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AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT.

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Drams

marked dr
16 Drams make 1 Ounce
16 Ounces
1 Pound

16
28 Pounds
1 Quarter

qr
4 Quarters

1 Hundred Weight cwt
20 Hundred Weight 1 Ton

ton
dr
16 =

1

16
256 = 16 = 1

gr
7168 = 448 28 = 1 cwt
28672

1792 = 112 = 4 = 1 ton
573440 35840 = 2240 = 80 = 20 = 1

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By this weight are weighed all things of a coarse or drossy nature, as Corn, Bread, Butter, Cheese, Flesh, Grocery Wares, and some Liquids; also all Metals, except Silver and Gold.

oz dwt go
Note, that 1lb Avoirdupois = 14 11 15 Troy.
loz

0 18 5
Idr

0 1 3

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weights one ounce, and 12 ounces one pound. But in later times,

it was thought sufficient to divide the same pennyweight into 24 equal parts, still called grains, being the least weight now in common use; and from thence the rest are computed, as in the Tables above,

In

In Ft
12
1

rd
36'
3

1

PL 198 = 161 = 5 = 1 Fur 7920 660 220 40 = 1 Mile 83360 = 5280 = 1760 = 320 = 8 = 1

CLOTH MEASURE.

2 Inches and a quarter make 1 Nail

NI * Nails

1 Quarter of a Yard Qr 3 Quarters

1 Ell Flemish

EF 4 Quarters

1 Yard

rd 5 Quarters

| Ell English

EE 4 Quarters 1 Inch

I EU Scotch

ES

SQUARE MEASURE.

144 Square Inches make 1 Sq Foot

9 Square Feet 1 Sq Yard
304 Square Yards

1 Sq Pole
40 Square Poles 1 Rood
4 Roods

1 Acre

rd
Pole
Rd
Acr

Sq Inc

Sq Ft

Sq rd

: 144 I 1
1296 = 9

1 Sq PI
39204 2724 304 = 1 Rd
1568160 = 10890

= 1210

4Qs Acr 6272640 = 43560

= 4840

- 160 4 1

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By this measure, Land, and Husbandmen and Gardeners' work are measured; also Artificers' work, such as Board, Glass, Pavements, Plastering, Wainscoting, Tiling, Flooring, and every dimension of length and breadth only

When three dimensions are concerned, namely, length, breadth, and depth or thickness, it is called cubic or solid measure, which is used to measure Timber, Stone, &c.

The cubic or solid Foot, which is 12 inches in length and þreadth and thickness, contains 1728 cubic or solid inches, and 27 solid feet make one solid yard.

DRY,

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Bu

Pts

Gal

1 Pec
16 = 2 = 1
64 = 8 =

1 Or
512 = 64 = 32 =
2560 = 320 = 160 = 40 5 = 1 Last
5120 = 640 = 320 = 80 = 10 = 2 = }

Weg

By this are measured all dry wares, as, Corn, Seeds, Roots, Fruits, Salt, Coals, Sand, Oysters, &c.

The standard Gallon dry-measure contains 2685 cubic or solid inches, and the Corn or Winchester bushel 2150 cubic inches; for the dimensions of the Winchester bushel, by the Statute, are 8 inches deep, and 18 inches wide or in diameter. But the Coal bushel must be 19 inches in diameter; and 36 bushels, heaped up, make a London chaldron of coals, the weight of which is 3156 lb Avoirdupois.

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Pts Ot
2

1 Gal
8

1 Bar
288 = 144 = 36 = 1 Hhd
432 216' =

54

= Butt 864 432 = 108 = 3 = 2 = 1 Nate, The Ale Gallon contains 282 cubic or solid Inches.

WINE MEASURE.

2 Pints make 4 Quarts 42 Gallons 63 Gallons or 1 Tierces 2 Tierces 2 Hogsheads 2 Pipes or 4 Hhds

1 Quart
1 Gallon
1 Tierce
1 Hogshead
1 Puncheon
i Pipe or Butt
I Tun

Or
Gal
Tier
Hbd
Pun
Pi
Tun

.

Pts Q:
2

1 Gal
8 =

1 Tier 336 = 168 = 42 = 1 Hbd 504 252 = 63 = 1=1

Pun 672 = 336 = 84 = 2 = 1 = 1 Pi 1008 =

504 = 126 = 3 = 2 = 1= 1 Tun 2016 = 1008 = 2526 = 4 = 3 =2=1

Note, By this are measured all Wines, Spirits, Strongwaters, Cyder, Mead, Perry, Vinegar, Oil, Honey, &c.

The Wine Gallon contains 231 cubic or solid inches. And it is remarkable, that the Wine and Ale Gallons have the same proportion to each other, as the Troy and Avoirdupois Pounds have; that is, as one Pound Troy is to one Pound Avoirdupois, so is one Wine Gallon to one' Ale Gallon.

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Sec

Min 60

1

Hr 3600

60

1 Day 86400 = 1440

24

1

12 604800 10090 168

1 М. +2419200 = 40320 = 672 = 28 = 4 = 1 31557600 = 525060 = 8766 = 36543 i rear

Or

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Da Hr Mo Da Hr
Or 52 1

6 - 13 1 6=1 Julian Year
Da Hr M Sec
But 365 5 48 48 = 1 Solar Year.

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RULES FOR REDUCTION.

. When the Numbers are to be reduced from a Higher Denomie

nation to a Lower : MULTIPLY the number in the highest denomination by as many as of the next lower make an integer, or 1, in that higher; to this product add the number, if any, which was in this lower denomination before, and set down the amount.

Reduce this amount in like manner, by multiplying it by as many as of the next lower make an integer of this, taking in the odd parts of this lower, as before. And so proceed through all the denominations to the lowest ; so shall the number last found be the value of all the numbers which were in the higher denominations, taken together *.

EXAMPLE.

S

1. In 12341 15s 7d, how many farthings?

1

d 1234 15 7

20

24695 Shillings

12

296347 Pence

4

Answer 1185388 Farthings.

* The reason of this rule is very evident; for pounds are brought into shillings by multiplying them by 20; shillings into pence, by multiplying them by 12; and pence into fartbings, by multiplying by 4 ; and the reverse of this rule by Division. —And the same, it is evident, will be true in the reduction of numbers consisting of any denominations whatever.

II. When

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