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OZ.

24 grains (gr.), make 1 pennyweight, deut.
20 pennyweights

1 ounce,
12 ounces

1 pound

16.
EXAMPLES.
1. Reduce 576 pounds to ounces.

Facit 691207 2. Change 1740 ounces to pennyweights.

Facit 34800 dwts. 3. Bring 145 pennyweights to grains. Facit 3480 gr. 4. Reduce 15 pounds to pennyweights. Facit 3600 dwte. 5. Bring 75 pounds to grains.

Facit 432000 gr.

AVOIRDUPOIS · WEIGHF. By this weight are weighed things of a coarse, drossy nature, that are bought and sold by weight, and all me tals but silver and gold.

The denominations are ton, hundred-weight, quarter; pound, ounce, and dram. 16 drams (dr.)

make 1 ounce 16 ounces

1 pound

16. 28 pounds

I quarter of a cwt.gra 4 quarters, or 112 lb.

1 hundred weight C. Wt. 20 hundred weight - 1 ton

T.

oz.

EXAMPLES.

1. Reduce 27 tons to hundred weight. Facit 540 C.wt. 2. Bring 45 hundred weight to quarters. Facit 130 gr. 3. Bring 250 quarters to pounds. Facit 7000 lb. 4. Reduce 76 pounds to ounces.

Facit 1216 oz. 5. Bring 40 ounces to drams.

Facit 640. dr. 6. Reduce 8 tons to pounds.

Facit 17920 lb. 7. Bring 2 tons to drams.

Facit 1146880 dr.

APOTHECARIES WEIGHT. By this weight apothecaries mix their medicines, but buy and sell by avoirdupois weight.

The denominations are pound, once, dram, scruple, and grain.

20 grains (gr.) make 1 scruple 3
3 scruples

I dram
8 drams

1 ounce 12 ounces

1 pound

EXAMPLES,

1. Reduce 56 pounds to ounces. 2. Reduce 142 ounces to drams. 3. Bring 84. drams to scruples. 4. Bring 16 scruples to grains. 5. Reduce 8 ounces to scruples. 6. Bring 14 pounds to grains.

Facit 672 3 Facit 1136 3

Facit 252 Facit 320 gr.

Facit 1923 Facit 80640 gr.

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LONG MEASURE.
Long Measure is used for lengths and distances.

The denominations are degree, league, mile, furlong, pole, yard, foot, inch, and line. 10 lines (li.) make 1 inch

in. 12 inches

I foot 3 feet

1 yard

yd. 51 yards

1 rod, pole, or perch P. 40 poles (or 220 yds.)

i furlong

fur. 8 furlongs (or 1760 yds.) 1 mile

M. 3 miles

i league

L. 60 geographic, or miles 1 degree

deg. 691 statute

Note-A hand is a measure of 4 inches, and used in measuring the height of horses.

A fathom is 6 feet, and used chiefly in measuring the depth of water.

EXAMPLES. 1. Reduce 20 leagues to miles.

Facit 60 m. 2. Reduce 75 miles to furlongs.

Facit 600 fur. 3. Bring 42 furlongs to poles.

Facit 1680 P. 4. Bring 50 poles to yards.

Facit 275 yd. 5. Bring 16 yards to feet.

Facit 48 ft. 6. Bring 49 feet to inches.

Facit 588 in. 7. Reduce 18 inches to lines.

Facit 180 li. 8. Bring 10 yards to inches.

Facit 360 in. 9. Reduce 3 leagues to poles.

Facit 2880 P.

CLOTH MEASURE.
By this measure, cloth, tapes, &c. are measured.

The denominations are English ell, French ell, Flemish ell, yard, quarter of a yard, and nail.

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1. Reduce 10 French ells to quarters.
2. Reduce 46 English ells to quarters.
3. Bring 5 Flemish ells to quarters.
4. Bring 22 yards to quarters.
5. Bring 40 quarters to nails.
6. Bring 51 English ells to nails.

Facit 60 qr.
Facit 230 gr.
Facit 15 qr
Facit 38 gr.
Facit 160 na.
Facit 1020 na.

LAND MEASURE.
This measure shews the quantity of lands.

The denominations are acre, rood, square perch, square yard, and square foot.

