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NO Volumes equally deserve our attentive perusal as the inspired Oracles of God. By these men live, and in them is the life of our soul. They are the inestimable Testament of God our Saviour; the blessed means of all true and spiritual wisdom, holiness, comfort, and eternal felicity. Let us then daily search the scriptures, and understand what we read; for these are they that testify of Christ. Since they are one of the most valuable talents committed to us, and for which we must give an account at the great day of the Lord, let us, with all our getting, get the understanding of them; let us hide them in our hearts, believing what they assert, receiving what they offer, and doing whatsoever they command us. To assist in the perusal of these divine Volumes, is the following Work offered to the public. How far it differs from these of the kind, published by Illyricus, or Wilson, in one, or by Simon in two, or by Ravanell, or Calmet, in three volumes folio; and of the last of which, a kind of abridgment has been lately published at London, will be easily perceived, by a comparison of a small part of any of them herewith; especially on the larger articles of ANGELS, ANTICHRIST, APOCRYPHA, ARABIA, CHURCH, GOD, GOSPEL, HEBREWS, &c.
THE principal significations of emblematic words are here briefly hinted. The gospel-signification of types, personal or real, is shortly touched. Whatever I knew of, in history, correspondent to scripturepredictions, relative to persons, nations, churches, or cities, is briefly related; and, except where the predictions were exceeding numerous, as in the article CHRIST, CHURCH, HEBREWS, have quoted the prophetic passages, that the readers, by viewing them in their Bibles, and comparing them with the history here exhibited, may perceive the exactness of their accomplishment.
PERHAPS it may be necessary to observe (1.) That I have only hinted the significations which words have in the Bible. (2.) That I have omitted many words, which could be rendered no plainer; or that expressed the name of a person or city, of which almost nothing was known; or no more than is plainly hinted in the inspired passage where it is found. (3.) That the mark.....at the end of an article, signifies, that there are other persons, or things of the same name, but of which nothing important is known. (4.) That a word, different from that of the article, printed in capitals, often refers the reader to its own article. (5.) That the mark † in quotations, signifies a marginal reading. (6.) That, by observing what words in a text are most hard to be understood, and observing the first three letters of a word, and their order in the alphabet, and seeking for the like word here in the same order, one is to expect to have it explained. (7.) Where two or more words, and names of persons or places, are almost alway connected, one will ordinarily find the explication or account, under the word that is first in order in the scripture-text; and where the same person or thing has different names, the explication is to be expected under that which is most common, or which comes first in the order of the alphabet. (8.) Few fancies of the Christian fathers, or of the Jewish or Mahometan writers, are here inserted, as I knew not how they could be of use: nor have I insisted on criticisms of the original words, as these could have been of small use to many of the readers; and the learned can find plenty of them in the later editions of Leigh's Critica Sacra; or in Gussetius's Hebrew Commentaries; Hiller's Onomasticon; Glassius, Whitby, &c. (9.) I have not wilfully kept back the solution of any difficulty; but it is often given, especially in historical articles, without the least critical noise of parade.
I HAVE bestowed no small pains in rendering this edition considerably more perfect than the former. If God bless it for promoting the knowledge of his word, and the edification of his church, I shall esteem my labour richly rewarded.
A, A: This is what we meet || and appointed of God to be spokeswith in several places of the man for his brother Moses to PhaVulgate Bible, viz. Jer. i. 6. and xiv. raoh, and the Hebrews; id. iv. 14— 13. Ezek. iv. 14. xx. 49. and in Joel 16. Along with his brother, he ini. 15. In all which passages, A, A, A, timated God's gracious purpose, of are to be understood in the way of their speedy deliverance, to his disexclamation, as if it were said, alas, tressed kinsmen; and in the name of alas, alas! in Jer. i. 6. Et dixi a, a, a, God, demanded of Pharaoh an imDomine Deus, ecce nescio loqui qui mediate allowance for them to go into puer ego sum. This one might think the wilderness of Arabia, to serve the to be the stammering of a child that Lord their God. Pharaoh ordered
cannot speak distinctly. But the He-Aaron and Moses to be gone, from brew reads only ahah or heu once his presence, and increased the Hewithout repetition; and after the same brews' servitude, denying them straw manner in Ch. xiv. 13. as well as in wherewith to make their bricks.the places above cited from Ezek. and Aaron and Moses were hereupon upJoel. So that in all these passages the braided and cursed by their brethren, translation should be, alas! without for asking their dismission, and so adding any thing more. [a] occasioning their aggravated labour and misery, id. 5.
