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the spot unmarked. Rev. Theophilus Lindsey, founder of Essex Street Unitarian Chapel (d. 1808). Dr. Abraham Rees (d. June 9, 1825), editor of Rees's Cyclopædia. William Blake, the painter and poet (d. 1828), at the distance of about 25 feet from the north wall in the grave numbered 80. Thomas Hardy (d. 1832), Secretary to, and one of the three who commenced the London Corresponding Society, but best known by his trial for treason in company (1794) with John Horne Tooke; monument near the street rails, designed by John W. Papworth. Thomas Stothard, R.A. (d. 1834), best known by his Canterbury Pilgrimage, his illustrations to Robinson Crusoe, and to the Italy and smaller poems of Rogers.
In the Quakers' burying-ground, George Fox (d. Jan. 13, 16901691), founder of the Society of Friends. It has been erroneously stated that he was buried in the regular burying-ground. Daniel Quare, clockmaker, inventor of the repeating movement in watches (buried March 30, 1724).
Burford's Panorama, LEICESTER SQUARE, was situated at the north-east corner of the square. It occupied part of the site of Dibdin's Theatre, the Sans Souci, before which there stood here a public-house bearing the sign of the Feathers, in compliment to the Prince of Wales. The building was erected in 1793, and contained three circular rooms, the largest being 90 feet in diameter and 40 in height. Robert Barker was the inventor of the panorama, and took out a patent for his invention. The first painting (a semicircle) was of Edinburgh, and was exhibited in 1789 at No. 28 Haymarket. The exhibition was removed to 28 Castle Street in 1791 and to Leicester Square in 1793. Robert Barker (d. 1806) was succeeded by his son, Henry Aston Barker. On his retirement John Burford, his pupil, became painter and proprietor, and was succeeded by his son, Robert Burford, the last proprietor, who died at 35 Camden Road Villas, January 30, 1861. The views, chiefly of famous scenes or cities, were painted on the inner surface of a hollow cylinder, the spectators sitting or standing in a detached central platform. After the panorama was closed the place was used for a penny news-room and by a club for Red Republicans and Socialists, Dr. Bernard being one of the members. It has now been converted into a Roman Catholic church of the Marist Fathers, dedicated to "Notre Dame de France." Attached to the church is a mission of Les Soeurs de Charité Française.
Burleigh House, STRAND. [See Cecil House.]
Burleigh Street, on the north side of the STRAND, leading to Tavistock Street, built 1678 on the site of Cecil, Burleigh, or Exeter House, the town residence of Sir William Cecil, the great Lord Burleigh, and of his eldest son, Thomas, afterwards Earl of Exeter. St. Michael's Church in this street was erected in 1833 from the designs of Mr. James Savage, architect.
Burlington Arcade, a covered street or avenue of shops, lighted from above by sky-lights, lies west of Burlington House, between Piccadilly and Burlington House Gardens. It was designed, 1818-1819, for Lord George Cavendish by Samuel Ware, architect.
Burlington Gardens, or rather, BURLINGTON HOUSE GARDENS, on a portion of which several scattered houses known as Burlington Gardens were built, in pursuance of an Act of Parliament passed in 1718 [see Maddox Street], the roadway being, however, still called Vigo Lane. [See Vigo Street.] Gay's Duchess of Queensbury lived in that part of Burlington Gardens on which Uxbridge House now stands, and it was in this house that Gay was residing in 1729, just after the publication of the Beggars' Opera, when he had an illness which brought him to the edge of the grave, and from which he was only rescued by the skill and devoted attention of Arbuthnot.1 He lived, however, but a little over three years longer, dying here December II, 1732. Uxbridge House is now the Western Branch of the Bank of England. On the south side of Burlington Gardens is the University of London.
Burlington House, PICCADILLY, between Bond Street and Sackville Street. The first house so called was built for Richard Boyle, second Earl of Cork and first Earl of Burlington.
When asked why he built his house so far out of town, he replied, because he was determined to have no building beyond him.-Horace Walpole.
It has been objected that the same story is told of Peterborough House, Millbank, and of other houses, and never could have been said with any justice of Burlington House, because Clarendon House and Berkeley House were building to the west of it at the very same time. But Lord Burlington spoke with reference not to the west but to the north side, of which Strype (1720) says, "The spacious garden behind faces the fields, and from thence receives a fresh and wholesome air."