9

square feet (ft.) make 1 square yard yd. 30 square yards

1 square perch P. 40 square perches

1 rood

R. 4 roods

1 acre

A.

EXAMPLES.

1. Reduce 40, acres to roods.

Facit 160 R. 2. Reduce 15 roods to square perches. Facit 600 P. 3, Bring 28 square perches to square yards.

Facit 847 sq. yd, 4. Bring 42 square yards to square feet. Facit 378 89.ft. 5. Bring 12 acres to square perches. Facit 1920 89.P.

1 quart

gt.

LIQUID MEASURE.
This measure is used for beer, cyder, wine, &c.

The denominations are tun, pipe or butt, hogshead, gallon, quart, and pint.

2 pints (nt.) make
4 quarts

1 gallon

gal. 63 gallons

1 hogshead

hhd. 2 hogsheads

1 pipe or butt pi. or bt. 2 pipes (or 4 hogsheads)

1 tun

T. Note.---By a law of Pennsylvania, 16 gallons make one half barrel; 314 gallons one barrel; 64 gallons 1 double barrel; 84 gallons 1 puncheon; 42 gallons 1 tierce.

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EXAMPLES. 1. Reduce 45 tuns to pipes. 2. Reduce 25 pipes to hogsheads. 3. Bring 9 hogsheads to gallons. 4. Bring 40 gallons to quarts. 5. Bring 21 quarts to pints. 6. Bring 35 gallons to pints. 7. Bring 3 tuns to gallons.

Facit 90 pi. Facit 50 hhd. Facit 567 gal. Facit 160 qt.

Facit 42 pt. Facit 280 pt. Facit 756 gal.

1 quart

DRY MEASURE. This measure is used for grain, fruit, salt, &c. The denominations are bushel, peck, quart, and pint. 2 pints (nt.) make

gt. 8. quarts

I peck pe. 4 pecks

I bushel bu.

EXAMPLES. 1. Reduce 17 bushels to pecks.

Facit 68 pe. 2. Reduce 40 pecks to quarts.

Facit 320 qt. 3. Bring 25 quarts to pints.

Facit 50 pt. 4. Bring 6 pecks to pints.

Facit 96 pt. 5. Bring 12 bushels to pints.

Facit 768 pt.

1 day

D.

TIME. The denominations are year, month, week, day, hour, minute, and second. 60 seconds (sec.) make

1 minute

min. 60 minutes

I hour H.
24 hours
7 days

I week W.
52 weeks, 1 day, and 6 hours, or

Y 365 days, and 6 hours

12 months (mo.) Note.-The six hours in each year are not reckoned till they amount to one day: hence, a common year consists of 365 days, and every fourth year, called leap year, of 366 days.

The following is a statement of the number of days in each of the twelve months, as they stand in the calendar or almanac:

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1 year 1 year

The fourth, eleventh, ninth, and sixth,
Have thirty days to each affix'd :
And every other thirty-one,
Except the second month alone,
Which has but twenty-eight in fine,
Till leap year gives it twenty-nine.

EXAMPLES.

1. Reduce 8 years to months.

Facit 96 mo. 2. Bring 6 years to weeks (supposing 52 weeks to make a year.)

Facit 312 W. 3. Bring 3 years to days (supposing 365 days to make a year.)

Facit 1095 D. 4. Reduce 25 weeks to days.

Facit 175 D. 5. Reduce 12 days to hours.

Facit 288 H. 6. Bring 14 hours to minutes.

Facit 840 min. 7. Bring 9 minutes to seconds.

Facit 540 sec. 8. Bring 4 weeks to minutes

Facit 40320 min.

When a sum or quantity is to be changed to a higher denomination than its own, work by

RULE 2.* Divide the given sum or quantity by that number of its own denomination which makes one of the denomination to which it is to be changed. See notes 1, 2, and 3.

When there are one or more denominations between the denomination of the given sum or quantity and that to which it is to be changed; first change it to the one next higher than its own, and then to the next higher, and so on.-See notes 4 and 5.

7 Remainders are of the same denomination as the sum or quantity divided.–See examples 2, 6, 8, 10, and 12, in English money.

* The reason of this rule may be seen by considering that as it takes twenty shillings to make one pound, there must be just as many pounds in any number of shillings as there are twenties in that number; and that to find how many twenties there are in any num. ber, we divide it by 20.

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