AARON, a Levite, the son of Amram, and brother of MOSES and Miriam. He was born in the year of the world 2430, about a year before Pharaoh ordered the male infants of the Hebrews to be slain. When he was grown up, he married Elisheba the daughter of Amminadab, a chief prince of the tribe of Judah, and had by her four sons, Nadab and Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar, Exod. vi. 20, 23. He was an holy and compassionate man, an excellent speaker, VOL. I.
About two months after, while the Hebrews, newly delivered from Egypt, fought with Amalek in Rephidim, Aaron and Hur attended Moses to the top of an adjacent hill, and held up his hands, while he continued encouraging the struggling Hebrews, and praying for victory to them, vid. xvii. 10,-13. At Sinai, he, with his two eldest sons, and seventy of the elders of Israel, accompanied Moses part of his way up to the
mount; and, without receiving any offered sacrifice for the congregation hurt, had very near and distinct views of Israel; and, while he and his broof the glorious symbols of the divine ther Moses blessed the people, the presence, when the Lord talked with sacred fire descended from heaven, Moses, id. xxiv. 1, 2, 9-11. Almost and consumed what lay on the brazen immediately after, he and his poste-altar, id. ix. His two eldest sons, rity were divinely chosen, to execute perhaps intoxicated with wine, drunk the office of priesthood among the at their consecration, instead of takJews, till the coming and death of ing sacred fire from the brazen altar, the promised Messiah, id. xxix.- took common fire to burn the incense Scarce was this distinguished honour with on the golden altar: provoked assigned him, when, to mark his per- with their inattention and disobedisonal insufficiency for recommending ence, God immediately consumed others to the favour of God, he him- them with a flash of lightning; and self fell into the most grievous crime. ordered, that thenceforth no priest The Hebrews solicited him to make should taste wine when he was going them gods, to be their directors, in- to officiate in holy things. Aaron was stead of Moses, who still tarried in entirely resigned to this just but awthe mount. He ordered them to bring ful stroke: nor did he and his surhim all their pendants and ear-rings: viving sons make any lamentation for these were brought, perhaps more them, except in forbearing to eat the readily than he expected: Having flesh of the people's sin-offering that collected them into a bag, he caused day, id. x. them to be melted down into a golden calf, in imitation of the ox Apis, which the natives, and probably too many of the Hebrews, had adored in Egypt. This idol he ordered them to place on a pedestal, to render it the more conspicuous: he appointed a solemn feast to be observed to its honour, and caused to be proclaimed before it, "These be thy gods, O Israel, which "brought thee out of the land of E"gypt. While he was thus occupied, Moses descended from mount Sinai, and sharply reproved him for
It was perhaps scarce a year after, when Aaron and Miriam envying the authority of Moses, rudely upbraided him for his marriage with Zipporah the Midianitess; and for overlooking them in the constitution of the seventy elders. Aaron, whose priestly performances were daily necessary, was spared; but Miriam was smitten with an universal leprosy. Aaron immediately discerned his guilt, acknowledged his fault, begged forgiveness for himself and his sister; and that she might speedily be
his horrid offence. Amidst the deep-restored to health, Numb. xii. It was not long after, when KORAH and his company, envying the honours of Aaron, thought to thrust themselves into the office of priests. These rebels being miraculously destroyed by God, the Hebrews reviled Moses and Aaron as guilty of murdering them: the
Aaron heartily repented of this scan-Lord, provoked herewith, sent a dedalous crime; and, with his four sons, structive plague among the people, was, about two months after, solemn- which threatened to consume the ly invested with his sacred robes, and whole congregation. Aaron who had consecrated by solemn washing, unc- lately, by his prayers, prevented their tion, and sacrifices, to his office of being totally ruined along with Kopriesthood, Lev. viii. He immediately rah, now generously risked his own
est confusion, he attempted to excuse himself, by laying the blame on the wickedness of the people; and by a false and stupid pretence, that he had but cast the ear-rings into the fire, and the golden calf had been formed out of them by merc chance, id. xxxii.
