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Hours of Confinement.

maps, paintings, mottoes, and drawings; and if a case could be provided for the reception of such objects of interest as the children, or others, may bring to the school-room, it will prove an additional attraction, and become truly valuable in connection with those pleasant Object Lessons which should occupy so prominent a part of instruction in primary schools. A pleasant school-house and yard will have a very happy influence on the early school days of children.

The Hours of Confinement. —In most of our schools the younger pupils are confined quite too many hours in the day. It is no great pleasure for little four-years-old boys or girls to go to school and sit still, on hard seats, some six hours daily, - and it is extremely unreasonable to require them to do so. For all under the age of seven or eight years, two or three hours daily of school confinement will prove sufficient. Let the remainder of the time, usually allotted to school exercises, or rather to motionless position, be spent upon the playground, and let the teacher watch them there, that she may teach them how to play. How many valuable lessons might be given on the play-ground, by judicious efforts in cultivating those kindly and friendly feelings which ought to prevail in all communities, –lessons in patience, self-denial, forgiveness, sympathy, generosity, &c.

The Ecercises of the Primary School. — These

Rules and Maxims for Teachers.

should be made brief and interesting. The blackboard and slate, and simple pieces of apparatus, should be in frequent use. But it will not be necessary that I give any detailed list of suitable exercises. An excellent “Manual for Primary Schools” is soon to be presented to the public, prepared by one” who has taken a deep and judicious interest in these schools. From an examination of the plan and some of the contents of the book, in manuscript, we are persuaded it will be a work of inestimable value to teachers and schools. This work, and Hooker’s “Child’s Book of Common Objects,” will be so fruitful of hints and information, that I can do no better than refer you to them. I will close this letter by giving a few plain and simple hints, in the form of rules for teachers and pupils. .

RULES AND MAXIMS FOR THE TEACHER.

1. Endeavor to set a good example in all things.

2. Never overlook a fault or let it go unnoticed; but always forgive when you find true sorrow for an error. .

3. If possible, get at the truth of every charge, and decide neither in word nor deed until the case is clear. Hasty words and acts often cause teach€rS SOI’I’OW.

* John D. Philbrick, Superintendent of Schools in the city of Boston.

Rules for the Children.

4. Never punish when anger influences you or the offender. 5. Prepare yourself for every lesson, and encourage your pupils to ask questions; and if they ask some that you are not able to answer, frankly acknowledge your inability. 6. Take special pains with the dull and backward children. It is the highest merit to be able to interest and teach the dull. 7. Remember that you are laying the foundations of knowledge, and therefore aim at thoroughness. Not how much, but how well. 8. Encourage cleanliness of person; neatness of desk, books, floor, &c. 9. If possible, secure good ventilation. Raise the windows during recess and at noon. 10. Improve every opportunity for imparting moral instruction, and making moral impressions. 11. Daily add to your own stock of knowledge, never forgetting that knowledge is power. 12. Let all your intercourse and dealings with your pupils be characterized by a spirit of love for them, and a desire to do them good. 13. Be yourself taught of Him who took little children in his arms and blessed them.

RULES AND MAXIMS FOR THE CHILDREN.

These may be repeated daily, by the pupils, in concert. 1. We must be gentle and kind to each other.

Rules and Maxims.

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We must love and obey our teachers.
We must always act and speak the truth.
We must never speak evil of others.
We must be honest in all things.
We must attend to our lessons and to the

words of our teacher.

7.
8.

We must use no bad words.
We must be neat, and keep our books and

desks clean and free from marks.

9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

We must never be absent, unless we are sick.
We must never be tardy. .
We must be kind to all.
We must always speak pleasantly.
We must not get angry.
We must love and obey God.
We must at all times Do RIGHT.

These maxims and rules will be suggestive to you and to your pupils. It will be well, occasionally, to make one a subject for familiar remarks, – and particularly after your attention, or that of the school, has been called to its violation.

Your sincere friend,

LETTE R. X. XI.
HABITS.

MY DEAR FRIEND: — THUS far I have written principally in relation to the daily studies of the school, and to its discipline and general management. These of course are all important, but they by no means cover the whole

ground of your labors. You have something more

to do, and, consciously or unconsciously, you are daily imparting other lessons, which will prove a benefit or an injury to those under your charge. Influences of some kind you must and will daily impart. See to it that they are of the right kind. Do not for a moment imagine that your pupils have received all that is due from you when you have heard them “say their lessons.” By word and example you must give to them many a lesson not given in their text-books. Your constant effort must be, not only to make them proficients in their book-lessons, but also to do what you can to promote correct habits of thought, expression, and action. Your example and your expressed views must be the main agencies in this direction. Be

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