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firmly resolved to maintain entire the not to lay down their arms but by comtreaty of Paris of the 30th of Muy, mon consent, or when the purpose of 1814, and the dispositions sanctioned the war should have been attained, by that creaty, and those which they or until Buonaparte should be renhave resolved on, or shall hereafter dered incapable of disturbing the peace resolve on, to complete and to con- of Europe. After other subordinate solidate it, they will employ all their articles, the 7th provided, that the means, and will unite all their efforts, other powers of Europe should be inthat the general peace, the object of vited to accede to the treaty; and the the wishes of Europe, and the con- 8th, that the King of France should stant purpose of their labours, may be particularly called upon to become not again be troubled; and to pro- a party to the league. A separate arvide against every attempt which shall ticle provided, i hat the King of Great threaten to replunge the world into Britain should have the option of furs the disorders of revolution.

nishing his contingent in men, or of “ And although entirely persuad- paying instead at the rate of 301. stered, that all France, rallying round its ling per annum for each cavairy sollegitimate sovereign, will immediately dier, and 201. per annum for each inannihilate this last attempt of a cri. fantry soldier, which should be wantminal and impotent delirium, all the ing to make complement. To sovereigns of Europe, animated by this treaty a declaration was su' jointhe same sentiments, and guided by ed, when it was ratified by the Prince the same principles, declare, that if, Regent, referring to the eighth article contrary to all calculations, there of the treaty, and declaring that it should result from this event any real should not be understood as binding danger, they will be ready to give to his Britannic Majesty to p osecute the the King of France, and to the French war with th=view ot forcibly imposing nation, or to any other government, on France any particular government. that shall be attackid, as soon as they The other contracting powers agreed shall be called upon, all the assistance to accept of the accession of his Royal requisite to restore public tranquilli- Highness, under this explanation and ty, and to make a common cause limitation. against all those who should under- This treaty was laid before both take to compromise it."

Houses of the British Parliament, with This manifesto was instantly fol- a message from the Prince, expressing lowed by a treaty betwixt Great Bri. his reliance on their support in such tain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia, re- measures as he should find it neces. Dewing and confirming the league en. sary to adopt in concert with his allies. tered into at Chaumont. The Ist T'he debates which took place on this article declared the resolution of the occasion form at once an important high contracting parties to maintain part of our parliamentary history, and and enforce the treaty of Paris, which the best commentary upon the mean secluded Buonaparte trom the throne sures of the allies. But it is previousof France, and to enforce the decree ly necessary to mention what took of outlawry issued against him as above place in parliament upon the first mentioned. 2. Each of the contract- news of Buonaparte's re-appearance ing parties agreed to keep constantly on the scene. in the field an army of 150,000 men Upon the 7th of April complete, with the due proportion of the Prince Regent sent a April 7. cavalry and artillery. 3. They agreed message to the House of

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Commons, stating, “ that events have countries, until they do something taken place in a neighbouring king, which forbids it—until they prevent dom, in direct contravention of the their opponents from being generous engagements made in the treaty of to them, without risking the imputaFontainbleau, not only with reference tion of being unjust and ruinous to to that treaty, but as far as it formed themselves. If, therefore, any blame the basis of the treaty of Paris ; ne- be imputable in this transaction, I cessarily and naturally implying, as feel confident that it is to be found on the contravention of all treaties must, the right side; for whatever may herea justifiable cause of war.” Lord Cas. after be the relative situation of tlereagh moved the House to accede France and the rest of Europe, the to an address, in reply to the message, former can never assert, that the aldeclaratory of their determination to lies harboured an intention of acıing enable his Royal Highness, in con- ungenerously by her." Allowing full junction with his allies, to adopt such weight to these observations, it remeasures as circumstances might ren. mains to be shewn whether the allied der imperative for the general tran. powers stood in a situation which en. quillity of Europe. His lordship went titled them to risk any solid advanat some length into a vindication of tage, or neglect any feasible precau. the treaty of Fontainbleau, from the tion, in order to aspire to the praise of too obvious charge that it granted magnanimity-whether, in short, beBuonaparte. an asylum and powers fore being generous to France or to which were liable to abuse, and by Buonaparte, they ought not to have means of which he had been enabled

