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66 S C OT T'S MO N T H L Y J O U R N A L Illlllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllll

Rate Increases

H E following, also quoted from official text distributed from Washington, will account for recent and coming new-value adhesives in the five countries mentioned: “The unit rates for mail matter in Germany, Austria, Italy, Portugal and Greece recently have been increased on a currency basis to the approximate amounts specified in the convention of the Universal Postal Union. These rates vary from a 150 per cent to a 300 per cent increase over the previous charges.”

Speaking of “Fair” Stamps— HE American Bureau of the Russian Agricultural Exposition, in New York, is responsible for the following, of interest to collectors: “The Russian Government has been asked to issue stamps to commemorate the forthcoming fair and it is quite possible that these will make their first appearance at the opening of the great fair August 15th and be sold up to and including the last month of the fair, or until the end of October, 1923. “The Berlin headquarters of the Russian Agricultural Fair has already begun the issuance of stamps for publicity and advertising purposes. These stamps are similar to our Red Cross and Tuberlosis campaign stamps and most artistic in design. They are being affixed to all mail sent out and are eagerly being sought after by stamp collectors.” The latter part of the final sentence is important if true. For the Russian Agricultural Exposition the foregoing paragraphs are good pubilcity if any journals outside of the philatelic press can be induced to give the text any space. The exposition is to be held at Moscow and is designed to establish “a trade contact with the 90,000,000 Russian farmers who want and must have modern agricultural implements.” If every Russian farmer buys a stamp the Soviet Government ought to be able to lure in a ruble or two.

A Bolshevik Subsidy

PEAKING of the Soviet and philately, some interesting information appears in a recent issue of Stamp Col

lecting. To quote from our London contemporary: “Soviet Russia has declared postage

stamps a State monopoly, and a central office has been established in Moscow under the name “Pomgol'—i. e., aid for the hungry' or ‘amelioration of famine sufferers, for whom special charity stamps have been issued. At the head of this undertaking is the Bolshevik member, F. Tschutschin.

“This central office carries on the State monopoly by confiscating, for the benefit of the starving, every stamp consignment that is sent from and to Russia. Every legal export of stamps is interdicted and is punished by severe penalties—concentration camp or six months' imprisonment.

“The central office at Moscow has established its own sale agencies in Mannheim and in London, by which the Soviet stamps, old and new issues, are sold at exorbitant prices.

“The exchange of postage stamps is allowed but not more than one copy or one block of four of each kind, and no higher value than 2,000 frs. (Yvert catalogue). The consignment must go through the central office, and is liable to heavy taxation. The whole system is extremely cumbersome.

“Under the circumstances real and honorable dealings in Russian postage stamps is quite impossible. All stamps that come from Russia have to be smuggled out; therefore the high prices that are demanded and paid for Soviet stamps are justified. For all that, these prices are lower than the prices that are demanded at the central office.

“It is questionable whether, and how

much of, the results of this State monopoly go to the benefit of the starving. The Russian choas is wide

spread One can say that Russia, as stamp maker, is grinding down philatelists. But, as in all things, so in philately: Soviet Russia is the land of boundless possibilities . . . The central office at Moscow publishes its own paper, The Moscow Philatelist (in Russian, also a few copies in German).”

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By Private Carrier

ONDITIONS in Germany as re

flected by recent newspaper despatches‘ carry us in spirit" back to the days before Uncle Sam officially began issuing stamps. Postal rates have been repeatedly increased in the Teuton Republic, as witness the recent “high mark" denominations which have been issued of late. A despatch cabled by The Associated Press correspondent in Berlin arouses conjecture by philatelists as to whether “private carrier” stamps are being employed in Germany. The news story reads in part:

“Dodging the payment of postage is one of the great pastimes in Germany, and the Federal postal authorities are hot on the trails of business firms and others who have inaugurated their own special mail delivery services. The first victim pounced upon by the Post Office Department sleuths was none other than Lord Mayor Boess of Berlin.

“It was found that Berlin’s municipal administration had organized its own corps of letter carriers, in order to do away with the buying of postage stamps. Informal complaints that this violated the postal regulations failed to move the city officials, and the case was taken to court.

“With the Lord Mayor on one side and the Postmaster General on the other, this fight has resolved itself into a battle much the same as the contests between the feudal barons and the heads of minor States .

