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8 pounds 2 feet from the prop; therefore, if we divide the distance of the POWER from the prop by the distance of the WEIGHT from the prop, the quotient will always express the ratio of the WEIGHT to the POWER; = 4, that is, the weight will be 4 times as much as the power. 42 X 4 = 168. Ans. 168 lbs.

193. Supposing the lever as above, what power would it require to raise 1000 pounds? Ans. 1900 250 pounds

194. If the weight to be raised be 5 times as much as the power to be applied, and the distance of the weight from the prop be 4 feet, how far from the prop must the power be applied ? Ans. 20 feet.

195. If the greater distance be 40 feet, and the less of a foot, and the power 175 pounds, what is the weight?

Ans. 14000 pounds.

196. Two men carry a kettle, weighing 200 pounds; the kettle is suspended on a pole, the bale being 2 feet 6 inches from the hands of one, and 3 feet 4 inches from the hands of the other; how many pounds does each bear?

Ars. { 1144 pounds.

85

197. There is a windlass, the wheel of which is 60 inches in diameter, and the axis, around which the rope coils, is 6 inches in diameter; how many pounds on the axle will be balanced by 240 pounds at the wheel?

Note. The spaces passed over are evidently as the diameters, or the circumferences; therefore, so = 10, ratio.

Ans. 2400 pounds.

198. If the diameter of the wheel be 60 inches, what must be the diameter of the axle, that the ratio of the weight to the power may be 10 to 1? Ans. 6 inches.

Note. This calculation is on the supposition, that there is no friction, for which it is usual to add to the power which is to work the machine.

199. There is a screw, whose threads are 1 inch asunder, which is turned by a lever 5 feet, 60 inches, long; what is the ratio of the weight to the power?

Note. The power applied at the end of the lever will describe the circumference of a circle 60 × 2 120 inches in diameter, while the weight is raised 1 inch; therefore, the ratio will be found by dividing the circumference of a circle, schose diameter is twice the length of the lever, by the distance

between the threads of the screw. 120 × 343774 circumference, and 3777

1

= 3774, ratio, Ans.

200. There is a screw, whose threads are of an inch asunder; if it be turned by a lever 10 feet long, what weight will be balanced by 120 pounds power? Ans. 30171 pounds.

201. There is a machine, in which the power moves over 10 feet, while the weight is raised 1 inch; what is the power of that machine, that is, what is the ratio of the weight to the power? Ans. 120.

202. A man put 20 apples into a wine gallon measure, which was afterwards filled by pouring in 1 quart of water; required the contents of the apples in cubic inches.

Ans. 173 inches. 203. A rough stone was put into a vessel, whose capacity was 14 wine quarts, which was afterwards filled with 24 quarts of water; what was the cubic content of the stone? Ans. 664 inches.

FORMS OF NOTES, BONDS, RE CEIPTS, AND ORDERS.

NOTES.

No. I.

Overdean, Sept. 17, 1802.

For value received, I promise to pay to OLIVER BOUNTIFUL, or order, sixty-three dollars fifty-four cents, on demand, with interest after three months. WILLIAM TRUsty.

Attest, TIMOTHY TESTIMONY.

No. II.

Bilfort, Sept. 17, 1802.

For value received, I promise to pay to O. R., or bearer, cents, three months after date. PETER PENCIL.

MED AS A CONSTED AND

dollars

No. III.

By two Persons.

Arian, Sept. 17, 1802.

dollars

For value received, we, jointly and severally, promise to pay to C. D., or order, cents, on demand, with interest. ALDEN FAITHFUL. JAMES FAIRFACE.

Attest, CONSTANCE ADLEY.

Observations.

1. No note is negotiable unless the words "or order," otherwise " or bearer," be inserted in it.

2. If the note be written to pay him 66 or order," (No. I.) then Oliver Bountiful may endorse this note, that is, write his name on the backside, and sell it to A, B, C, or whom he pleases. Then A, who buys the note, calls on William Trusty for payment, and if he neglects, or is unable to pay, A may recover it of the endorser.

3. If a note be written to pay him "or bearer," (No. II.) then any person, who holds the note, may sue and recover the same of Peter Pencil.

