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43. Reduce 9 tons of round) timber to cubic inches.

45. In 37 cord feet of wood, how many solid feet?

47. Reduce 64 cord feet of wood to cords.

49. In 16 cords of wood, how many cord feet? many solid feet?

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4 gills (gi.) make 2 pints 4 quarts 314 gallons 63 gallons 2 hogsheads

2 pipes, or 4 hogsheids

Note. What is called a cord foot, in measuring wood, is 16 solid feet; that is, 4 feet in length, 4 feet in width, and 1 foot in height, and 8 such feet, that is, 8 cord feet make 1 cord.

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TABLE.

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44. In 622080 cubic inches, how many tons of round timber?

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46. In 592 solid feet of wood, how many cord feet?

48. In 8 cords of wood, how many cord feet?

50. 2048 solid feet of wood, how how many cord feet? how many cords?

WINE MEASURE.

Wine measure is used in measuring all spirituous liquors, ale and beer excepted; also vinegar and oil. The denominations are tuns, pipes, hogsheads, barrels, gallons, quarts, pints, and gills.

1 cord of wood.

1 pint,
1 quart,
1 gallon,
1 barrel,

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pt.

1 hogshead, - 1 pipe,

1 tun,

Note. A gallon, wine measure, contains 231 cubic inches.

qt.

gal.

bar.

hhd.

P.

T.

51. Reduce 12 pipes of wine] to pints.

53. In 9 P. 1 hhd. 22 gals. 8 qts. how many gills? 55. In a tun of cider, how many gallons?

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ALE OR BEER MEASURE.

Ale or beer measure is used in measuring ale, beer, and milk. The denominations are hogsheads, barrels, gallons. quarts, and pints.

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2 pints (pts.) 8 quarts 4 pecks 36 bushels

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TABLE.

57. Reduce 47 bar. 18 gal. of ale to pints.

59. In 29 hhds. of beer, how many pints?

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52. In 12096 pints of wine, how many pipes?

Note. A gallon, beer measure, contains 282 cubic inches.

58. In 13680 pints of ale, how many barrels ?

60. Reduce 12528 pints to hogsheads.

54. Reduce 39032 gills to pipes.

56. Reduce 252 gallons to tuns.

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1 quart,
1 gallon,
1 barrel,

1 hogshead,

DRY MEASURE.

Dry measure is used in measuring all dry goods, such as grain, fruit, roots, salt, coal, &c. The denominations are chaldrons, bushels, pecks, quarts, and pints.

TABLE.

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qt.

gal.

bar.

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Note. A gallon, dry measure, contains 2684 cubic inches. A Winchester bushel is 184 inches in diameter, 8 inches deep, and contains 2150 cubic inches.

61. In 75 bushels of wheat, | how many pints?

63. Reduce 42 chaldrons of coals to pecks.

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TIME.

The denominations of time are years, months, weeks, days, hours, minutes, and seconds.

TABLE.

62. In 4800 pints, how ma ny bushels?

April,

4th,

May,

5th,

June,

6th,

7th,

July,
August, 8th,
September, 9th,
October, 10th,
November, 11th,
December, 12th,

64. In 6048 pecks, how many chaldrons ?

7 days 4 weeks

13 months, 1 day and 6 hours, or 365 days and 6 hours,

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1 minute,

1 hour,
1 day,
1 week,

January, 1st month, has 31 days.

February, 2d,

28

March,

3d,

31

30

31

30

31

31

30

31

30
31

1 month,

1 common, or
Julian year,

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37. The year is also divided into 12 calendar months, which, in the order of their succession, are numbered as follows, viz.

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Thirty days hath September,
April, June, and November,
February twenty-eight alone;
All the rest have thirty-one.

yr.

Note. When any year can be divided by 4 without a remainder, it is called leap year, in which February has 29 days.

The number of days in each month may be easily fixed in the mind by committing to memory the following lines:

The first seven letters of the alphabet, A, B, C, D, E, F, G, are used to mark the several days of the week, and they are disposed in such a manner, for every year, that the letter A shall stand for the 1st day of January, B for the 2d, &c. In pursuance of this order, the letter which shall stand for Sunday, in any year, is called the Dominical letter for that year. The Dominical letter being known, the day of the week on which each month comes in may be readily calculated from the following couplet:

At Dover Dwells George Brown, Esquire,
Good Carlos Finch And David Fryer.

These words correspond to the 12 months of the year, and the first letter in each word marks the day of the week on which each corresponding month comes in; whence any other day may be easily found. For example, let it be required to find on what day of the week the 4th day of July falls, in the year 1827, the Dominical letter for which year is G. Good answers to July; consequently, July comes in on a Sunday; wherefore the 4th day of July falls on Wednesday.

Note. There are two Dominical letters in leap years, one for January and February, and another for the rest of the year.

65. Supposing your age to be 15 y. 19 d. 11 h. 37 m. 45 s., how many seconds old are you, allowing 365 days 6 hours to the year?

66. Reduce 475047465 seconds to years.

68. Reduce 325440 minutes

67. How many minutes from the 1st day of January to the to days. 14th day of August, inclusively?

69. How many minutes from 70. In 4079160 minutes, the commencement of the war how many years? between America and England, April 19th, 1775, to the settlement of a general peace, which took place Jan. 20th, 1783 ?

CIRCULAR MEASURE, OR MOTION.

Circular measure is used in reckoning latitude and longitude; also in computing the revolution of the earth and other planets round the sun. The denominations are circles, signs, degrees, minutes, and seconds.

TABLE.

60 seconds (") make 1 minute,

60 minutes

1 degree,
1 sign,

1 circle of the zodiac.

30 degrees

12 signs, or 360 degrees,

12 particular things

12 dozen

12 gross, or 144 dozen,

20 particular things

6 points make 1 line, 12 lines

1 inch,

4 inches

6 feet

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Note. Every circle, whether great or small, is divisible into 360 equal parts, called degrees.

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71. Reduce 9 s. 13o 25' to 72. In 1020300", how many seconds. degrees?

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The following are denominations of things not included in the Tables:

112 pounds

24 sheets of paper
20 quires

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1 score.

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used in measuring the length of the rods of clock pendulums.

S used in measuring the height of 1 hand,{horses.

- 1 fathom, used in measuring depths at sea. 1 quintal of fish.

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1 dozen.

1 gross.

1 great gross.

1 quire.
1 ream.

SUPPLEMENT TO REDUCTION.

QUESTIONS.

1. What is reduction? 2. Of how many varieties is reduction? 3. What is understood by different denominations, ss of money, weight, measure, &c.? 4. How are high de

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