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death.

The adikar, who escaped, custody, in order to declare against raised the signal of revolt in the pro- him. Having fortunately effected vinces where he had interest, and in- what he desired, he joined the British treated the assistance and protection with his troops and the emblems of of the British. Many other chiefs his dignity. The example was genejoined more secretly in the same ap- rally followed. As the British application, for all were wearied out proached the capital, they learned with the cruelties of this incarnate that the king had Aed; and when fiend; and the manner in which the they reached the river by which it is natives, in the provinces under the covered, they saw many batteries English government, had been treated prepared to protect the ford, but, since our acquisition of the island, in- instead of men or guns, hideous obé spired general confidence.

jects offered themselves, exemplifying The British governor, General that cruelty which had eventually de Brownrigg, had every reason for avail. prived the despot of the means of ing himself of so favourable an oppor- making

good his preparations for detunity to destroy a hateful despotism. fence. The relics of nineteen wretches, The treacherous massacre of Major stuck on the poles on which they had Davie's detachment after their sur. died, were visible on the banks of the render, had been followed by other river. The capital was occupied marks of malevolence, on the part of without opposition, amidst the acclathe King of Candy, which showed mations of the inhabitants; and thus a. irreconcileable animosity to the Bri- conquest was successfully achieved tish. A dreadful instance occurred through the acquiescence and aid of just previous to the declaration of the natives, which, without their conwar; when ten natives of the British currence, might only have left another province of Columbo, who were quiet- terrible lesson of caution to the goly pursuing their ordinary traffic in vernors of Columbo. The king, dethe interior of the island, were bar. serted by all but a few Malay attendbarously mutilated of their hands and ants, was taken in his flight by some feet, seven losing their lives by the soldiers of Eheylapola Adikar, whose operation.

family he had treated with so much General Brownrigg no longer hesi- cruelty. He was delivered up to the tated to declare war, and entered the British, who took measures for his inland districts of Candy, after a pro- safe but honourable custody at Coclamation, stating, that he made war lumbo. on the tyrant alone, and offered peace In acquiring complete possession of and security to his oppressed subjects. the island of Ceylon, two hundred The invading force consisted of seve- and fifty miles in length, and an hun. ral divisions, which penetrated into dred and ninety in breadth, our troops this difficult country by different did not lose a single man. The use routes, hardly experiencing even the made of this victory was to shew of resistance. Mulligoddy, the convoke a solemn assembly May 2. first adikar, or prime minister of the of the adikars, and other tyrant, appeared at the head of a few chiefs of the Candian provinces, in troops, but gave a private assurance which the dominion of the Candian that he had no thoughts of offering any empire was vested in the sovereign serious opposition ; and, on the contra- of Great Britain, saving to the adiry, only waited until he could extricate kars and chiefs their rights and imhis wife and family from the tyrant's munities. The religion of Buddha

was declared inviolable. All torture which, though far exceeding in length and mutilation was abolished. No any of the Duke of Wellington's, only sentence of death was to be executed, narrated a difficult march and a blood. except by the written warrant of the less triumph. But reason will forgive British governor, founded on a report the self-complacence of the governor of the case. Subject to these condi- of Ceylon. He had achieved a contions, the administration of civil and quest, preceding attempts at which criminal justice and police over the had only left dreadful lessons of cauCandian inhabitants is to be exer. tion and forbearance. And what was cised, according to established forms, still more material, he had delivered and by the ordinary authorities; sa- a fine country, and a well-disposed ving always the inherent right of go- people, from the yoke of an inhuman vernment to redress grievances and tyrant,-secured to them the most imreform abuses in all instances what. portant personal immunities, and plaever, particular or general, where eed them under the government of such interposition shall become ne. an enlightened people,-ensured the cessary.

: peaceful possession of the colony, The account of this important suc- which must have been precarious cess reached Britain at a time when the while the internal provinces were gopublic ear, accustomed to thrill at the verned by a native prince, and added recital of the dreadful anddoubtful bat- the whole of a fair and fruitful island tles on the continent of Europe, listen. to the dominions of the British sovewith some indifference to a dispatch, reign.

