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In his absence, I, on the 16th, took a house in Boswell Court, near Temple Bar, for two years, immediately moving all my goods thereto.-Lady Fanshawe's Memoirs, p. 159.

Francis Hargreave (d. 1821) lived at No. 9 from 1789 to 1813, when his library was purchased by the nation for £8000. It was more remarkable for its extent and quality than its condition, the greater number of the volumes having been purchased at book-stalls, where he was a keen hunter. When the ill-advised measure of selling off the duplicate copies in the Museum was resolved upon by the Trustees, the Hargreave copies were generally the victims. They are easily recognised by the neat autograph of the former owner. Walter Savage Landor, at "R. Bevan's, Esq., No. 10 Boswell Court, Carey Street," April 1801. Dr. Johnson had lodgings here for a short time. in his early London days—after leaving Castle Street, 1738, and before removing to the Strand in 1741.1 The Black Horse in Boswell Court was for many years one of the most noted of the London "harmonic meetings," so popular among "fast" men before the days of Alhambras and music halls. The popular belief that Johnson's Court and Boswell Court were so called after Dr. Johnson and James Boswell is only a natural error. New Boswell Court was entered by a flight of steps from Old Boswell Court.

Botanic Garden, CHELSEA, by the Thames, near Chelsea Church, formerly called "The Physic Garden": a garden appertaining to the Company of Apothecaries of London. It was the first garden of the kind, but there is an undated petition from the College of Physicians to James I. in which it is stated that "Some of the nobility of the kingdom have proffered large contributions towards establishing a garden for trees, plants, fruits, etc., and they therefore pray that the King will further the undertaking, and permit them to make choice of a fitting site for the said garden."2 The Company of Apothecaries obtained a lease of the ground at Chelsea in 1673, with a view to the formation of a garden for the cultivation of medical and other plants which might assist the student of medicine and botany. In 1676 they "agreed to purchase the plants growing in Mrs. Gape's garden in Westminster;"3 but the ground was not enclosed till 1686. Sir Hans Sloane, when he purchased the manor of Chelsea in 1721, granted the freehold to the Company of Apothecaries, upon condition that they should present annually to the Royal Society 50 new plants, till the number should amount to 2000. In 1732 a greenhouse and several new hothouses were added to the garden, and in 1733 a statue of Sir Hans Sloane, by Michael Rysbrack. Two cedars (which grew to be two of the finest in the neighbourhood of London) were planted in 1683, being then about 3 feet high. In 1750 they measured upwards of 11 feet in girth, and in 1793—at 3 feet from the ground-upwards of 12, afterwards increased to 15 feet. They formed a most picturesque group from the river, till the larger of the two was blown down during

1 Croker's Boswell, p. 30.

2 Cal. Jac. 1, vol. iv. p. 517.

3 London, p. 1063.

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a storm in the autumn of 1853.

Philip Miller, author of the Gardeners' Dictionary, was during a period of nearly fifty years the Company's gardener in these grounds. In 1736 the garden was visited by the great Linnæus, then in his twenty-fifth year. Miller at first thought him conceited and ignorant, particularly of botany, but after three visits completely altered his mind, and furnished Linnæus with all the plants he required. Miller resigned in 1770, at the age of eighty, and, dying the next year, was buried in the churchyard of St Luke's, Chelsea.

August 7, 1685.-I went to see Mr. Watts, keeper of the Apothecaries' Garden of Simples at Chelsea, where there is a collection of innumerable rarities of that sort particularly, besides many rare annuals, the tree bearing jesuit's bark, which had done such wonders in quartan agues. What was very ingenious was the subterranean heat, conveyed by a stove under the conservatory, all vaulted with brick, so as he has the doors and windows open in the hardest frosts, secluding only the snow.— Evelyn.

May 17, 1689, Friday.-Being my usual fast-day, I was for above three hours at the Apothecaries' Garden at Chelsea; where I was not disturbed by any company. . . . May 20.-I stayed all day at home, till, towards evening, I went to the Apothecaries' Garden.-Henry, Earl of Clarendon, Diary, p. 276.

This was after he had refused to take the oaths to William and Mary.

Admission to the Garden at Chelsea is by an order, which can be obtained on application to the Beadle at Apothecaries' Hall.

Botanic Gardens, INNER CIRCLE, REGENT'S PARK, about 18 acres in extent, are tastefully laid out and maintained at the expense of the Royal Botanic Society of London-a Society founded and incorporated in 1839 for the promotion of botany in all its branches. The ground, which occupies the site of what is called Willan's Farm in old maps, is held on lease from the Crown, and was laid out ornamentally and for scientific purposes by Robert Marnock. Before its conversion into a Botanic Garden in 1840 it had been for some years occupied as a nursery garden, many of the ornamental trees and plants belonging to which were retained. The conservatory (designed by Decimus Burton) is filled with rare and beautiful plants. Exhibitions are held annually, in the months of May, June, and July, when a very large number of gold, silver, and bronze medals are distributed.

