OF THE PARABOLA. IG Al 12 R D M 19. The equation of this curve is yy=4 cx sinB; therefore is we call the constant quantity 4 c sin | B=p, we shall have yy=px Hence the squares of the ordinates of the parabola are to each other as their abscissæ. Therefore if we take one abscissa, EH double another, the squares on the two corresponding ordinates will be in the ratio of 2 to 1. The indefinite line AL is called the axis of the parabola, the point A Q is its vertex, AQ is an abscissa, MQ the corresponding ordinate to this P abscissa, and the constant quantity p is called the parameter, or latus rectum, of the axis. L We can always determine this quantity p by the equation yy=px, which gives x:y::y: p. For this purpose it is sufficient to take any abscissa and its corresponding ordinate and a third proportional to these two lines will be the parameter of the parabola passing through their extremities. 20. If we take the abscissa AF-1 p, the point F is called the focus, and the ordinate DF passing through this point will have for its expression per p. Therefore the double ordinate Dd passing through the focus is equal to the parameler. If on LA continued, we take AG=AF=p, and if through the point G we draw the indefinite line EGe parallel to the ordinate MQ, this line EGe is called the directrit. N 21. Now FM= »{99+(3-4p)"}=v{p#+ v(-4p)"} Coro =*+ * p = AQ+AG = MH, therefore FM=MH; hence the ; distance from any point M of the parabola to the directrix, is equal to the distance frons this same point to the focus F. This property suggests an easy method of describing the parabola by a continuous movement, as will be shewn at the end of the conic sections. 22. Let it now be proposed to draw a tangent MT to a given point M of the parabola. the arc Mm infinitely small, its continuation MmT will be the tangent required. Now if we draw the perpendiculars MQ, mq on the directrix, and the lines MF, mF to the focus F, and also mg parallel to Qq, and if from the point F as a center, and with the radius Fm, we suppose to be described the infinitely small arc mr, which may be considered as a sine, we shall If we suppose M have MQ-MF, mq=mF; and therefore MQ-mq, or Mg=MF-MF, or Mr. The right-angled triangles Mmg, Mmr are therefore equal and similar, and consequently the angle mMr or TMF=gMm= G QMT=MTF. Hence the triangle MTF is isosceles, and consequently if we take A FT=FM, the line MT drawn through the points T and M will be the tangent re 94 quired. The angle MTF = LMO – FMT. Therefore all luminous or sonorous rays I OM parallel to the axis AP, must on their impinging on the parabola AM be reflected to the focus F; since we know that the angle of reflexion is equal to the angle of inci. dence. 23. Since FM=r+ip, we tave FT-* P=AT=x. Therefore PT, or the sublangent=2 x. Consequently in the parabola the subtangent" is always double the abscissa. The tangent MT= (pr+4 )=V (4 MF xx). If we draw the line MN perpendicular to the parabola, or which is the sam thing, to its tangent MT at the point M, we shall have PN-PM? px Therefore in the parabola the subnormal is always equal to the semi-parameler. As for the normal MN its expression is (pr+ip)=(MFxp). It is therefore a mean proportional between the distance from the point M to the focus, and the parameter. EA IG 24. Any line MO parallel to the axis of a parabola, is called in general a diameter. The point M is its vertex; four times the distance Q from this point to the focus F is its parameter q; its ordinates are right Iines NP parallel to the tangent at M and the abscissæ of these ordinates are the lines MP. PT 2.3 Al ne R M N #vap::2a:RL-2 ay Naq 2 ay To find the equation of the co-ordinates of the diameter MO, call MP, x'; PN, y; AQ=AT=a; we shall have MQ=vap, q=p+sa, MT=Vaq; and if we draw NL perpendicular to the axis, the similar triangles NRL, MTQ, will give MT: MR :: MQ: NL ::QT:RL 2 ' or / aq:y'+w ag:: Vap:NL-y vap + = +2a ✓ag But AR-RT-AT-r-; therefore AL-1++ and by the property of the parabola, NL’=px AL, or ( ap + y Vap ) =ap +px' +2 apy'; from which by reduction we . Vaq obtain y'y'=qx', an equation similar to that which was before found for the co-ordinates of the axis. Hence we may conclude that any diameter MO bisects all the ordinates Nn. The two following problems afford an easy application of the above principles. 