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On Outline Maps.

ands; the points of the compass indicated ; the boundaries, peculiarities, and general features of the whole taught orally, and by actual view of the same, if possible. “By similar and successive steps, the geography of the county or parish should be taught, while an outline of the same is made upon the board and copied by the class. “The excellent State maps now published, will give the teacher an opportunity to teach well the geography of the pupil’s own State. “When this is done, the class or school will be prepared to study with advantage from the textbook. “The geographical definitions should be thoroughly committed to memory, and illustrated from the maps, and by a globe. “In the use of the outline maps, it is desirable that the class be so arranged that they will face the north, with the map before them. The teacher should point out the country or part of the world to be studied, calling the attention of the class to any peculiarities of configuration or position. “The pupils should then become so familiar with each map, the natural features represented, the political divisions, and the locality of places, as to recognize them by their forms or positions, without their names accompanying. “This can be secured by oral instruction, by a careful study of the map with the key in the Geography, and by drawing the map on the slate or pa

The Principle of Association.

per, putting down the parallels and meridians, and accurately filling up the outline with the natural and political divisions. “The principle of association, according to some particular order of arrangement, will aid the memory in retaining the name of each place or division. The following order has long been used by some of the best teachers of New England, and has been adopted in the arrangement of the maps and key. Commencing with each map at the upper left-hand corner, or northwest part, and proceeding around the map to the right, let the pupil in recitation pronounce distinctly the names classified as follows. Countries. Oceans, seas, gulfs, and bays. Straits, channels, and sounds. Islands. - Capes, peninsulas, and isthmuses. Mountains and deserts. Lakes and rivers. “Or the teacher may pronounce the name, and let the pupil point out the thing named, on the map. “Each map is to be reviewed by promiscuous questions. A few of these have been given. But the teacher should multiply and vary them, as circumstances require. “For classes of advanced scholars, topical instruction will be productive of very beneficial results. The country to be studied having been selected, the teacher should assign a topic to each pupil, who, with a given and definite subject before

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Topics named.

him, should consult reference-books, public and private libraries, and all sources of available information. -

“The following list of topics can be used, or so much of it as is adapted to the attainments of the class, or their means of obtaining the facts required.

“LIST OF TOPICS FOR ADVANCED CLASS.

1. Situation, extent, and boundaries.
2. Coast (indentations and projections).
3. Rivers and lakes.
4. Surface (mountains, plains, plateaus, etc.).
5. Soil and climate.
6. Productions (animal, vegetable, and min-

7. Manufactures. 8. Commerce (exports and imports). 9. Cities and towns (capital, seaports, and manufacturing towns). 10. Travelling facilities. 11. Inhabitants (population, manners, and customs). 12. Government. 13. Education and religion. 14. History (colonial possessions). 15. Miscellaneous (natural curiosities, places and objects of interest, distinguished persons, etc.).”

For reviews in geography, the following arrangement of topics will be found a good one. . 1. Situation, boundary, latitude, and longitude.

Topics for Review.

General divisions. . Islands, peninsulas, capes, and isthmuses. Mountains, plateaus, and deserts. Capitals, cities, and important towns. Oceans, seas, and archipelagos. Gulfs, bays, and harbors. Straits, channels, and sounds. . Rivers and lakes. s 10. Government, — in whom wested, and how administered. 11. Religion and education. 12. Agricultural productions. 13. Mechanical productions. 14. Miscellaneous, – as, modes of travel, objects of interest, etc. Let us suppose that North America is to receive attention according to the above order, and that the class has studied with reference to the same. One pupil is called upon for an answer to the first. If you have outline maps, require him to go to the same, and, with a pointer, to trace the outlines, – give the boundaries, latitude, and longitude. The pupil called upon to answer No. 4 should be required to point out the several places as he names them. The list of topics treated in this way will embrace all the important points in relation to the country under consideration. Here let me caution you against the very common error of indistinct or incorrect pronunciation of geographical terms and names. How often do We hear Artic for Arctic, Missippy for Mississippi,

Voyages described.

Carlina for Carolina, Fellydelfy for Philadelphia, Ashee for Asia, Mederanean for Mediterranean, etc. It will be well occasionally to devote an hour to the pronouncing and spelling of geographical names, and especially such as are often mispronounced. In addition to the hints named, you will find it an excellent plan, occasionally, to require your pupils to describe the course of a ship from one country to another. For example, – From New York to Manilla. “ Boston to Melbourne. * Philadelphia to Constantinople. “ New York to San Francisco. “ Boston to the Sandwich Islands. Let them go to the outline maps, and, with a pointer, designate the route of a ship, and give such information as they can in relation to these places, naming their imports and exports, the probable length of the voyage, etc. It may be well to call upon some pupil, daily, for an exercise of this kind. It will occupy but a few minutes, and may be made both interesting and profitable. After one pupil has given all the information he possesses, give others an opportunity to add other particulars. Another exercise may be, to require a class to write, in letter form, some geographical account of a State or country. For instance, a letter relating to Massachusetts, in which its situation, boundaries, chief rivers, mountains, productions, exports, imports, educational condition, etc. may be stated.

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