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The yard of this inn, commonly called the Bull, in Bishopsgate Street, supplied a stage to our early actors before James Burbadge and his fellows obtained a patent from Queen Elizabeth for erecting a permanent building for theatrical entertainments. Tarlton often played here.1 Anthony Bacon (the brother of Francis) lived in Bishopsgate Street, not far from the Bull Inn, to the great concern of his mother, who not only dreaded that the plays and interludes acted at the Bull might corrupt his servants, but on her own son's account objected to the parish, as being without a godly clergyman.

Thursday, April 26, 1649.—This night at the Bull in Bishopsgate there has an alarming mutiny broken out in a troop of Whalley's regiment there. Whalley's men are not allotted for Ireland: but they refuse to quit London as they are ordered: they want this and that first: they seize their colours from the Cornet who is lodged at the Bull there. The General and the Lieutenant-General have to hasten thither; quell them; pack them forth on their march; seizing fifteen of them first to be tried by Court-Martial. Tried by instant Court-Martial, five of them are found guilty, doomed to die, but pardoned; and one of them, Trooper Lockyer, is doomed and not pardoned. Trooper Lockyer is shot in St. Paul's Churchyard on the morrow.— Carlyle's Cromwell, vol. ii. p. 157.

The Inn was pulled down in 1866 to make way for the huge pile of offices called Palmerston Buildings.

Bull Inn, SHOREDITCH. Newton wrote his self-accusatory letter to Locke-a letter which, as he afterwards explained, "when I wrote to you, I had not slept an hour a night for a fortnight together, and for a fortnight together not a wink." "At the Bull Inn, Shoreditch, London, September 16, 1693."

Bull Inn, on TOWER HILL. Otway, the poet, is said to have died here.2 [See Tower Hill.]

Bull Inn Court, STRAND. [See Maiden Lane.]

Bull (The Red). [See Red Bull Theatre.]

Bull and Gate Inn, HOLBORN.

In Holborn we have still the sign of the Bull and Gate, which exhibits but an odd combination of images. It was originally (as I learn from the title-page of an old play) the Bullogne Gate, i.e. one of the Gates of Boulogne, designed, perhaps, as a compliment to Henry VIII., who took that place in 1544. The Boulogne Mouth, now the Bull and Mouth, had probably the same origin, i.e. the mouth of the Harbour of Boulogne.-Geo. Steevens, Shakespeare.

The Boulogne gate was not one of the gates of Boulogne, but of Calais; and is frequently mentioned as such by Hall and Holinshed.-Ritson.

The gates of a fortress are always called after the places to which the roads passing through them lead. In this case there can be little room for doubt. In the Device for the Fortification of Calais, 1532, p. 128, we have: " Item, that the bulwerke before Bolen Gate may be made so that the same may respond and beate the flankes," etc. Whether the Bull and Gate is a corruption of Boulogne Gate is, however, a very different and much more doubtful matter.

1 Collier's Annals, vol. iii. p. 291; and Tarlton's Jests, by Halliwell, pp. 13, 14.
2 Ath. Oxonienses, ed. 1721, vol. ii. p. 782.

Jones at last yielded to the advice of Partridge, and retreated to the Bull and Gate in Holborn, that being the inn where he had first alighted, and where he retired to enjoy that kind of repose which usually attends persons in his circumstances. Tom Jones, B. xiii. c. 2.

Gazetteer, April 18, 1769.-Advertisement for sale. At the Bull and Gate Inn, Holborn, a chesnut Gelding, a Tun of Whisky, and a well-made, good-tempered Black Boy.-P. Hoare's Life of Granville Sharp, 4to, p. 6.

The Bull and Gate, Holborn, has passed away, but there still exists a Bull and Gate, Kentish Town (the starting-place of the Kentish Town omnibuses), a showy tavern, erected in 1878 on the site of a country inn of the same sign of very old standing.

Bull and Mouth, ST. MARTIN'S-LE-GRAND, afterwards the Queen's Hotel, and very foolishly so-called. [See Bull and Gate.]

The Bull and Mouth Inn is large and well built, and of a good resort by those that bring Bone Lace, where the shopkeepers and others come to buy it. And in this part of St. Martin's is a noted meeting-house of the Quakers, called the Bull and Mouth, and where they met long before the Fire.-Strype, B. iii. p. 121.

Ellwood relates in his Autobiography that a Quaker's meeting held at the Bull and Mouth, October 26, 1662, was interrupted by a party of the Trainbands, and the Friends committed to Bridewell.

This, till the railways rose up, was a great London coach-office to all parts of England and Scotland. It was a family and commercial hotel, but is now (1888) cleared away for the new buildings of the General Post Office. There was also a Bull and Mouth Inn in Bloomsbury, of which there is a token in the Beaufoy Collection.

Bull Head Tavern, CHARING CROSS, where Drummond's Bank now stands.

During the writing and publishing of this book [Joannis Philippi Angli Responsio, etc.], he [Milton] lodged at one Thomson's, next door to the Bullhead Tavern at Charing Cross, opening into the Spring Garden.-Philips's Life of Milton, 12mo, 1694, p. 33.