“Pending further action against the Berlin ofiicials, the Postmaster General is directing his attention to a large number of commercial establishments which are suspected of carrying out the same practices. It is declared the Government is losing billions of marks annually through evasion of stamp windows by various concerns.”

It is another instance of the downtrodden worm turning. The German postal authorities have been raising rates to prohibitive heights. The world’s collectors may purchase these “high mark" values—Germany’s stamp authorities expect it and probably will not be disappointed-—bu‘t selling them to local business interests is apparently something else again.

Two Color Press

CCORDING to the New York Times, the Darmstadt (Germany) firm which supplies the German Gov

.ernment's printing office at Berlin with

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stamp-making presses has perfected a new type of two-color rotary press for printing postage stamps. The Timer reprints from the Darmstadt Tagblatt the following information:

The new machine prints, counts and perforates with precision 12,000 twoco'lored stamps in a minute, or 6,000,000 stamps every eight-hour day. The perforations are said to be so exact that the finest gauge cannot detect the slightest variation between one row of perforations and those of each new sheet. The adjustments are such that any misuse of the machine for falsifications is impossible.

The press is so constructed that the stamps can be printed in any one or two colors from rolls of gummed paper, which either can be rerolled or separated into sheets of 100 stamps, as desired. The paper is fed into a cleaning machine consisting of two brush rollers, thence over a stretching roller to the precision rollers. From them the paper goes to the printing rollers and the perforating mechanism, and finally to the rewinder or sheet cutter.

If this new machine is what the Times says the Tagblatt says it is—a marve1—it will probably be used by the German postal authorities—with twoco,lor stamps ofi’ered in return for philatelists’ money.

Philately in Ireland

STORY received by the New York

Tribune by mail from London quotes Fred J. Melville, noted British writer on stamp topics, as saying in the London Telegraph:

“The advent of the Irish Free State as a stamp-issuing country has created a widespread interest in philately throughout Ireland, and the succession of new stamps since February 17, 1922, and still in progress of issue, may contribute in no small measure to bringing union and harmony into Ireland.

“The late Sir John Henniker Heaton once said that ‘remembering the wars and quarrels of history, we could wish

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that stamp-collecting instead of war had more often been the sport of kings.’ We could wish to-day that in the excitement of stamp hunting, which has been increasingly prevalent in Ireland, political differences might give way to an interest in philatelic differences of the stamps.

“Enormous sums have been gathered into the Free State’s Exchequer by the sales of stamps for the philatelic demand. To begin with, a separate tally was kept of such sales where they could be identified. Single transactions with the agents of English and American dealers ran into several hundreds of pounds, and there are few post offices in the country where they have not learned something of the peculiar requirements of the stamp-collecting enthusiast. . .

“The newest stamp of the definitive series for the Free State is the 3p. (Scott's No. 50), just to hand. This is the first of two denominations in the Celtic Cross design, the work of Miss Lily Williams, whose sketch was

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awarded one of the premiums offered by the Postmaster General last year. The design is more than a little reminiscent of the Sinn Fein propaganda label which appeared in 1908 and which was the work of the same artist. . The new stamp is surface-printed in sheets of 240 on paper watermarked with the multiple monogram ‘S. E.’ (Saorstat Eireann, Irish Free State). A 10p. stamp in the same design is expected shortly.”

Danish Airpost

BOUT April 15 the Danish Aerial

Co. renewed its Copenhagen-Hamburg air service, by which mails move on to London by way of Cologne-—a twenty-one hour journey from Copenhagen to London, with the mail transported by rail between Hamburg and Cologne. This is the service suspended Oct. 15 last for the Winter months.

Will special airmail stamps be issued by Denmark with the resumption of these flights?

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By John L. Stroub In various publications including your Monthly Journal, I have noticed articles

pertaining to the Centenary Issue of Nicaragua. _
issued and also the days of sale, and the quantity surcharged “R de C."

These articles dealt with the number
From my

correspondent in Nicaragua I got the following figures which he calls “The Movement

of the Centenary Stamps of Nicaragua.”

For the benefit to Philatelists and to dealers

in general it is my opinion that these figures would be of interest, both from the

purchase and sale valuation.

