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circumstances. Aware that the prin- placard them successively over the ciples of the popular party would ob- whole city of Paris, to the surprise lige them to oppose any arbitrary mea- and discredit of Fouché's police. A sures on the emperor's part, they took newspaper, entitled the Lily, was upon them to act with the greater printed by a secret committee of the confidence. The king had issued from royalists, and circulated by thrustGhent proclamations, one of which ing it under the doors of the inhaforbade the payment of taxes to the bitants during the night. In the usurped government; while others con- better classes of society, where it veyed to France, and to the army, the was difficult to say whether Buohostile intentions of united Europe, naparte was most feared or hated, provoked by the recall of him who there were handed round a variety had occasioned its distresses.“ Eu- of lampoons, satires, and pasquinades, rope,” said one of these papers, "will in prose and verse, turning his pere acknowledge no other king of France son, ministers, and government into but ourselves, Twelve hundred thou- the most bitter ridicule. Others atsand men are about to march to as- tacked his cause by eloquent invecsure the repose of the world, and a se- tive, of which the following is no cond time to deliver our tine country," bad specimen. “ Buonaparte can It was announced, that, undeceived henceforth deceive nobody in France; by the tricks of the usurper's policy, for of all the parties which have surthe sovereigns of Europe did not con- vived our civil discords, the most sider the French nation as an accom- credulous already perceive his perplice in the attempts of the army; and fidy. A few of those irritable, imthat the peaceful labourers would be passioned, and, above all, credulous protected, wherever their invading men, because they are generally gearms should find Frenchmen faithful nerous and sensible, a few of those to their king. The weight of war 1 say, who have been dreamswas denounced against those pro- ing during twenty years of an imavinces, which, on the approach of the ginary republic, and who have purallies, should fail to return to their sued their illusions through all godaty. The allied sovereigns made vernments and all anarchies, felt their war, it was announced, only against hopes revive at the cry of liberty, rebels; the subjects of Louis had which the mob, in the train of Buonothing to dread. And to conclude, naparte, raised on his passage to Pa. the king declared, that on his re- ris. They forgot that Buonaparte is turn to his capital, which was consi- the sworn enemy of liberty, the assasdered as an approaching event, the sin of the republic, and the first vioservices of the loyal should be recom- lator of those sacred rights, of which pensed, and that he himself would la. they had so dearly paid the purchase. bour to banish even the very appear. -l'hey forgot that Buonaparte spoke ance of those disasters, which had also of liberty, when he destroyed the withdrawn from their allegiance some national representation of Si Cloud. of the French people,

-They forgot that it was in the in the uncertain and alarmed state

name of the French republic, that of the capital, the moderate and tem- Buonaparte had established the most perate tone of the royal proclamations insolent despotism of which mankind was highly calculated to serve the had ever supported the yoke. They cause of Louis XVIII. His agents, forgot that Buonaparte had attempted equally secret and alert, contrived to to suppress all the sentiments which


united the citizens to the country, to to belie the new doctrines of liberty, extinguish all the lights of civilization, of thought, speech, and publication, to paralyse every means of education. his agents were instructed to leave

- They forgot that Buonaparte had these amazons undisturbed on account proscribed every liberal and philoso- of their political sentiments. phic idea, under the title of ideology; The police laboured with as little that he consecrated the most destruc- effect to stop the circulation of a vetive principles of despotism in books riety of pamphlets, secretly printed avowed by his ministers; that he pro- and dispersed by the royalists, under mised feudal privileges to his sbiri, the title of the “Cry of Alarm," the and gave sovereignty to his satraps. " Cry of Honour," and a series of _They forgot that heaven and bell addresses to the army, to the national are not more distant, than those most guard, to the youth of France, &c. extremes of all the series of ideas which; published under the assumed which оссиру

the human mind-Buo- name of Lasmuldi Royaumant, appear. naparte and liberty. They forgoted posted, almost every morning, on that the very word liberty, so cruelly the walls of the metropolis, and on proscribed under the iron reign of its most public streets and squares. the usurper, only gladdened our ears These daring measures greatly infor the first time, after twelve years commoded the ministers, who were of humiliation and despair, on the unwilling to recur to any strong meahappy restoration of Louis XVIII. sures for restraining the liberty of the Ah! miserable impostor, would you press, which was one of the blessings have spoken of liberty, had not Louis which Buonaparte came to insure to XVIII. brought back liberty and the nation. They arrested, neverpeace

theless, Le Normand and other printThe disaffection spread among cer- ers, besides a female, who had been tain classes of the lower ranks. The active in distributing the royal manimarket-women (dames des halles), so festoes. She was detained for some formidable during the time of the time in custody at her own lodgings, Fronde, and in the early years of the that the police might take note of revolution, for their opposition to the those who came to visit her, and have court, were now royalists, and, of an opportunity of arresting and searchcourse, clamorous on the side of the ing their persons. A number of perparty they espoused. They invented, sons, suspected of royalism, were comor some loyal rhymer composed for manded to leave Paris; and several them, a song, the burden of which other arbitrary ineasures made plain (Donnez nous notre paire des gants, what was said of the minister of poequivalent in pronunciation to notre lice by Lecompte, the editor of Le Pere de Glent) demanded back the Censeur, that if he loved liberty, it king, as their Father of Ghent. They was only liberty after the manner of ridiculed, scolded, and mobbed the Monsieur Fouché.