been just to Europe and themselves. to succeed in his late attempt. “ Ge- Lord Castlereagh was more fortunate nerosity," he admitted, “ certainly in exculpating his own accession to was the prevailing feature which mark- the treaty of Fontainbleau, than in ed the policy of the allies towards justifying its general wisdom and pruFrance, and whatever calamities may dence, unless as grounded on the plea arise to the world from the transac- of necessity. He stated the treaty to tions in question, I, for one, shall have been made with Napoleon before never lament, that the powers who his own arrival at Paris. marched to the gates of Paris, did said Lord Castlereagh, “ the obvious act on that generous principle, and danger of placing a person, who had thereby showed their deference to so lately wielded the power of France, the rights and feelings of the people. so immediately in the neighbourhood Tbat principle is one, of which, I am of his former empire, and also in the convinced, a British Parliament will neighbourhood of another part of Eualways express its approbation. It is rope, which might be influenced by the only great, and strong, and true sentiments tavourable to him, I thought one; and Parliament has never omit- it my duty to make every opposition ted any occasion, where it could be in my power to the arrangement. But, recognized and supported, of so do- on a further examination of the subing. I am sure, I shall not have to ject, the difficulty of finding a situaregret, on account of the display of tion, at once free from the dangers I any contrary feeling in this House, apprehended, and, at the same time, that if there was an error in the con- answering the character which Buoduct of the allies towards France, it naparte stipulated for in his negociawas on the side of generosity. The tion, induced me to withdraw my opexercise of that principle is due to all position; making, however, some al.

" Seeing,"

teration in the details. The plain ties were of opinion that it was absofact was, that the question among the lutely and physically impossible to allied powers, relative to this point, draw a line of circumvallation around was not decided under the circum- Elba; and for this very conclusive stance of Buonaparte being within reason, that, considering the variation their grasp; for such was not the of weather, and a variety of other circase; he was not so circumstanced, cumstances, which could not be conbut was placed in a situation and trolled, the whole British navy would with a force immediately about his be inadequate for such a purpose. If person, which was entitled to serious this force had been actually there, consideration; and when combined they could not have circumscribed with other troops, then scattered about Buonaparte in the manner in which the country, and his opportunities of some persons expected he should havo uniting them with those of Marshal been, without a violation of the treaty Soult, and other generals in the south which had been granted. By this he of France, it became a matter of ex- was invested with the entire sovepediency to calculate his means of reignty of the island ; he was also asprolonging the warfare, and to consi- signed a sort of naval equipment, cerder the alternative which might pre- tainly upon a small scale, but one vent such an event. This was the which allotted him a tlag, and which plain tact which led to his term of se- it was not extraordinary to meet on curity.”

the neighbouring sea ; one of his vesOn the subject of Buonaparte's es. sels was constantly seen for ordinary cape from Elba, Lord Castlereagh purposes in several of the ports of the stated, that " when the island was se- Mediterranean. The British officer cured to him by treaty, it was of commanding on that station had not course done with as much exercise of the power of visiting these vessels personal liberty as became the com- whenever they were occasionally met. pact : it was never in the contempla- Had he known that Buonaparte was tion of the parties that he should be on board with an armed equipment, a prisoner within any settlement; he would have exercised that right, that he should be the compulsory in- there can be no doubt, and would mate of any tower, or fortress, or cita- have been justified in doing so; but del-they never meant that he should he was not authorized, nor would it be so placed, or that he should be de- have been consistent with the treaty, prived of sea excursions in the vici. to have empowered him on all occanity of the island, for fair purposes of sions to use a right of visitation with recreation. The allied powers who a flag of this description. But I reconcurred in the treaty of Fontain: peat, that our government never un. bleau never intended to exercise a

dertook to establish a police at Elba. police, or any system of espionage, Colonel Campbeil was certainly there either within or without the residence for the purpose of occasionally comwhich they had ceded to him ; it was municating with our government upon never in their contemplation to esta- such matters as might pass under his blish a naval police to hem him in, or observation, both there and in Italy, prevent this man's committing him where at that time we had no accreself, as he has done, to his tortunes; dited agent; he was there at first in fact, if they were so inclined, they merely as one of the conductors acwere without the means of enforcing cording to the treaty, and I afterwards such a system, for the best authori. suffered him to remain between that