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CHAP. XXI.

America.--Unsuccessful Attack on New Orleans.---Capture of Fort Mobile.-

Capture of the President Frigate.Ratification of the Treaty of Peace.Discussion in Parliament on the Address of Thanks to the Prince Regent for this Treaty.-Commercial Treaty entered into.-- Reflections.

The treaty of peace between Great to the north of the Mississippi, and Britain and America, which was sign- between New Orleans and the sea, ed by the commissioners for both na- there is a lake called Lac Borgne, tions at Ghent, in December 1814, which communicates with the sea by could not immediately put a period to a considerable outlet, or river ; and the hostilities which were carrying on at the upper end, a river runs into it, in America.

which is navigable by boats to within In the end of the year 1814, prepa- six or eight miles of New Orleans. rations had been made for an attack This mode of access was, accordingly, upon

the town of New Orleans, situa. fixed upon by the British commanders. ted upon the river Mississippi. For The Americans, aware of this intenthis purpose, a considerable army was tion, had stationed a formidable flo. collected, under the command of Ma- tilla, consisting of five gun-vessels of jor-general Keane, which was to be the largest dimensions, upon Lac conveyed to the point of disembarka. Borgne ; and, as the principal means tion by the squadron under the com. of transporting our troops to the point mand of Admiral Sir Alexander Coch- of disembarkation were open boats, it rane. On the other hand, the Ame. was impossible to proceed till these ricans had made provision for a vigo. vessels were captured or destroyed. rous defence of that place. After they For this purpose, the boats of the had taken possession of Pensacola, in squadron, under the command of CapNovember, their general, Jackson, had tain Lockyer, were sent into Lac received orders to proceed from thence Borgne on the 12th of December ; to New Orleans with all his dispo. and, after rowing for thirty-six hours, sable force ; and it appears that they Captain Lockyer, on the morning of bad collected not less than 30,000 the 14th, discovered the flotilla premen for the defence of that place. pared for his reception. As soon as

New Orleans is situated upon the he came within gun-shot of the eneleft bank of the Mississippi, and a con. my, he issued his orders that the boats siderable way up the river. It can, should grapple ; and they continued however, be approached by water, to to pull up to the enemy against a within a very short distance, A little strong current and under a destructive

VOL. VIII. PART 1.

2

fire. At last, the boat which carried main body of the British was moved Captain Lockyer closed with the com- up to oppose it. The conflict which modore of the flotilla. A desperate now ensued was of a very singular deconflict of several minutes took place, scription, and cannot be better de. in which the greater part of both the scribed than in the words of General officers and men of this boat were kill Keane's dispatch. “On the approach ed or wounded; but some of the other of the 85th regiment to the point of boats coming up, they succeeded in attack, the enemy, favoured by the carrying the vessel, and immediately darkness of the night, concealed themturned her guns upon the remaining selves under a high fence which sepa. four. In the meantime, the remaining rated the fields, and, calling to the boats had been employed with equal men as friends, under pretence of begallantry; and in a very short time ing part of our own force, offered to the whole of the enemy's vessels were assist them in getting over, which was taken. This brilliant exploit cost us no sooner accomplished, than the 85th seventeen men killed, and seventy-se- found itself in the midst of very supe. ven wounded; Captain Lockyer him- rior numbers, who, discovering themself having received a severe wound in selves, called on the regiment immediboarding the commodore of the ene. ately to surrender. The answer was an my's flotilla.

instantaneous attack; a more extraor. The passage for the disembarkation dinary conflict has, perhaps, never ocof our troops being now open, the curred, absolutely hand to hand, both whole army, consisting of about 2400 officers and men. It terminated in the men, were put on board the gun-ves. repulse of the enemy, with the capsels and boats, and, on the 22d, they ture of thirty prisoners. A similar proceeded across Lac Borgne. Seve- finesse was attempted with the 95th ral of the gun-vessels grounded; but regiment, which met the same treatthe advance, in the boats, pushed on, ment.” The enemy made repeated atand, having rowed up the river, which tacks, which were always repulsed, runs into the lake, at its head, they till about midnight, when he detereffected a landing on the 23d, under mined to make a final effort, and, the command of Col.

