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4. Reduce 16 to a fraction whose denominator is 9.

In 1 unit there are 9-ninths; 16

therefore, there are 9 times as 9

many

ninths as there are units in 144 Ans. 14

any

number. 5. Reduce 75 to a fraction whose denominator is 13. 6. Reduce 3 to a fraction whose denominator is 342. 7. How many fifteenths are there in 74 ? 8. How many eighths of a dollar in $647? 9. Reduce 364 to an improper fraction.

In this example, we add the

4-sevenths to the sevenths pro7

duced by the multiplication of 36 256 Ans. 254 by 7, and thus obtain 256. 10. Reduce 25 to an improper fraction. 11. Reduce 615714 to an improper fraction. 12. How many sixteenths of a dollar in $541%?

CASE III. To reduce an improper fraction to a whole aumber, or a mixed number.

RULE. Divide the numerator by the denominator, and the quotient will be the whole, or mixed number. 13. Reduce.362 to a whole, or mixed number. 8)362

Since are equal to 1 unit,

there are as many units in 362 as 45 =451

there are times 8 in 362. 14. Reduce 4393 to a whole, or mixed number. 15. How many units are there in 45315 ? 16. How many dollars in 262 of a dollar ?

CASE IV. To reduce a compound fraction to a simple, or single fraction.

RULE. Multiply all the numerators together for a new numerator, and ali the denominators for a new denominator: then reduce the new fraction to its lowest terms.

When any numerator is equal to any denominator, the operation may be abbreviated by rejecting both.

If part of the compound fraction be an integer, or a mixed nunber, it must first be reduced to an improper fraction

17. Reduce $ of of of 6 to a simple fraction.

Here the common term, 3, is *x{x{x{=}= omitted in the multiplication.

18. Reduce of tí to a simple fraction.
19. Reduce of is of 18 to a simple fraction.
20 Reduce 14 of 1š7 of 2 í to a simple fraction.
21 Reduce of of of 5 to a simple fraction.

CASE V. To reduce a fraction from one denomination to another.

RULE. Multiply the proposed denominator by the numerator of the given fraction, and divide the product by the denominator of the given fraction; the quotient will be the numerator of the proposed denominator.

22. Reduce a to a fraction whose denominator shall be 14. or, in other words change 5-sixthis to fourteenths. 14

is equal to į of 14, and is 5

5 times as much: we therefore

find 5 times 14-fourteenths and 6)70

Ans. 112 take of this product for the 14

required fourteenths. 23. How many fifths are there in ? 24. * is equal to how many twenty-fourths ? 25. Reduces to a fraction whose denominator is 4. 26. How many twelfths of 1 shilling in of Is.?

CASE VI. To reduce the lower denominations of a compound number to the fraction of a higher denomination.

RULE. Reduce the given quantity to the lowest denomination mentioned, and this number will be the numerator. then reduce a unit of the higher denomination to the same denomination with the numerator, and this number wilt be the denominator.

27. Reduce 7'02. 18dwt. 13 gr. to the fraction of a pound.

We find, that 7 oz. 18 dwt. 13gr. when reduced to grains, gives 3805 for the numerator ; and 1 pound when reduced to grains, gives 5760 for the denominato Therefore, 3785=115 is the fraction required.

28 Reduce 4s. 9d 3 gr. to the fraction of £1.

29. Reduce 3 inches to the fraction of a yard. 30. What fraction of a hogshead is 9 gal. 2 } pt.? 31. Reduce 5cwt. 8 lb. 4 oz. to the fraction of a ton.

CASE VII. To reduce the fraction of a higher denomination to its value in whole numbers of lower denomination.

RULE. Multiply the numerator by that number of the next lower denomination which is required to make a unit of the higher, and divide the product by the denominator;, the quotient will be a whole number of the lower denomination, and the remainder

will be the numerator of a fraction. Proceed with this fraction as before, and so on.