Monsieur Fouché. A quarrel becommissaries of police, who endea- tween this editor (who had been an voured to stop these musical expres- active promoter of Buonaparte's insions of disaffection ; surrounded the terest before his return) threw some chief of their number, danced around curious light on the manner in which him, and chaunted the obnoxious journals are managed in France. burden, until Fouché being ashamed Lecompte was a loud, and probably


* Buonaparte, on the 4th of May.

a sincere advocate of freedom, and self seemed to adopt the celebrated soon published some severe remarks classical maxim, on the undue weight which the army were like to exercise in the new set. flectere si nequco superos, Acheronta tlement of the state. The journal

movebo, was instantly seized by the police, while, at the same time, the Moni. Since he could not form an interest teur announced that it had been re- in the saloons, he resolved to raise stored to the editors. This was boldly the suburbs, and add, by the furious denied by Lecompte in his next num- and rude character of their inhabitber, on which he was called before ants, to the terrors, if not to the digthe prefect, alternately threatened nity of his reign. For a time, crowds and wheedled, upbraided with indif. of artisans of the lowest order assemference to the cause of the emperor, bled under the windows of the Tuiland requested to think of something leries, and demanded to see the emin which the government might serve peror, whom, on his appearance, they him. To this he firmly replied, that greeted with shouts, as le grand entrehe desired only permission to profit preneur, or general employer of the by the stipulated liberty of the press, class of artisans, in language where and he had the courage to make pub- the coarse phraseology of their rank lic the whole affair. Such incidents was adorned with such flowers of rheindicated an alienation from Buona. toric, as the times of terror had coined. parte on the part of the republican Latterly, the numbers of this assemparty, who, indeed, stood only con. bly were maintained by a distribution nected with him by the ties which of a few sous to the shouters. Occabind two enemies, embarked in the sionally, the royalists contrived to same vessel, to contribute their joint mingle among this motley crew, and efforts to save her from shipwreck. suggest to them questions and de. They began to express aloud their mands the most insulting to Buonaregret, that France should incur the parte. It was on such an occasion, risk of a dreadful invasion for the and through such malicious insinuasake of one man, and circulated a re- tions, when the crowd became perport that the emperor intended to suaded, that Maria Louisa, whose consummate his sacrifices for the pub. journey from Vienna had been anlic, by resigning his crown to his son nounced so often, was actually ar(and they might have added, to his rived, and that they might obtain a jacobin ministry) at the approaching sight of her by being sufficiently claChamp de Mai. Lecompte, already morous. Accordingly, they demandmentioned, gave this suggestion pub- ed the presence of the empress with licly in his newspaper. But it was so much vehemence, that Buonaparte not at the head of an entire


of was obliged to appear, and though three hundred thousand men that sensible of the irony which had Buonaparte was accessible to hints of prompted the sovereign people to this nature.

strain their throats in this ill-timed While the name of Buonaparte was request, thought it best to pacify them execrated among the persons of rank with an assurance, that she would and property, and pronounced with certainly appear in May. doubt and suspicion by the philoso- However disgusted with these dephers and constitutionalists, he him. grading exhibitions, Buonaparte saw himself under the necessity of court distinguished in the groupe, were fa ing the class, always the meanest, ceriously called his Gray and Black most corrupted, and most ignorant, Mousquetaires. He hasted to disof a great city. He was not con. miss bis hideous minions, with a suf.' tented with visiting Richard Lenoir, ficient distribution of praises and of already mentioned, whose influence liquor, The national guards conin the Fauxbourg Saint Antoine pro- ceived themselves insulted on this occured him the name of Santerre the casion, because compelled to give Second, but he instituted a day of their attendance along with the fedeprocession and festival in honour of rates. The troops of the line felt for this description of persons, who, from the degraded character of the emthe mode in which they were en- peror. The haughty character of the rolled, were termed Federates. French soldiers had kept them from