February 20, 1664-1665.-Next that [Lord Clarendon's] is my Lord Barkeley beginning another on one side, and Sir J. Denham on the other.-Pepys.
September 28, 1668.-Thence to my Lord Burlington's house, the first time I ever was there, it being the house built by Sir John Denham next to Clarendon House.-Pepys.
It is not altogether clear, from these passages in Pepys, whether the house was built by Denham for himself, or for Lord Burlington; no doubt the latter. Denham, at this time, was Surveyor to the Crownan office of importance, held by Inigo Jones before him and by Sir Christopher Wren after him. He knew little or nothing of architecture, but will be remembered by his poem of Cooper's Hill. The house, which was plain and neat and well proportioned, was probably designed by John Webb, under Denham.2
In June 1660 Webb petitioned the King for the place of Surveyor of Works, and he obtained a grant in reversion after Denham. 66 In his petition he wrote: Though
1 Arbuthnot's Letter to Swift, March 19, 1729. VOL. I
2 Of this first house there is a view by Kip.
Mr. Denham may, as most gentry have, some knowledge of the theory of architecture, he can have none of the practice, but must employ another, whereas Webb has spent 30 years in it and worked for most of the nobility.-Cal. State Pap., 16601661, p. 76.
Lord Burlington, the architect, great grandson of the first Earl, made it into a mansion by a new front, taken from the palace of Count Chiericati at Vicenza by Palladio, and the addition of a grand colonnade behind what Ralph has called "the most expensive wall in England." This is the second and in part the present house.
As we have few samples of architecture more antique and imposing than that colonnade, I cannot help mentioning the effect it had on myself. I had not only never seen it, but had never heard of it, at least with any attention, when, soon after my return from Italy, I was invited to a ball at Burlington House. As I passed under the gate by night, it could not strike me. At daybreak, looking out of the windows to see the sun rise, I was surprised with the vision of the colonnade that fronted me. It seemed one of those edifices in fairy tales that are raised by genii in a night-time.-Horace Walpole.
Sir William Chambers pronounced the colonnade "one of the finest pieces of architecture in England." The designs of the porch, the colonnade and gateway were claimed by Colen Campbell, an architect of some skill, employed by Lord Burlington. Walpole thought the design too good to be Campbell's. But Lord Burlington is not known to have urged his own right, and the claim was made in so famous a book as the Vitruvius Britannicus (vol. iii., 1725), and what is more, in his lordship's lifetime.
The walls and some ceilings were painted by Marco and Sebastian Ricci and Sir James Thornhill for the Earl of Burlington, who died in 1753, when the title became extinct, and Burlington House became the property of the Dukes of Devonshire, owing to the marriage in 1748 of William, Marquis of Hartington, afterwards fourth Duke of Devonshire, to Charlotte, the youngest of the three daughters of the Earl of Burlington. In the year 1815 the house was sold by the Duke of Devonshire for £75,000 to his uncle, Lord George Cavendish (afterwards Earl of Burlington), son of William, fourth Duke of Devonshire, and grandson of the amateur architect.
A print by Hogarth, called "The Man of Taste, containing a view of Burlington Gate," represents Kent on the summit in his threefold capacity of painter, sculptor, and architect, flourishing his palette and pencils over the heads of his astonished supporters, Michelangelo and Raphael. On a scaffold, a little lower down, Pope stands, whitewashing the front, and while he makes the pilasters of the gateway clean, his wet brush bespatters the Duke of Chandos, who is passing by; Lord Burlington serves the poet in the capacity of a labourer, and the date of the print is 1731. Kent was patronised by Lord Burlington, and died in this house, April 12, 1748. He was buried in Lord Burlington's vault at Chiswick. Handel lived for three years in this house.1 Gay was also a frequent visitor.
1 Hawkins's History of Music.
Burlington's fair palace still remains :
There Handel strikes the strings, the melting strain
The Duke of Portland, when Minister in the reign of George III., resided in Burlington House.
The Duke of Bedford [Francis, d. 1802] had been during the revolutionary war a steady supporter of Fox. Having been invited, before its commencement, to a meeting at Burlington House, where the Duke of Portland had assembled some of the chiefs of the Whig party, he asked, before the business commenced, whether Fox was expected. Upon being told he was not expected, the Duke said, "Then I am sure I have no business here!" and taking up his hat left the house. -Earl Russell's Life and Times of C. J. Fox, vol. iii. p. 240.
