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Eden Street, HAMPSTEAD ROAD, the first turning on the left from the Euston Road, was built about 1800, and was so called from its covering the site of the Adam and Eve Tea-Gardens, the successors of the notorious Tottenham Court Gymnasium. The tavern at the corner of the Euston Road is still the Adam and Eve.
Edgware Road, a road leading from Tyburn (Cumberland Gate - Marble Arch) to Edgware. Part of it runs on the old Watling Street, the Roman road from London to Verulam.
One messuage lying and being in Padyngton in the county of Middlesex ; viz. between the highway called Watling Street, beyond the E. side of the pond called Padyngton Pond. One other croft in Padyngton aforesaid, lying between the land late of Henry Prowdfoot, late of London, mason, and the ponds there called Padyngton Ponds, on the S. side, and land late of John Colyns on the N. side, and abutting upon the King's highway called Watling Street on the E. side. Inquis. Mort. 2 Edw. VI. (1548-1549) ; Gentleman's Magazine, June 1852, p. 579.
General Paoli died, February 5, 1807, “at his house near the Edgeware Road,” aged eighty-two. Here too died, 1836, Barry O'Meara, whose name is connected with Napoleon I. and St. Helena. Boswell relates how Goldsmith took lodgings in the Edgware Road in order to there write “at full leisure” his Animated Nature ; but the lodgings were in “a farmer's house near the six mile stone ”-at the Hyde, Hendon, and therefore outside the London circuit.
Edmund (St.) The King and Martyr, LOMBARD STREET, a church in Langbourne Ward, destroyed in the Great Fire, and rebuilt, 1670, by Sir C. Wren. It is dedicated to St. Edmund, King of the East Angles, who was murdered by the Danes, A.D. 870. It serves as well for the parish of St. Nicholas Acon, and the right of presentation belongs to the Archbishop of Canterbury for St. Edmund, and to the Crown for St. Nicholas.
Commission from Pope Alexander (III. ?] to the Bishop of Winchester. The Canons of St. Paul's have complained, that, whereas they formerly had the church of St. Edmund in London and received a yearly pension therefrom, Jocelin, son of the priest who last ministered there, returning from Denmark, where he asserted that he had received priest's orders, had unjustly taken possession of the church. The bishop is to hear both parties, and if the facts are as stated, he is to eject Jocelyn, and to prevent him from ministering as a priest unless he can prove that he has been duly ordained. Dated at the Lateran, 2 Ides of March.—Report in the MSS. of the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's, by Maxwell Lyte (Appendix to the Ninth Report of the Hist, MSS. Comm., p. 49).
The church, 59 feet by 40, and 37 feet 9 inches high, with a square tower and well-proportioned spire at the south end, 123 feet to the vane, and a projecting clock-face, has the peculiarity of standing north and south, with the altar at the north end. The interior has undergone many alterations (the pews removed for open seats) in 1864 and again in 1880 by William Butterfield, architect. There is a monument by John Bacon, R.A., to Jeremiah Milles, Dean of Exeter, and President of the Society of Antiquaries, who was rector of the united parishes, and was buried here in 1784. The register records that
Joseph Addison, of Bilton, in the county of Warwick, Esqr., was married unto Charlott, Countess-Dowager of Warwick and Holland, of the parish of Kensington, in the county of Middlesex, on the ninth day of August, Anno Domini, 1716. There were formerly two paintings over the altar by Etty, representing Moses and Aaron.
Edward Street, PORTLAND CHAPEL, so called from Edward Harley, Earl of Oxford. Dr. Johnson's friend, Baretti, the author of the Italian and Spanish Dictionaries, lived at “10 Edward Street, Portland Chapel,” and died here, May 6, 1789, Malone says in indigent circumstances, his principal support being a pension of £80 a year. Writing in 1828 J. R. Smith says, “ Edward Street was taken down some time since to make way for Langham Place; the site of Baretti's house is now occupied by Marks's Carriage Repository," 1 now St. George's Hall.
Edwardes Square, KENSINGTON, named after the family name of Lord Kensington. One side of the square is occupied by the backs of the houses of Earl's Terrace. Leigh Hunt says that it is a Kensington tradition that Coleridge once occupied lodgings in this square.
The story is that the Frenchman built it at the time of the threatened invasion from France; and that he adapted the large square and the cheap little houses to the promenading tastes and poorly-furnished pockets of the ensigns and lieutenants of Napoleon's army; who, according to his speculation, would certainly have been on the look-out for some such place, and here would have found it.-Leigh Hunt's Old Court Suburb, chap. xi.