4. The rate of interest, established by law, being six per cent. per annum, it becomes unnecessary, in writing notes, to mention the rate of interest; it is sufficient to write them for the payment of such a sum, with interest, for it will be understood legal interest, which is six per cent.

5. All notes are either payable on demand, or at the expiration of a certain term of time agreed upon by the parties, and mentioned in the note, as three months, a year, &c.

6. If a bond or note mention no time of payment, it is always on demand, whether the words "on demand" be expressed or not.

7. All notes, payable at a certain time, are on interest as soon as they become due, though in such notes there be no mention made of interest.

This rule is founded on the principle, that every man ought to receive his money when due, and that the nonpayment of it at that time is an injury to him. The law, therefore, to do him justice, allows him interest from the time the money becomes due, as a compensation for the injury. 8. Upon the same principle, a note, payable on demand, without any mention made of interest, is on interest after a

demand of payment, for upon demand such notes immediately become due.

9. If a note be given for a specific article, as rye, payable in one, two, or three months, or in any certain time, and the signer of such note suffers the time to elapse without delivering such article, the holder of the note will not be obliged to take the article afterwards, but may demand and recover the value of it in money.

BONDS.

A Bond, with a Condition, from one to another.

Know all men by these presents, that I, C. D. of, &c., in the county of, &c., am held and firmly bound to E. F., of, &c., in two hundred dollars, to be paid to the said E. F., or his certain attorney, his executors, administrators, or assigns, to which payment, well and truly to be made, I bind myself, my heirs, executors and administrators, firmly by these presents. Sealed with my seal. Dated the eleventh day of in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and two.

The Condition of this obligation is such, that, if the abovebound C. D., his heirs, executors, or administrators, do and shall well and truly pay, or cause to be paid, unto the abovenamed E. F., his executors, administrators, or assigns, the full sum of two hundred dollars, with legal interest for the same, on or before the eleventh day of next ensuing the date hereof,-then this obligation to be void, or otherwise to remain in full force and virtue.

Signed, &c.

A Condition of a Counter Bond, or Bond of Indemnity, where one man becomes bound for another.

·

The condition of this obligation is such, that whereas the above-named A. B., at the special instance and request, and for the only proper debt of the above-bound C. D., together with the said C. D., is, and by one bond or obligation bearing equal date with the obligation above-written, held and firmly bound unto E. F., of, &c., in the penal sum of dollars, conditioned for the payment of the sum of, &c., with legal interest for the same, on the

day of

next ensuing the date of the said in part recited obligation, as in and by the said in part recited bond, with the condition thereunder written, may more fully appear;-if, therefore, the said C. D., his heirs, executors, or administrators, do and shall well and truly pay, or cause to be paid, unto the said E. F., his executors, administrators, or assigns, the said sum of, &c., with legal interest of the same, on the said day of, &c., next ensuing the date of the said in part recited obligation, according to the true intent and meaning, and in full discharge and satisfaction of the said in part recited bond or obligation,-then, &c.-otherwise, &c.

Note. The principal difference between a note and bond is, that the latter is an instrument of more solemnity, being given under seal. Also, a note may be controlled by a special agreement, different from the note, whereas, in case of a bond, no special agreement can in the least control what appears to have been the intention of the parties, as expressed by the words in the condition of the bond.

RECEIPTS.

Sitgrieves, Sept. 19, 1802. Received from Mr. DURANCE ADLEY ten dollars in full of all accounts. ORVAND CONSTANCE.

Sitgrieves, Sept. 19, 1802.

Received of Mr. ORVAND CONSTANCE five dollars in full of all accounts. DURANCE ADLEY.

Receipt for Money received on a Note.

Sitgrieves, Sept. 19, 1802.

Received of Mr. SIMPSON EASTLY (by the hand of TITUS TRUSTY) Sixteen dollars twenty-five cents, which is endorsed on his note of June 3, 1802.

PETER CHEERFUL.

A Receipt for Money received on Account.

Received of Mr. ORAND LANDIKE

count.

Sitgrieves, Sept. 19, 1802 fifty dollars on aoELDRO SLACKLEY.

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