life for the deliverance of his ungrateful and injurious brethren: he ran in between the living and the dead, and, by offering of incense, atoned for their trespass, and so the plague was stay
To reward this benevolent deed, and prevent future contention about the priesthood, God confirmed it to Aaron, by making his rod, all of a sudden, when laid up before the mercy-seat, blossom and bear almonds;|| while the rods for the other Hebrew tribes continued in their withered condition, Numb. xvi. and xvii.
struction of his Jewish and other enemies; the marvellous budding of his gospel ROD, in the conversion and sanctification of men abundantly confirm it. He is the leader of his people from their spiritual bondage; and he guides, justifies, and sanctifies them in their wilderness-journey.— He is their great prophet, who can speak well to their respective cases and doubts. He is their distinguished High Priest, and the spiritual Father of all the innumerable company of men, who are made priests unto God. We hear no more of Aaron, till at With unequalled purity, patience, Meribah he and his brother Moses pity, courage, and labour, he, amidst, sinned, in not sufficiently expressing inconceivable injuries and temptatheir confidence in God's providing tions, faithfully executes his work. water for the congregation. To pu- At the expense of his life, he averted nish this and to mark the insufficiency the burning plague of endless venof the Aaronic priesthood, for bring- geance from his unreasonable foes: ing men to the heavenly inheritance, and having finished his work of obeAaron was debarred from entering ||dience, he publicly and willingly, on Canaan. About a year before the Calvary, surrendered himself unto Hebrews entered that country, and death; bequeathing his robes of fiwhile they encamped at Mosera, he, nished righteousness to his spiritual at the commandment of the Lord, seed. went up to mount Hor; and his sacred robes being stripped off him by Moses, and put on Eleazar his son and successor, he suddenly expired in the Lord, aged 123 years, A. M. 2552:sisted His own sons and brother buried him in a cave, and all the Israelites mourned for him thirty days, Numb. xx. Deut. x. 6. His offspring were called AARONITES; and were so numerous, as to have thirteen cities assigned them out of the tribes of Judah, and Benjamin, 1 Chron. xii. 27, and vi. 54, 60. Joshua xxi. 13,-19.
Some good authors think the story|| of the Heathen Mercury to have been hammered out of Aaron's. But may we not, with far more edification, consider him as a personal type of Jusus Christ? Heb. v. 4, 5. Whose call to his office of priesthood, was seasonable and divinely solemn: an unmeasurable unction of the Holy Ghost, and perfect purity of nature, prepared him for the execution thereof: miracles unnumbered; the de
AB, the eleventh month of the Jewish civil year, and the fifth of their sacred. It answered to the moon that begins in July, and conof thirty days. On the first day, the Jews observe a fast for the death of Aaron: on the 9th a fast for the debaring of the murmuring Hebrews from the promised land, and for the burning of the first and second temple: on the 18th, a fast for the extinction of the evening lamp during the reign of Ahaz: on the 24th, a feast in memory of the abolishment of the Sadducean law, which required sons and daughters to be equal heirs of their parents' estate.
ABADDON, which signifies destruction; and APOLLYON the destroyer, is the name of the king and head of the apocalyptic LOCUSTS, under the fifth trumpet. His name is marked both in Hebrew and Greek, to intimate, that he is a destroyer both of Jews and Gentiles. But who he is, is not so universally agreed..