Edwards Street, PORTMAN SQUARE. Sir Thomas Picton lived in No. 21, and hither his body was brought from the field of Waterloo, previous to interment in the Bayswater Burying-ground. He had long occupied this house. Sir Hudson Lowe was living at No. 26 in 1838. No. 17 was the Marylebone Literary and Scientific Institution, in which, in 1838, Carlyle delivered a course of lectures on European Culture; it was afterwards the Quebec Institute, and is now the Steinway Hall. Edwards Street has since 1868 formed a portion of Wigmore Street. J. Sigismund Tanner, for forty years chief engineer of the Mint, died in this street in 1773. The slang name for a sixpence is derived from him.
Egremont House, PICCADILLY. [See Cambridge House.]
Egyptian Hall, PICCADILLY, a building erected in 1812 from the designs of P. F. Robinson, in imitation of Egyptian architecture, and covered with hieroglyphics, for Mr. William Bullock of Liverpool, as a receptacle for a museum that went by his name, and cost over £30,000. It was dispersed by auction in 1819. The hall was bought by George Lackington and let for miscellaneous exhibitions. Here, in 1816, was exhibited the military carriage of Napoleon, taken after the battle of Waterloo (and now in the Tussaud exhibition). The large room, 60 feet long and 40 feet high, was designed by J. B. Papworth, architect, and another one in the Italian style, which later became the theatre
I Smith's Nollekens and his Times, vol. ii. p. 177.
for German Reed's performances, and those of others. Here in June 1820 Jerricault exhibited his large picture of the crew of the French frigate on a raft. In 1821 a model of the tomb discovered at Thebes by Belzoni, with the alabaster sarcophagus, afterwards bought by Sir John Soane, and now in his museum. In 1822 a family of Laplanders was exhibited by Mr. Bullock, who, after travelling in Central America and Mexico, brought over a large collection of antiquities, and exhibited them in 1824; at the end of 1825 he exhibited a superb set of tapestry from the cartoons of Raphael. Soon afterwards he sold his interest in the building. The Burmese State Carriage (1825); the Siamese Twins (1829); the Model of the Battle of Waterloo (1838); Catlin's American collections, and various American and Nile panoramas were among the most popular of the shows. In 1846 “General Tom Thumb” in one part drew hundreds in a day (his daily receipts are said to have averaged £125), while Haydon exhibited his pictures, “Alfred” and “Trial by Jury” and the “Burning of Rome,” in another room to half a dozen comers in a week. In 1848 the first of the moving panoramas - Banvard's Mississippi was brought here. From 1852 to his death Albert Smith, the most amusing of “entertainers,” gave his "Ascent of Mont Blanc," "China," etc.; as later Artemus Ward gave his entertainment here. For some years past Messrs. Maskelyne and Cooke have occupied the principal
In 1850 Lord Dudley placed his fine collection of pictures for public inspection in what has since been known as the Dudley Gallery, in which are now held the well-established annual exhibitions of “ Cabinet Paintings” and “Drawings in Black and White.” The figures of Isis and Osiris on the front were carved by Gahagan, who made the statue of the Duke of Kent at the top of Portland Place.
Elbow Lane contained the hall of the Innholders Company, erected soon after the Fire, which was the joint work of Sir C. Wren and Edward Jerman, the city architect. A new hall was erected in 1886 (J. Douglas Matthews, architect). The name has been changed to Little College Street.
Eldedenes Lane, the old name for Warwick Lane. In some Deeds of the reign of Henry III., quoted by Mr. Maxwell Lyte in his Report on the Manuscripts of the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's (Appendix to Ninth Report, Hist. MSS. Comm.), certain lands and tenements are described as bounded by “Venella Veteris Decani,” called also Eldedenes Lane.
Demise by the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's to Mr. John Harpefield, Archdeacon of London, of their great messuage in the lane of old tyme cauled Alden's Lane but now cauled Warwicke Lane, in the occupation of Dr. Nicholas Wotton, Dean of Canterbury and York, May 10, 1555.—Maxwell Lyte’s Report, p. 9.
[See Warwick Lane.]
Elephant and Castle (The), a celebrated tavern at Walworth, about one mile and a half from Westminster, Waterloo, and Blackfriars Bridges, and situated where the Kennington, Walworth, and New Kent Roads meet, leading from these bridges to important places in Kent and Surrey. The ground upon which the tavern stands was in 1658 a piece of waste land granted for building purposes. Before the railways removed stage-coaches from the roads, the Elephant and Castle was a well-known locality to every traveller going south from London. It has now changed character, and is chiefly known as a halting station for omnibuses and tramcars.