Thornton, about forming his whole force into line, ad six miles from New Orleans. In this vanced again to the onset. He at situation, about an hour after sunset, first drove in the advanced posts ; but when the troops, much exhausted by Colonel Thornton, rallying the troops, their previous exertions, were asleep and moving forward to charge, drove in their bivouac, a heavy fire was open. the enemy back, who did not dare: ed upon them by some vessels which again to advance. The American had dropped down the Mississippi from troops were commanded by General New Orleans, and anchored opposite Jackson, and amounted to five thou. to their position. By a prompt and sand men, a great number of whom judicious movement, the men were in- were left on the field. stantly placed out of the reach of this After this affair, the second divifire ; but soon afterwards a vigorous sion of the army was brought up, and attack was made on the advanced pic. the whole took up a position. On quets by a body of troops from the the 25th, Major-General Sir E. Patown. This assault was firmly resist- kenham and Major-General Gibbs ared, and the enemy kept in check for a rived, and the former took the comconsiderable time; but the attack be. mand of the army. From this time ing renewed with a large force, the to the 8th of January, the army was

occupied in preparing for a general ing: Accordingly, as soon as it was attack on the enemy's lines before dark, Colonel Thornton's corps proNew Orleans.

ceeded in their expedition across the The position of our army was on a river. Unlooked-for difficulties, howpiece of fat ground, with the Missis- ever, increased by the falling of the sippi on the left, and a thick wood on river, occasioned considerable delay; the right. The ground was open to and it was not till five o'clock in the the front, from which the enemy's morning that these troops got over. line was distinctly seen.

It consisted By that time, Colonel Thornton per. of an entrenchment of about a thou- ceived, by the flashes of the guns, that sand yards of front, which extended, the attack on the enemy's position was on the right, to the river, and, on the begun; and he hastened forward, with left, to a thick and impassable wood. the utmost expedition, to the attack This line was strengthened by fank of the flanking battery, which, he works, and had a canal of about four judged too truly, was by that time feet deep along the front. On the destructively employed against our right, or opposite bank of the Missis- troops. After overcoming various obsipi, which is here about eight hun. stacles, he at last reached the battery, dred yards broad, the Americans had which he succeeded in carrying in a a battery of twelve guns, which enfi- most gallant manner. The enemy filed laded the whole front of their position in confusion, leaving in his hands sixon the left bank.

teen pieces of cannon, and the colours The dispositions made by the Bri- of the New Orleans regiment of mitish commander for the attack appear to litia. have been very judicious. In order to In the mean time, the main body, prevent our troops, when coming up under the command of Major.General to the attack of the enemy's line, from Gibbs, had moved up to the attack of being exposed to the fire of the bat. the enemy's position. The obstructery on the opposite side of the ri. tion in the movement of Colonel ver, it was judged necessary that this Thornton's corps had occasioned some battery should be carried. The stream, delay in proceeding to the general atby which our boats had come from tack, which did not take place till the Lac Borgne to the place of disem- advancing columns were discernible barkation, communicated with the Mis- from the enemy's line at more than sissippi by a narrow canal. This canal two hundred yards distance, when a was, with considerable labour, clear. destructive fire was instantly opened, ed out and widened, by which means not only from all parts of the enemy's troops could be sent over to the op- line, but from the battery on the opposite bank of the Mississippi. These posite side of the river. "The gallant preparations being made, it was re- Pakenham, who, during his short but solved, that, in the night previous to brilliant career, was always foremost the general attack, which was to be in the path of glory and of danger, made at break of day, a body of troops, gallopped forward to the front, to aniunder Colonel Thornton, was to be sent mate his men by his presence. He across the river, and to move along the had reached the crest of the glacis, right bank till it reached the Ameri- and was in the act of cheering his can battery which it was to carry. troops, with his hat off, when he . This, it was expected, would be done ceived two balls, one in the knee, and before the main body should reach the another in his body. He fell into the front of the American line in the morn- arms of Major M.Dougal, his aid-de

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