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Sect. VII. was now actually formed against France; and in Nor onght it to be omitted here, that France
the place of Gustavus III. cut off by a sudden had experienced nearly eight years of repose 1791 and violent death, Frederick William II. became since the conclusion of a war during which her
the Agamemnon of the league. But although fleets had covered the ocean in both hemispheres,
was suffered to fall into decay.
added the well known fact, established upon unceasing industry of art, conferred great and the testimony of history, that associations for inestimable advantages.
the purpose of conquest prove in general less Nor did she appear less formidable in ano- fatal to the state against which they are directed, ther point of view : for her revenues amounted to than to the powers in whose behalf they are 18,000,000 pounds sterling,+ while her standing formed. army, at a peace establishment, was estimated at It was assuredly the interest, and appears 136,000 effective men, I and her navy consisted also to have been the general wish of the French, of seventy-two sail of the line.
after they had attained their liberties, to cultivate
the inestimable blessings that arise out of freedom * The following are the different estimates, the lowest
and tranquillity. But this happiness was interof which has been quoted in the text:
dicted. Several of the great continental powers Extent of France.
clearly indicated by their movements that numer157,924 square miles according to Necker
ous armies would soon be brought into action; 160,000
and those Frenchmen who had either fled or 163,000
been driven from their native country, already Population.
appeared in arms as the precursors of their ven24,800,000 inhabitants Necker 25,300,000
Busching f The gross amount of the public revenue was estimated :150,000 men; and it appears, that in 1784, she actually by M. Necker at 600,000,000 livres, a sum equal to possessed a total of 212,924, if we are to credit a work 25,000,000 sterling; and the whole of the public expendi- entitled “ Etat Milit. de France, par Roussel, pour ture at 610,000,000 livres; but the Compte Rendu states the 1785." pet produce at only 18,000,0001. sterling.
11 See“ A Collection of State Papers relative to the | The army of France has been generally calculated at War with France."
At this momentous period, the court of Vi- indignation was generalon hearing the terms exact- Sect. VII. enna judged it expedient to interfere in certain ed in the name of the emperor; it was asked, by domestic negociations carrying on between France what right did the court of Vienna pretend to
1791 and the German powers, for an indemnity on interpose, either in the internal affairs of an indeaccount of their claims on Alsace; and in the pendent nation, or in a dispute about a territorial course of these vegociations, the emperor, by possession between France and the pope, or France his minister Cobentzel, insisted on the re-estab- and the German princes? All exclaimed that it lishment of the French monarchy, as it was in was necessary to maintain the glory of their counJune, 1782; the restitution of the property of the try; and the idea of hostilities, hitherto so much clergy : the reinstatement of the German princes dreaded, became at length popular. in their feudal claims on Alsace ; and the resto- Negociations were now at end. The fatal ration of Avignon and Venassin to the sovereign decision of all the hostile parties was taken ; and pontiff. The minister for foreign affairs now Europe had to witness one of the most sanguinary deemed it incumbent on him to deliver a report to wars ever recorded in her annals, attended by a the assembly, containing an account of the pro- succession of political events, that, by the rapiceedings of this cabinet, and inferred, from the dity of their occurrence, and the magnitude of hopeless state of the negociations, that the nation their consequences, stand unparalleled in the ought to consider itself in a state of war, The history of the world.