Elm Court, MIDDLE TEMPLE LANE, TEMPLE, erected 1630-1631, 6th of Charles I. “Up one pair of stairs," in this court, Lord Keeper Guildford commenced practice. “The ground chamber is not so well esteemed as one pair of stairs," writes Roger North ; "but yet better than two, and the price is accordingly.” This and other legal localities are neatly brought together in Anstey's Pleader's Guide :
And still sometimes upon St. Martin's morn,
Attorneys haunt, and Special Pleaders cruise !
Elm Tree Road, St. John's WOOD. At No. 17 in this road were spent the last years of Thomas Hood, the author of the “Comic Annual," Eugene Aram," and the "Song of the Shirt," and here he died, May 3, 1845.
Elms (The), in SMITHFIELD.
In the 6th of Henry V., a new building was made in this west part of Smithfield, betwixt the horse-pool and the river of the Wels, or Turnmill-brook, in a place then called the Elmes, for that there grew many elm-trees; and this had been the place of execution for offenders ; since the which time the building there hath been so increased, that now remaineth not one tree growing.–Stow, p. 142.
A place anciently called The Elmes, of elmes that grew there, where Mortimer was executed, and let hang two days and two nights, to be seene of the people, which place hath now left his name, and is not knowne to one man of a million where that place was.—Howes, ed. 1631, p. 1048.
This place was in use for executions, in the year 1219, and, as it seems, long before, by a Clause Roll, 4 Hen. III., wherein mention is made of “Furcæ factæ apud Ulmellos Com. Middlesex, ubi prius factæ fuerunt.”—Strype, B. iii. p. 238.
Sir William Wallace was executed at the Elms, in Smithfield, on St. Bartholomew's Eve, 1305. On February 4, 1554-1555, John
i Rendle and Norman's Inns of Old Southwark, 1888, p. 379.
Rogers, Vicar of St. Sepulchre's, hard by, was burned in Smithfield for heresy, the first on the long roll of Protestant martyrs who suffered in the "fires of Smithfield.” A tablet to the memory of John Rogers, John Philpot, and other martyrs in the years 1555, 1556, and 1557, is let into the wall of St. Bartholomew's Hospital, close to the out-patients' entrance.
Elsing Spital, GRAYSPUR LANE, CRIPPLEGATE, a hospital “for the sustentation of one hundred blind men,” founded by William de Elsing, mercer, in 1329. There was a nunnery on the site which had fallen into decay, when Elsing obtained permission to convert it into a hospital, with letters of mortmain, by which he was enabled to endow it with his two houses in St. Alphage and Aldermanbury. Three years afterwards it was called the “priory hospital of St. Mary the Virgin,” 1 and Elsing became the first prior; it continued, however, to be known as Elsing's Hospital till its surrender, May 11, 1530. On the site of the hospital Syon College was afterwards erected. The poet Gower bequeathed, 1408, "to the Prior and Convent of Elsing Spital a certain large book composed at my expense, which is called Martirologium, so that I ought to have a special memorial written in the same according to their promise."
Ely Place, two rows of tenements in Holborn so called, occupying the site of the town house or “hostell” of the Bishops of Ely. John de Kirkeby, Bishop of Ely, dying in 1290, bequeathed a messuage in Holborn, and nine tenements adjoining, to his successors in the see. William de Luda, who succeeded him, added a further grant," with condition, that his next successor should pay one thousand marks for the finding of three chaplains in the chapel there.” John de Hotham, another bishop, added a vineyard, kitchen-garden, and orchard. Thomas de Arundel, before he was translated to the see of York, in 1388, built “a gatehouse or front” towards Holborn, and in Stow's time “his arms were yet to be discovered on the stone work thereof." The chapel, dedicated to St. Ethelreda, is all that exists of the building. This house (or the larger part of it) was occasionally let by the see to distinguished noblemen. In Ely Place, in 1399, died John of Gaunt, "time-honoured Lancaster.” From Ely Place in Holborn” Henry Radclyff, Earl of Sussex, writes to his countess, announcing the death of Henry VIII. ; and in Ely Place, then the residence of the Earl of Warwick (afterwards Duke of Northumberland), the council met, Sunday, October 6, 1549, and formed that remarkable conspiracy which destroyed the Protector Somerset. Sir Christopher Hatton (Queen Elizabeth's handsome Lord Chancellor) obtained a lease of the gate-house, part of the buildings in the first courtyard, and the garden and orchard in 1576 for the term of twenty-one years.
The rent was a red rose, ten loads of hay, and ten pounds per annum; Bishop Cox, on whom this hard bargain was forced by the Queen,
1 Stow, p. 110; Strype, B. iii. p. 71.