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island and Legliorn, for the purpose fidential companion, Bertrand, was I have mentioned; but nothing more wholly unapprised of his intentions, was ever contemplated. It would have until the very hour in which be receibeen out of Colonel Campbell's power ved the order for his embar kation.” to have attemp'ed any thing further: His lord-hip proceeded to state, that he could not have done it ; for ihe tact France bad vessels cruizing off Elba, was, that although at first treated with Corsica, and Leghorn, to keep a watch familiarity by Buonaparte, his visits upon Buonaparte's motions; that Ad. were subsequently disapproved of, and niral Hallowell and Lord Exmouth it was even hintid that if they were had orders to frustrate any attempts repeated, he should withdraw from the he might make at a descent; that in island ; atierly he found the greatest his passage from Elba to Cannes, difficulty in obtaining an interview Buonaparte was actually chased by with Buonaparte, -o completely did the Partridge, which was crossing with the latter surround himself will impe- Colonel Campbell; and that, on the rial enquetie. Of the inefficacy of whole, no circumstance of precaution any thing which Colonel Campbell had been omitted which the faith due could bave done, were he on the spot to the treaty of Fontainbleau permitto have attempted the experiment, I ted to be observed. need only mention the following fact : Lord Castlereayh proceeded to exa number of vessels from all nations amine an allegation made to extenu. were in the habit of arriving for tra ate Buonaparie's infraction of the ding purposes in the three principal treaty, namely, that the stipulated ports ot this island; on the part of pension had not been faithfully rethe Eng ish ships, a Mr Ritchie re-si- mitted to him. His lordship stated, ded there as a sort of vice consul, to " that on such a rumour reaching his, see that our sbips wanted nothing that ears he had remonstrated with the was necessary for ihem : the moment court of Franct ; and although they when Buonaparte prepared to carry alleged, first, thai Buonaparte was not his plau into execution, he placed this entitled to his pension till the lapse of M: Kiichie under the surveuilunce of the year, and, secondly, that he had two gens d'armes. Mr Grattan, jun. manifested a spirit of infringement of who happened to be on the island, and the treaty, he (Lord Castlereagh) had who conveyed the earliest intelligei ce neveriheless insisted that Buonaparte of the event to the nearest public should be supplied in the interim with agent of this country, was also taken such aid as might prevent the neinto custody, and theie can be no cessity of his selling provisions or doubi, thai Colonel Campbell would cannon, to which he was said to be have er countered a similar restraint; recuced.” his presence, therefore, wouu have Having premised these circumhad no efect in preventing the escape stances, he stared, “ that the line of of Buonaparit, or in ira mitting any conduct which the country had to intelligence vi li at event svoner ihan pur:ue nas, tor the present, of a nait reached is in ile ordinary course. fure merely precautionary. BuonaIt is al:u a .emarkable and a most in- parie's restoration had been exclucredible circunstance, anu one of the sively the work of the mintary, who, truth of which I have every reason to accustomed to seek their fortuve by be satisfied, lat :o completely wabin rapine and plunder, and to look forhis own bosons uid buonaparte carryWard wo war with the hopes of promothe plan he niedilated, that his con- tion and reward, were paiural enemies

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of a peaceful sovereign. The danger bons; but it was their own conduct from such a state of things was appa- alone which had deprived them of the rent. But he agreed that Britain throne. That conduct had been most ought neither to urge the continental hostile to liberty, as indeed had also powers to war, if they were indisposed been the conduct of the assembled to it, or to suffer herself to be preci- sovereigns at Vienna, who had thempitated into it by their ardour. He selves subverted the principles on therefore only proposed, that the which they originally took their stand; Prince Regent should be supported and who on that account did not posin entering into such a concert with sess the same power which they had his allies as might best provide for formerly wielded against the emperor the general security of Europe, and of France with so much success. With that the House should afford him respect to the dreadful note of prethe requisite supplies for augmenta paration' now sounded, he repeated, tion of the national force by sea and that if he could consider it as only land."

for defence—for resistance against A very large majority of the House aggression-he would concur in the of Commons, including Mr Ponsonby address before the House. But by and some other leading members of what he could collect from the ambi. the opposition, expressed their appro- guous expressions of the noble lord, bation of the precautionary mt asures there existed a strong desire in the proposed. But the sentiment was not British government, if the elements unanimous. Sir Francis Burdett saw of war could be found in Europe, to nothing in the armament proposed recur to that detestable principlebut the intention of imposing a go- the re-establishment of what were vernment on an independent people called legitimate sovereigns; as if naagainst their will--a war for the be- tions belonged irrevocably to certain Defit of the Bourbons. “ Was it not families—a principle which it was still plain,” he asked, “ that Buonaparte more reprehensible to maintain in a was the ruler of the French people's country, the sovereign of which held choice? The step he had taken had his throne alone by the will of the very absurdly been called the invasion people; and who, if the principle thus of France. But who ever heard of a asseried were correct, was a greater single man invading a nation of thirty usurper than Buonaparte. He would millions of inhabitants, and gaining therefore vote," he said, “ against the the sovereignty of that nation against address, as the first step for plunging its will ? The fact was, that the nation the nation into a struggle, which, he wished for him, and had in a great was persuaded, would be as unsucdegree wished for him from their dis- cessful in its event, as unjust in its like of the government which he su- principle.” perseded. There was not a man in Mr Whitbread seemed to form siFrance who did not see a new order milar conclusions. He also supposed of things rising up under the Bour. Buonaparte to be Emperor of France bons, and who did not fear that pro- by the choice of the people, as well perty was insecure. I'he government as of the soldiers. He requested.the of Louis did not act up to the princi- House to contrast the decree abolishples of that constitution which his bro. ing the slave-trade, which the empether had accepted for him before his ror had instantly passed upon his rereturn. He repeated, that he was de- turn to Paris, with the volume of disirous not to speak harshly of the Bour- plomacy in which Louis le Desiré

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