"Botany Bay," a popular name once applied to Somers Town. Somers Town, in consequence of being the favourite residence of the French refugees, was nicknamed Botany Bay.-Palmer's St. Pancras, 1870, p. 59.

Botolph (St.) Without Aldersgate, a church in the ward of Aldersgate, at the corner of Little Britain. Only a portion of the old church was burnt in the Great Fire of 1666, but becoming decayed was taken down and the present building erected on the site, 17541757. It has since been several times "repaired and beautified," as in 1833 and 1851. The right of presentation belongs to the Dean and Chapter of Westminster. Three churches dedicated to this saint stood near the gates of London-St. Botolph, Aldersgate; St. Botolph, Aldgate; St. Botolph, Bishopsgate. Observe.-Tomb (with brass) to Q


Dame Anne Packington (d. 1563). Monument to Elizabeth, wife of Sir Thomas Richardson (d. 1639). Tablet to Richard Chiswell, bookseller (d. 1711). Monument to Dr. Francis Bernard, the Horoscope of Garth's Dispensary (d. 1698). Tablet to Daniel Wray, F.R.S., F.S.A. (d. 1782). Monument to Elizabeth Smith, with cameo bust by Roubiliac. Robert Cawood (d. 1466). Sir William Cavendish, husband of Elizabeth, Countess ("the Bess") of Hardwick (d. 1557). Alexander Gill, D.D., master of St. Paul's School (1597-1642), Rev. Edward Chilmead (1610-1653), and Thomas Rawlinson (d. 1725) were among the celebrities buried here.

The case of Edward Topsall and others v. Ferrars, tried 15 Jac. (Hobart's Reports, ed. 1678, p. 175), refers to the custom of the parish that a passenger dying there should pay fees there, though buried elsewhere. "Edward Topsall, clerk, Parson of Saint Botolphs Without Aldersgate, and the churchwardens of the same, libelled in the Court Christian against Sir John Ferrers, knight, and alledged that there was a custome within the city of London, and especially within that Parish, that if any person die within that Parish, being man or woman, and be carried out of the same parish, and buried elsewhere, that there ought to be paid to the Parson of this Parish, if he be buried elsewhere, in the Chancel so much, and to the Churchwardens so much." Sir John Ferrers had buried his wife (who died in this parish) in the chancel of another church. A prohibition of the demand made by the parish was granted on the ground that the custom was against reason.

Milton's "pretty garden-house" in Aldersgate Street was in this parish. Richard Baxter, the famous Nonconformist divine, was resident in it at the time of his marriage.

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April 29, 1662.-Richard Baxter, of St. Botolph's, Aldersgate, London, Clerk, aged about forty years, batchelor; and Margaret Charleton of Christ Church [Newgate Street], London, about twenty-eight years, spinster; and at his own disposal, to marry at Christ Church aforesaid. Alledged by Francis Tyton, of St. Dunstan's in the West.—Marriage Licence in Vicar General's Office.

The churchyard has been converted into a garden.

Botolph (St.) by Aldgate, a church in the ward of Portsoken, at the corner of Houndsditch and Aldgate, High Street, built on the site and in place of the old church described by Stow, as lately built at the charges of the Priors of the Holy Trinity-"as appeareth," he adds, "by the arms of the house engraven on the stonework.” The church escaped the Fire, and was ruinous when taken down. The present edifice was designed, 1725 or 1741-1744, by George Dance, (d. 1768). It cost £5536:25. It was repaired and beautified, 1875. Observe.-Monument with recumbent figure, in the vestibule, to Thomas, Lord Darcy, of the North (beheaded 1537), and Sir Nicholas. Carew, of Beddington (beheaded 1538). There is a good deal of sculptural merit in the extended figure. Monument with effigy in marble. to Robert Dow, citizen and merchant tailor (d. 1612). Mr. Robert Dow gave a sum of money to the parish of St. Sepulchre's, to remune

rate the clerk for ringing a bell at midnight under the wall of Newgate, and calling the poor prisoners condemned to death to prayer and supplication. [See St. Sepulchre's.] William Symington, the first to apply steam power to navigation, died in poverty, March 22, 1831, and was buried in the churchyard.1 White Kennet, editor of The Complete History of England, and subsequently Dean and Bishop of Peterborough, obtained the living in 1700.

Botolph (St.) Billingsgate, WARD OF BILLINGSGATE, a church destroyed in the Great Fire, and not rebuilt. "A proper church," says Stow, "and hath had many fair monuments therein; now defaced and gone, by bad and greedy men of spoil." The old burying-ground of the parish, now built on, lay between Botolph Lane and Love Lane. The church of the parish is St. George's Botolph Lane.