Number Surcharged Number Number Burnt Number Value Issued “l\' De C.” Sold to Mr. A. ( P) Sold to Public %c 100,000 . . . . 62,000 28,337 9,963 1c 100,000 9500 62,000 4,092 24,408 2c 100,000 . . . . 62,000 5,259 32,741 5e 100,000 13700 62,000 5,313 18,987 10c 100,000 20700 62,000 912 16,388 25c 100,000 28300 62,000 642 9,058 50c 100,000 28700 62,000 316 8,984

Of the 62,000 sets given or sold to Mr. A. 30,000 sets are in New York and 32,000 are still in Nicaragua. These have been sold in quantity lots throughout this country and abroad. Of the 30,000 sets the most of them still are supposed to be in safe deposit vaults in this city. There are no quantities to be had in Nicaragua, on a legitimate sale.

They were used longer than the three days as first chronicled, which fact is borne out by the large quantities sold to the public. In fact they were used for one day, Sept. 15th, and many sets are cancelled to order later than December.

There was a decree stating that the above quantities were burnt, but up to Feb. 20th, 1923, they reposed in the Treasury of the Post Office. The burning date is keenly watched as also a Centenary of this eventful issue.

From the figures given the used stamps prove to be the best value of them. All

stamps before Scott's Catalogue Number 349 are now‘ demonetized and not available for postage.

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HE writer has noted some rather vio

lent attacks upon Mr. Brisbane because of his criticism of stamp collecting. As relatively few collectors have taken notice of the criticism, suppose we try letting a few stamps answer for us. We must first point out that there is no game or amusement from which the player has the right to expect his money back. Therefore, how much a child should be allowed to spend on the “movies” or stamps is peculiarly the province of the parents. In the case of an adult, the amount expended upon the theatre, stamps or any other amusement, will depend upon the inclination and purse of the individual. Therefore, what is an extravagance cannot be decided by argument. The answerable part of Mr. Brisbane's criticism is that stamp collecting, like biting one's nails, is a bad habit, acquired in youth and which some continue after they are grown. In other words: “Are adult stamp collectors playing paper soldiers when past the age?” Now, without studying heraldry, I know that Washington, on our stamp of today, does not face “left,” but “right,” exactly as if he were an actual person in front of me. With this in mind, we consider the five cent value of our 1902 issue (Catalogue No. 334). - We see the two sections of our country “acclaiming” (palms) Lincoln. Both allegorical figures face us “frankly” (unashamed). On the dexter, or stamp's right is the blond (Northland). On the inferior side is the brunette or South. We now consider Portugal type A48. Here we see the dexter allegorical figure acclaiming (palm); while the opposite figure facing dexter, is crowning (laurel). The personage is a navigator because of the navigator's globe on his dexter side. The globe of the World, on his inferior side,

is turned to present Africa. Below are the dates “1394” and 1894.” The catalogue says the series of stamps is in honor of Prince Henry. Pausing a moment to glance at the picture and date “I419" on a stamp of type A47 we can then read:

“Upon the five hundredth anniversary of the birth of Prince Henry, Africa acclaims and Portugal rightly crowns him. This because his discovery in 1914 introduced or joined them.”

This stamp also calls our attention to the fact that the Portugese are a Roman Catholic, Christian people and the stamp alludes to the five wounds of the Saviour. As this stands out clearly when not interwoven with allusions to other events, you can see it better on the current stamp (type A64).

Well, are not the designs of stamps made for collectors? The Portugese flag says that every Portugese vessel, that sails the seven seas today, honors Prince Henry. It carries his navigator's globe on its flag.

Our attention is now called to another Portugese stamp (type A51). Upon the “honorable” side we see the religious leader preaching to the creatures in the sea, inferior side. The catalogue says that the personage is St. Anthony of Padua.

What is the picture expected to convey? Religion? I think not. What attracts creatures in or out of the sea to a speaker? Eloquence. Now we can read. “St. Anthony was so eloquent that even the creatures in the sea came to listen.” Follow my example and ask some Roman Catholic friend if the Portugese St. Anthony was not pre-eminent because of his eloquence. You will quickly learn how highly informative your stamps are.

Now any person must admit that these few stamps of Portugal have told us something. They are only representative of thousands of other stamps. Some are of greater interest, some less.

(Concluded on Page 72)

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