Bull Head Tavern, CHEAPSIDE.

1555. My dear friend, Thomas Ridley, of the Bull Head in Cheap, who has been to me the most faithful friend that I had in my trouble, is departed also.— Bishop Ridley to Grindal, from his Prison at Oxford.

When he [Wilkins, Bishop of Chester] came to London, they [the Royal Society] met at ye Bull-head taverne in Cheapside-e.g. 1658, 1659, and after, till it grew too big for a clubbe, and so they came to Gresham College parlour.—Aubrey, vol. iii. p. 583.

We barred all discourse of divinity, of state affairs, and of news, other than what concerned our business of philosophy. These meetings we removed soon after to the Bull Head in Cheapside.-Wallis's Defence of the Royal Society, 1678, p. 8.

February 12, 1660.-The General [Monk] having done his business at Guildhall, took leave of the citizens, who expressed a very particular satisfaction and confidence in him. And from thence he went to the Bull Head Tavern in Cheapside, where he ordered the quarters of his forces and the settling the guards that night for the security of the city.-Skinner's Life of Monk, p. 251.

No. 3 Bread Street, the third house on the right from Cheapside, is now the Bull Head Inn, no doubt the direct successor of the Bull Head, Cheapside.

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Bull's Head, CLARE MARKET. Here Dr. Radcliffe was often to be found, and here was held the Artists' Club, of which Hogarth was a member. There is a letter of Steele's to his wife from here, August 24, 1710.

Radcliffe was persuaded by Betterton the actor to join with him in a "venture" to the Indies. Betterton contributed £2000 and Radcliffe £5000, but unhappily the ship fell into the hands of the French. "A loss that broke Mr. Betterton's back; but though very considerable did not much affect the Doctor; for when the news of this disaster was brought him to the Bull Head Tavern in Clare Market, where he was drinking with several persons of the first rank, who condoled with him on the occasion, he, with a smiling countenance, and without baulking his glass, desired them to go forward with the healths that were then in vogue, saying he had no more to do but go up 250 pair of stairs to make himself whole again."-Biog. Brit. His usual fee, therefore, must have been twenty guineas. The Bull's Head up to the last year of his life continued to be his favourite resort, and it was here that he received the news of the death of the second Duke of Beaufort, “the only person whom he took pleasure in conversing with, and announced to the company that he now felt it was time to set his own house in order."

Bullock's Museum. [See Egyptian Hall.]

Bulstrake Alley.

John James, a Whitechapel weaver, ministered to a small congregation of Sabbatarian Baptists in a chapel in this place. He proclaimed the tenets of the fifth monarchy men; and on the afternoon of Saturday, October 19, 1661, a magistrate and an attendant visited the service. The preacher was dragged from his pulpit and committed to Newgate, and on Wednesday, November 26, he was executed at Tyburn. The congregation was afterwards under the charge of John Savage, and during his pastorate the chapel was removed to Millyard, Goodman's Fields.1

Bulstrode Street, MANCHESTER SQUARE, leads from Welbeck Street to Marylebone Lane. So called from Bulstrode Park, near Beaconsfield, in Bucks, the seat of William Bentinck, created Earl of Portland by William III., to whom the property belonged on which Bulstrode Street was built.

Bunhill, i.e. BONEHILL, Finsbury, so called from the deposit here of "more than one thousand cart-loads of bones," removed in 1549 from the charnel-house of old St. Paul's by order of the Protector Somerset. In the earliest form of the story of Dick Whittington, it is related that the hero heard Bow bells from Bunhill instead of Highgate as in the later versions.

A kind of large row or street, with houses only on one side; it is on the west side of the Artillery Ground, near Moorfields.-Hatton (in 1708).

He [Milton] died in Bunhill, opposite to the Artillery Ground wall.-Aubrey, Lives, vol. iii. p. 449.

But he [Milton] stay'd not long after his new marriage, ere he removed to a house in the Artillery Walk leading to Bunhill Fields. And this was his last stage in this world.-Philips's Life of Milton, 12mo, 1694, p. 38.

He [Whittington] resolved with himself to run away, and for that purpose he had

1 Pike's Ancient Meeting-Houses, pp. 194, 200, 201.

bundled up those few clothes which he had, and before day broke was got as far as Bun-hill, and then he sat down to consider with himself what course he were best to take, where, by chance (it being All-hallows day), a merry peal from Bow Church began to ring, and as he apprehended, they were tim'd to the ditty

Turn again Whittington, Lord Mayor of London.

Famous and Remarkable History of Sir Richard Whittington, by T. H, reprinted 1885 (Villon Society), p. 11.