Botolph (St.) Without Bishopsgate, a church in the ward of Bishopsgate, opposite Houndsditch, said to have been built from the designs of James Gold, but a print of the church published in 1802 has the name of "G. Dance, 1727, architect," this was probably Giles Dance, father of the first George Dance. The first stone was laid April 10, 1725, and the building completed in 1728. The living is in the gift of the Bishop of London, and is the richest in the City and Liberties of London. Observe.-Monument on the north wall to Sir Paul Pindar (d. 1650), an eminent English merchant of the time of Charles I., described as "Ambassador to the Turkish Emperor," whose house in Bishopsgate Street Without was converted into an inn. Brass plate in wall of chancel to Sir William Blizard, President of the Royal College of Surgeons, "an old resident of Bishopsgate," who died 1835, aged ninety-two. The registers of the church record the baptism of Edward Alleyn, the player, and founder of Dulwich College (b. 1566), whose father kept the Pye inn; the burial in 1600 of an infant son of Ben Jonson; and the baptism of John Keats, October 31, 1795; the marriage, in 1609, of Archibald Campbell, seventh Earl of Argyll (the great marquis of the Scottish Covenant), to Ann Cornwallis, daughter of Sir William Cornwallis; and of John. Lowen, the Shakesperian actor, to Joane Hall, widow, by special license -an expensive luxury rare with players. Also the burials of the following persons: September 13, 1570, Edward Allein, "poete to the Queene;" February 17, 1623, Stephen Gosson, rector of this church, and author of The School of Abuse, containing a Pleasant Invective against Poets, Pipers, Plaiers, Jesters, and such like Caterpillars of a Commonwealth, 4to, 1579; June 21, 1628, William, Earl of Devonshire (from whom Devonshire Square adjoining derives its name); and 1691, John Riley, the painter. The churchyard of St. Botolph, Bishopsgate, has been very prettily laid out as a garden, and is now a favourite resort for the young folk of the neighbourhood. The infant school in the churchyard has old figures in costume of a boy and girl.

1 Life, by J. and W. H. Rankine, 1862.

Botolph Lane, BILLINGSGATE, so called from the church of St. Botolph, Billingsgate. The last of the Fitz-Alans, Earls of Arundel, (d. 1579), had a house in this lane. The original London Bridge is said to have abutted on Botolph's Wharf. The church of St. George and St. Botolph is in this lane.

At No. 3

Bouverie Street, FLEET STREET, and WHITEFRIARS. Hazlitt was living on the first floor in 1829.-Life, vol. ii. p. 233. On the west side is the large printing establishment of Messrs. Bradbury and Agnew, and the printing office of Punch, and on the east side the printing offices of the Daily News.

Bow. [See Stratford-le-Bow.]

Bow Church and Bow Bells. [See St. Mary-le-Bow.]

Bow Churchyard, CHEAPSIDE, on the west side of St. Mary-leBow Church, with a passage into Bow Lane. Here John Bacon, R.A., the sculptor, served his apprenticeship to one Crispe, "an eminent maker of porcelain." On the west side of Bow churchyard is the extensive warehouse, a handsome new building, of Messrs. Copestake, Moore, and Co., whose great business was made by the late Mr. George Moore, so widely known as a philanthropist.

Bow Lane, CHEAPSIDE, extends from the church of St. Mary-leBow, whence its name, to Cannon Street, crossing the new Queen Victoria Street. The church of St. Mary, Aldermary, is at its lower end. Originally it was called Cordwainer Street, "of the cordwainers, or shoemakers, dwelling there," "whereof the whole ward taketh name." Afterwards "the upper part of this street towards Cheape was called Hosier Lane, of hosiers dwelling there in place of shoemakers; but now those hosiers being worn out by men of other trades (as the hosiers had worn out the shoemakers), the same is called Bow Lane of Bow Church." 2

In 1532 James Bainham, a barrister of the Middle Temple, having been persuaded by Sir Thomas More to recant, "was never quiet in mind and conscience until the time he had uttered his fall to all his acquaintance, and asked God and all the world forgiveness, before the Congregation, in those days in a warehouse in Bow Lane."Foxe, vol. iv. p. 702.

Eminent Inhabitants.-Tom Coryat, the traveller (d. 1617).3 Parsons, the comedian (d. 1795), was the son of a builder in Bow Lane. 18 Bow Street, COVENT GARDEN, built 1637, and so called ": as running in shape of a bent bow." Strype, who tells us this, adds, that "the street is open and large, with very good houses, well inhabited, and resorted unto by gentry for lodgings, as are most of the other streets in this parish." This was in 1720; and it ceased to be well inhabited about five years afterwards. The Theatre (see Covent Garden


1 Strype, B. ii. p. 171.

2 Stow, p. 94.

3 Birch's Prince Henry, p. 216.

4 Strype, B. vi. p. 93.

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