to words which are not of Greek extraction: as, Calvinism, the doctrinal system of Calvin; Gallicism, a Gallic or French idiom; vulgarism, a vulgar expression; truism, an obvious or a trite, true remark.

Many verbal nouns (nouns formed from verbs) terminate in ence, i. e. entia, Lat.; as, providence, contr. into prudence, foreseeing, providing, taking care of; credence, believing; precedence, preceding, &c. All such words answer exactly to our own participles employed as nouns : as, hearing, seeing, smelling.

We have noticed age as properly an augmentive in such words as village, personage, &c.: on, (one, It.,) oon, is also an augmentive: as, matron, patron, MATRONA, PATRONUS; formed on MATER, PATER ; saloon, salon, Fr., Salone, It., a great hall, from Sala, It., Salle, Fr., cor. of AULA, a hall. This Latin affix, which is eulogistic as well as augmentive, seems to be a contr. of BONUS: thus, PATER-BONUS; MATER-BONA.

We, like the French, have not any vernacular augmentive affix of nouns: such words as village, salon, &c., were borrowed in the compound state from the Italians.

Most of the diminutive affixes of nouns are now

obsolete, though they yet remain as inseparable terminations in many words.

The Latin diminutive affix is uncul contr. into cul, ull, ul, ell, el, &c., and in Italian ello, in Spanish uelo, illo as PARTICULA, particle, (from PARS, PART-is,) a small part; MORSIUNCULA, contr. into morsel, (from MORSUS, a bite,) a little bite, a snap; BESTIOLA, Cor. into beetle, a little beast or creature ; SEDICULA, Contr. into SEDILE, (from SEDES, a seat,) cor. into saddle, settle, stool. Thus a great number of words terminating in lor le are properly diminutives: many of them have been adopted directly from the Latin; many have been received through the French or Italian.

The above affix uncul, seems a contraction of UNCIALIS, of an inch, of the magnitude of an inch; which is equivalent to small, little.

The Italian has two other diminutives, viz. etto (ette, Fr., et, Eng., ito, Sp.) and ino; which are found in many words: as pocket, diminutive of poke, pouch, poche, Fr.; ballot, ballotte, Fr., pallotta, It., of ball, balle, Fr., palla, It.; bullet, boulet, Fr., of boule, Fr., another form of balle: kitten, Gattino, It., dim. of Cat, Gatto, It., Chat, Fr.

The French formerly employed the diminutives at pleasure like the Italians and Spaniards, but they have long disused them; and this of course is a subject of boasting with Voltaire, in reply to the Italian critics who accused the French of having no

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diminutives. We had them formerly, says Voltaire but they possessed not sufficient dignity for the noble language of the Bourdaloues and Massillons !!

It will, perhaps, flatter the French to remark that we probably discontinued the use of diminutives, because they set us the example.

Most of the diminutive terminations which we have traceable to the Italian, were derived through the French.

We have noticed ish, i. e. uccio, It., ico, Sp., isk, Greek, under Adjective Affixes: as, in sweetish, brackish, saltish, &c. We had it formerly ock, uck, (as it still exists in Scotland: as, beastock, contr. into beasty, a little beast,) as in hillock, a little hill.

As ish, ock, ico, Sp., uccio, It., &c., seem to be isk, Gr.; so, perhaps, et, etto, It., is the Greek adjective ETTON or HETTON, a contr. of ELATTON also ELASSON; whence, seemingly, our + lyt, little and less, as also lad, lass.

We have also as diminutive affixes kin, chen, Ger., and lin, ling, lein, Ger.: as, manikin, männchen and manlein, Ger., little man; lambkin, lammchen, Ger., little lamb; goslin, ganschen, Ger., a little goose; lordling, contr, into lording, lordchen, Ger., a little or petty lord. Of all the diminutives of nouns, ling is the only one which is not quite obsolete; and even this is hardly applied ad libitum: and having become like the Italian uccio, uzzo, ecciuolo, exceed ingly contemptuous, we cannot regret its departure.

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