It will be readily perceived, that the fraction of a higher denomination is reduced to the fraction of a lower, by multiplying the numerator by the number of units of the lower, i equired to make a unit of the higher. Thus, of a bushel is 4 times as many fifths of a peck; that is, of a peck. Again, of a peck is 8 times 12-fifths, that is, o of a quart; and again, or of a quart is 2 times 96-fifths, that is, 132 of a pint. If the denominator be multiplied, instead of the numerator, the effect is the reverse, and the fraction is reduced to a higher denomination. Thus, of a pint, (the 5 being multiplied by 2,) becomes

is of a quart; 1 of a quart, (the 10 being multiplied by 8,) becomes up of a peck; and go of a peck, (the 80 being multiplied by 4,) becomes to of a bushel. 32. Reduce 11 of a galior to its value in quarts, &c. 11

We find by multiplication, that 4

fit of a gallon is one of a quart;

and, by division, chat 4 of a 2)44

quart is 3qt. and 12 of a quart. 3 8

We then sind, that is of aqt. is 2

the one of a pint; and, that is of a pt. 12)16

is 1 pt. and 11 of a pt. And thus,

by finding the units of one de1 4

nomination at a time, we finally 4

obtain the whole answer, which, 12) 16

denoted as a compound number, 11-11 is 3qt. 1 pt. 1}gi. 33. Reduce of £ I to its value in shillings &c.

34. Reduce 14 of a yard, to its value in feet, &c.
35. In to of 1 cwt. how many quarters, pounds, &c.?
36. Reduce 1 of a bushel to pecks, quarts, and pints.

CASE VIII. To reduce fractions to a common denominätor; that is, to change two or more fractions which have different denominators, to equivalent fractions, that shall have the same denominator.

RULE 1st. Multiply each numerator into all the denone inators except its own, for a new numerator. Then multiply all the denominators together for a new denominator, and place it under each new numerator.

RULE 2nd. Find the least common multiple of the givers denominators for the common denominator; then divide the common denominator by each given denominator and multiply the quotient by its given numerator; the several products will be the several new numerators. (See PROBLEM X, page 24.)

The 1st. of the above rules is convenient when the terms of the fractions are small numbers, but the 2nd. is otherwise to be preferred, as it always gives a denominator which is the least possible. Other methods of finding a common denominator will occur to the student, after further practice.

If any of the fractions to be reduced to a common denominator be compound, they must first be simplified.

37. Reduce á, 11, 14 arid 1 tó common denomipator.

In this exampžę; the least contmon denominator is found to be 840:- Then the several numerators of the common denominator are found as follows, 840- 8=105, and.105 X 52525.

Ans. =3 840 • 12= 70, and 70X11=770. H=378 840 + 14 = 60, and 60 X 9=540. 1=348 840=15= 56, and 56 X 13=723. 1= 38 Reduce 1, i and is to a common denominator. 39. Reduce , 19, į and to a common denominator, 40. Reduce 101 and is to a common denominator. 41. Reduce and of to common denominator.

52 840 728 840

CASE IX To reduce a complex fraction to a simple fraction.

RULE. If the numerator or denominator, or both, be whole or mixed numbers, reduce them to improper fractions: multiply the denominator of the lower fraction into the numerator of the upper, for a new numerator; and multiply the denominator of the upper fraction into the numerator of the lower, for a new denominator.

42. Reduce ; to a simple fraction. The operation. 3=*=XB=23

9X7 43. Simplify each of the following complex fractions. 4

5}. 31. 21. 1 5

53 7 13

63

Ans. 63

23

612).

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8

43

3

ADDITION OF FRACTIONS.

Fractions are added by merely adding their numerators, but they must be of the same integers; we cannot immediately add together í of a yard and of an inch, for the same reasons that we cannot immediately add together 5 yards and 3 inches. They must, also, be of the same denomination; we cannot immediately add to.. gether fourths and fifths.

RULE. Reduce compound fractions, (if there be any), to simple fractions, and reduce all to a common denomi. nalor; then add together the numerators, and place their sum over the cominon denominator. If the result be an improper fraction, reduce it to a whole or mixed number. 44. Add together, 37, 8 and 1.

By operations not here de360

noted, we find the common des 37 230

nominator to be 360; and also 225

find the several new numerators. 8 216

The sum of the fractions is

= 27., which, added to the 13371 36=2376

whole numbers, gives the total sum, 1377

991

270

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