"1

Bunhill Fields Burial Ground, CITY ROAD, near FINSBURY SQUARE, "the Campo Santo of the Dissenters," one of three great fields originally appertaining to the manor of Finsbury Farm, and described in a Survey of December 30, 1567.2 These three fields were named "Bonhill Field," "Mallow Field," and the "High Field or Meadow Ground where the three windmills stand, commonly called Finsbury Field." [See Windmill Street.] "Bonhill Field" contained 23 acres, I rod and 6 poles, "butting upon Chiswell Street on the south, and on the north upon the highway that leadeth from Wenlock's Barn to the well called Dame Agnes the Cleere." [See St. Agnes le Clair.]

At the period of the Great Plague of 1665 the ground was set apart for the burial of the victims, but it was not so used, and it is a mistake to connect it with "the great pit in Finsbury" mentioned by Defoe in his Memoirs of the Plague. This pit was situated near the upper end of Goswell Street. Subsequently the ground was leased by several of the great Dissenting sects, who conscientiously objected to the burial service in the Book of Common Prayer. What stipulation was made with the City is unknown, but here the interments of the Dissenters from this time forward took place. It was at one time leased to a person of the name of Tindal, when it was known as Tindal's BuryingGround, Anthony à Wood describing it in his Athenæ (vol. ii. p. 747) as "the fanatical burying-place called by some Tyndal's burying-place." The office of keeper of the ground is still in the gift of the Court of Common Council.

From 1665 to 1832, when the ground was closed, 123,000 bodies were registered as buried here, and although only 5000 tombs are now discoverable, it is found that vaults are lying buried at depths varying from 6 feet to 12 feet beneath the surface. Some of these, on account of their historic influence, have been raised, but many more must continue to lie for ever out of sight.-Sir C. Reed, M.P., Chairman of the Bunhill Fields Preservation Committee.

For some years the cemetery was neglected, but in 1867-1868 the efforts of the Preservation Committee having proved successful, the ground was put in order and planted, and the tombs and tombstones carefully arranged. It was opened to the public October 14, 1869. A plan of the ground and a record of every name and inscription were made and deposited in the Library, Guildhall. That portion of the burial-ground which belonged to the Society of Friends, and in which many of their most distinguished members were buried, was less considerately treated. Eminent Persons interred in.— 2 Strype, B. iv. p. 101.

1 Southey's Life of John Bunyan.

Dr. Thomas Goodwin (d. 1679) (altar tomb, east end of ground), the Independent preacher who attended Oliver Cromwell on his death-bed. Dr. John Owen (d. 1683), Dean of Christ Church, and Vice-Chancellor of Oxford when Cromwell was Chancellor. He was much in favour with his party, and preached the first sermon before the Parliament after the execution of Charles I. John Bunyan, author of the Pilgrim's Progress, died 1688 at the house of his friend, Mr. Strudwick, a grocer, at the Star on Snow Hill, and was buried in that friend's vault in Bunhill Fields burial-ground. The grave was restored by public subscription in 1862, and this fact is noted in the inscription upon the tomb. His name is not recorded in the Register, and there was no inscription upon his grave when Curll published his Bunhill Field Inscriptions, in 1717, or Strype his edition of Stow, in 1720.

It is said that many have made it their desire to be interred as near as possible to the spot where his remains are deposited.—Southey's Life of Bunyan. Lieutenant-General Charles Fleetwood (d. 1692), Lord Deputy Fleetwood of the civil wars, Oliver Cromwell's son-in-law, and husband of the widow of the gloomy Ireton; there was a monument to his memory in Strype's time, since obliterated or removed. Dr. Daniel Williams (d. 1716), founder of the Library in Redcross Street (removed in 1872 to Grafton Street, Tottenham Court Road) which bears his name. John Dunton, bookseller, author of his own Life and Errors. George Whitehead, author of the Christian Progress of George Whitehead (1725). Daniel Defoe (d. 1731), author of Robinson Crusoe. He was born (1661) in the parish of St. Giles's, Cripplegate, and, dying in Rope-Makers Alley in Moorfields, was buried in the great pit of Finsbury, which he has described in his Plague Year with such terrific reality. How bare and ignorant is the entry of his burial :

1731, April 26. Mr. Dubow, Cripplegate.

In the Journal of the Plague he had stated by anticipation where his resting-place would be.

N.B.-The Author of this Journal lies buried in that very Ground, being at his own desire, his sister having been buried there three or four years before.

A monument was erected to Defoe in 1870.

interred in the same grave (spot unknown).

His second wife was

Dec. 19th, 1732. Mrs. Defow, Stoke-Newington.

mother of of Charles There is a

John Ward, LL.D., author of Lives of the Gresham Professors (d. 1758).
Dr. Richard Price, the great statistician (d. April 19, 1791). Susannah
Wesley (d. 1742), wife of the Rev. Samuel Wesley, and
John Wesley, founder of the people called Methodists, and
Wesley, the first person who was called a Methodist.
headstone to her memory. Dr. Isaac Watts (d. 1748).
monument to his memory, near the centre of the ground.
Kippis (d. October 8, 1795), editor of the Biographia Britannica.
Joseph Ritson, the antiquary (d. 1803), buried near his friend Baynes;

There is a Dr. Andrew

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