In 1854 Burlington House was purchased of the Cavendishes by the Government for £140,000, with a view to the erection of a new National Gallery on the site. But the objections both in Parliament and out of doors to its removal from Trafalgar Square were so formidable that the intention was abandoned. The University of London was allowed the temporary use of the building, but in 1857 the Government, wishing to obtain the whole of Somerset House for its own use as offices, offered apartments in Burlington House to the Royal Society, the Society of Antiquaries, the Geological Society, and the Royal Astronomical Society, but the Royal Society alone accepted the offer. When the Royal Society took possession of the mansion they found that there was more room than they required, and therefore intimated to the Linnæan and Chemical Societies that an application to Government for accommodation would most probably be successful. On the occupation of the house by the three societies, the University of London was removed into the east wing. The west wing, which was fitted up as kitchens and servants' bedrooms, was altered into a meeting-room for the Royal Society, and another room, connecting this with the house, was built. These rooms were also used by the University for their examinations. In 1866 the Government leased the mansion to the Royal Academy, and also the ground between it and the University. The splendid series of Exhibition Rooms with which every one is familiar were then erected, the architect being the late Mr. Sydney Smirke, R.A. The exhibitions were held in these rooms several years before the Royal Academy took possession of the main building. In 1873 a storey with niches for statues of Phidias, Apelles, Flaxman, Raphael, Michelangelo, Titian, and Reynolds, was added; behind this was built an exhibition gallery for the diploma pictures, etc.
To make room for the societies the famous colonnade,1 the only 1 The stones were numbered and stored in Battersea Park, with the ultimate object of being re-erected in some appropriate spot.
really beautiful and distinctive feature of the second or Old Burlington House, was swept away in 1866, and substantial wings took its place, while facing Piccadilly was erected a large and lofty New Burlington House-the whole now forming a spacious quadrangle. This New Burlington House, of which Messrs. Banks and Barry were the architects, is a very rich classic Italian edifice of three storeys, the centre being raised a storey higher, and giving access to the building by a lofty archway. That part of the Piccadilly building east of the entrance is appropriated to the Geological and Chemical Societies, the western half to the Linnæan Society. The Royal Society has the east wing, in which is a splendid suite of rooms for the President's soirees, etc. The larger part of the west wing-in which also are some very fine rooms-is appropriated to the Society of Antiquaries, the remainder to the Royal Astronomical Society. The apartments of each society form a distinct house. The new buildings generally were completed, and possession for the most part given to the several societies, between the years 1872 and 1874.
On the garden ground in the rear of Old Burlington House, between it and Burlington Gardens, was erected, 1866-1868, the University of London, a noble and stately pile, the masterwork of Sir James Pennethorne, and one of the best specimens of recent London street architecture. [See Royal Academy, University of London, and the several societies.]
Burlington Street (New) runs from Savile Row to Regent Street, originally called Little Burlington Street. It was in this street that brass name-plates were first fixed on house doors.
1763.-The nobility and gentry at the west end of the town came to a resolution of affixing the names of several lanes and streets in conspicuous places, and by [of] putting their titles or names upon their gates or doors: those of New Burlington Street set the example, and affixed their titles or names upon the doors, engraved on a small brass plate. Most of the streets about Hanover Square followed the example, and the mode was afterwards generally adopted.-Hughson's London, vol. i. p. 537.
In 1771 Sir Joseph Banks, on returning from his voyage to the Pacific laden with "rarities," took a house in New Burlington Street.1 Here in 1840 died the Countess of Cork, better known as Miss Monckton; the last of the blue stockings, "the first Englishwoman of rank," writes Mr. A. Hayward, "who threw open her house to literature, or made intellectual distinction a recognised passport to society." No. 8 is Messrs. Richard Bentley and Sons, the publishers; No. II, Messrs. Churchill, the medical publishers.
In Little Burlington Street was Squib's Auction Room, which Lord Barrymore converted into a theatre: and here "last night . . . Lord B., his sister, Lady Caroline, and Mrs. Goodal, the actress, were performing the Beaux Stratagem."H. Walpole to Miss Berry, July 23, 1790.
This house is occupied by Squib's successors, Messrs. Rushworth and
1 Delany, vol. ii. p. 488.