The motley and ill-ar. fraternizing with the rabble, even in May 14. ranged ranks which ʼas- the cause of Napoleon. They were:

sembled on this memó- observed, on the march from Cannes, rable occasion, exhibited, in the eyes to cease their cries of Vive l'Empereur, of the disgusted and frightened spec- when, upon entering any considertators, all that is degraded by habi- able town, the shout was taken up by tual vice, and hardened by stupidity the mob of the place, and to suspend and profligacy. The portentous pro- their acclamations; rather than min. cession moved on along the Boule- gle them with those of the pequins, vards to the court of the Tuilleries, whom they despised. They now with shouts, in which the praises ot' muttered to each other, on seeing the emperor were mingled with in the court which Buonaparte seemed precations, and with the revolutionary compelled to bestow on these degrasongs (long silenced in Paris), the ded artisans, that the conqueror of Marseilloise Hymn, the Carmagnole, Marengo and Wagram had sunk into and the Day of Departure. The ap- the mere captain of a rabble. In pearance of the men, the refuse of short, the disgraceful character of manufactories, of work-houses, of the alliance thus formed between jails; their rags, their filth, their Buonaparte and the lecs of the peodrunkenness; their ecstacies of blas- plė, was of a nature incapable of bephemous rage, and no less blasphe- ing glossed over even in the latter. mous joy, stamped them with the ing pages of the Moniteur, which, character of the willing perpetrators amidst a flourishing description of this of the worst horrors of the revolution. memorable procession, was compelled Buonaparte himself was judged by to admit, that, in some places, the close observers to shrink with ab- name of the emperor was incongruhorrence from the assembly he had ously mingled with expressions and himself convoked. His guards were songs, which recalled an era unfortuunder arms, and the field-artillery nately too famous. loaded, and turned on the Place de Even when he looked upon his ar. Carousel, filled with the motley crowd, my, the sole efficient guardians of his: who, from the contrasted colour of power, there were unpleasant circumthe corn-porters and charcoal-men stances for Napoleon's consideration.

« We soldiers," said a French marechal to one of Buonaparte's ministers, “ call all pequins who are not militery,” Yes," retorted the statesman, “ as we call all military who are not civil.

Several of the most celebrated of nation that the sacrifices they were the marshals and generals of France, called upon to make, were to be only as Oudinot, Macdonald, Augereau, nominally made for the emperor, but, Clarke, Marmont, Victor, Gouvion de in fact, for the honour and safety of St Cyr, and others, famous in his the country. “ Upon all parts of wars, either stood aloof, or avowedly Europe," said the reporter, with an retained their active allegiance to affectation of as much surprise as if Louis XVIII. Berthier, long one of the war had not been the necessary his chief confidents, had retired to consequence of the return of the emGermany, and apparently embraced peror, whom he addressed," Upon the Bourbon interest. But whether all parts of Europe at once, they are from discovery of some plot, which arming, or marching, or ready to he had undertaken in Buonaparte's march. And against whom are these behalf, or from stinging regret at the armaments directed ? Sire, it is your circumstances in which he found him- majesty they name, but it is France self, or from a temporary alienation that is threatened. The least favourof mind, be cast himself from a win- able peace that the powers ever dared dow, as a body of the allied troops to offer you, is that with which your : passed through the city, and died in majesty contents yourself. Why do consequence of that rash action. The they not now wish what they stipu. king's Swiss guards resisted every at- lated at Chaumont--what they ratitempt to seduce their loyalty, and fied at Paris ? It is not then against Buonaparte was obliged to disband the monarch, it is against the French and dismiss them. Their barracks nation, against the independence of were given to the guards who had the people, against all that is dear to escorted Napoleon from Elba, under us, all that we have acquired after the imposing title, The Quarters of twenty-five years of suffering and of the Brave. But the inscription gave glory, against our liberties, our insti. 80 much offence to the rest of the tutions, that hostile passions wish to army, that Buonaparte, now obliged make war ; a part of the Bourbon to buy opinions of all sorts of men, family, and some men who have long and at all rates, commanded it to be ceased to be French, endeavour again erazed.

to raise all the nations of Germany While he was thus engaged, it be- and the north, in the hope of returncame necessary to unfold from the ing a second time by force of arms eyes of the public the veil with which on the soil which disclaims and wishes he had bound them, and to prepare no longer to receive them.” them for the sacrifices he had to de- To meet dangers so imminent, a mand, by setting forth the dangers levy of two millions of men was rewhich surrounded France. Instead solved upon, to be effected by calling of the twenty years truce, and the out all from sixteen to sixty through return of the empress and her child the whole kingdom. It was, indeed, to Paris, as a pledge of the friendship impossible to carry so sweeping a reof Austria, a report of Caulaincourt solution into effect; but it was thus at length announced, that the allies widely worded, in order to authorise were about to advance against the Buonaparte to select an army out of French territories. Much pains was the population of France, and that by used to identify Buonaparte's cause compulsion, without use of the odious with that of France, and to satisfy the word conscription. All being declared

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