25. I. Given the axis AL of a parabola and its parameter p, to find a diameter MO, which shall make with its ordinates a given angle MPn==A. (See preceding figure). This problem merely requires us to find the point Q where the perpendicular MQ meets the axis. For this purpose call AQ=A, the triangle MTQ will give AT : MQ:: Radius : tang A (because MPn=LMTQ) or in symbols, 2 r : v pr::1 ; tang A Hence x = P =* p cot ’A, and the parameter of the dia 4 tango A meter MO, or q=p+4x=P(1 +cot? A)=p cosec ?A=_P. It is easy to see that this problem has two solutions. Prob. II. Given the parameter q of the diameter MO, with the vertex M of that diameter, and the angle A which it makes with its ordinates; to find the axis AL, its vertex A, and its parameter p. ( See preceding figure.) This problem requires us to find the distance MQ from the axis to the diameter, and then the distance AQ, in order to obtain the vertex A and the parameter p. Preserving the same denominations as in the preceding problem, we have MQ=V px, р q=p+ 4x= Hence we obtain p=q sin ’A, r= cos 'A, sin? A and MQ=+q sin A cos A=+q sin 2 A. The properties of the parabola are of frequent and great use in the Arts and Sciences. = sin ?A OF THE ELLIPSE. {ex sin B~xx sin (A+B)} M F P IM IZ The equation of the Ellipse is sin A yy= cos B Consequently to every abscissa в N AP correspond two ordinates B PM, PM' equal and opposite to each other. If we make y=0, we shall obtain the two points in which the curve meets the axis of the abscissæ, that is the trans- A 10 verse aris Aa. The first of these points is at A, where x=0; the la c sin B second at a, where x= sin (A+B) as we shall find by resolving Á the equation cx sin B - x x sin (A+B=0. The constant quantity I suppose equal sin (A + B) to the transverse axis Aa. Call this transverse axis 2 a, and we shall have sin A sin (A+B) yy= (2 ax-xx) cos' } B 26. The double ordinate BCb passing through the middle C of the axis Aa, or through the center of the ellipse is called the less or conjugate aris. To introduce it into the equation of the ellipse, call it 2 b; and since when y=b, x=a, we shall have sin A sin (A+B) bb Hence by substitution we find cosĮ B bb yy=. (2 ar-xx) c sin B aa. aa This expression gives the following proportion yy : 2 ar-ox::66: a' or PM': APx Pa::CB? : CA; that is, in the ellipse lhe squares of the ordinates of the transverse aris are to the products of their corresponding abscissæ, as the square of the conjugate or lesser axis is to the square of the transverse aris. aa If we describe a circle whose center is C and radius CA, we shall have PN'=AP x Pa. Therefore PN : PM::a: 6::CB' : CB Hence the ordinates of the ellipse are proportional to the ordinates of a circle described on the transverse axis ; this gives us an easy method of describing an ellipse. It is only necessary for this purpose to describe a curve through a series of points taken on the ordinates of a circle cut into similar parts. 27. If we had reckoned the abscissæ from the center C, making CP-?, we have r=a—, and substituting this value in the equation above found, we have 66 62 m2 yy aaaa_zz) = base ; an equation to which we shall often ==() al refer. If 6 were equal to a, we should have yy=aa-az an equation of the circle ; hence we may consider the circle as an ellipse whose two axes are equal. bb The equation yy= (aa-zz) gives zs: bb-yy:: aa : bb, or MQ: BQ x Qb :: CAP: CB?. Therefore in the ellipse the squares of the ordinates of the lesser aris are to the rectangles of their abscissæ as the square of the transverse is to the square of the conjugate axis. 28. If from one of the extremities B of the conjugate axis, B and with a radius BF equal to B the semi-transverse axis CA, we describe a circular arc, it will intersect the transverse axis in two points F and f, which are A called the Foci. From this it appears that the distance CF is equal to (aa-bb), hence Ja v 13 AF x Fa={~~(aa-bb)} Ń {a+vraa @tv (aa-bb)}=bb=CB?. } Hence the semi-conjugate axis is a mean proportional between the distances from either of the foci to the two vertices of the ellipse. 29. The ordinate DF passing through the focus has for its ex 62 pression --; and Dd, which is called the parameter p of the trans N M HP P verse axis246_466 a Consequently 2 a : 26 :: 26:p, and therefore the parameler is a third proportional to the transverse and conjugate axis. By analogy to this property we call the parameter |