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Cambridge Street, HYDE PARK. At No. 13 died, April 30, 1855, Sir Henry R. Bishop, the celebrated musical composer.

Camden Town, in the parish of St. Pancras, between Somers Town and Kentish Town, was so called (but indirectly) after William Camden, author of the Britannia. Charles Pratt, Attorney-General and Lord Chancellor in the reign of George III., created, in 1765, Baron Camden of Camden Place in Kent, derived his title from his seat near Chiselhurst in Kent, formerly the residence of William Camden the historian. His lordship, who died in 1794, married the daughter and co-heir of Nicholas Jeffreys, Esq., son and heir of Sir Geoffrey Jeffreys of Brecknock; and his lordship's eldest son was created, in 1812, Earl of Brecknock and Marquis Camden. Another title of Lord Camden's was Viscount Bayham; and all these names, Pratt, Jeffreys, Brecknock, and Bayham, may be found in Camden Town. Camden Town was begun in 1791, Somers Town in 1786.1

June 8, 1791.-There will soon be one street from London to Brentford; ay, and from London to every village ten miles round. Lord Camden has just let ground at Kentish Town for building fourteen hundred houses, nor do I wonder; London is, I am certain, much fuller than ever I saw it.-H. Walpole to Miss Berry, vol. ix. p. 324.

The Mother Red Cap, at the end of High Street, was long the stopping place of omnibuses, but within the last few years the yard in front has been built over and the building brought forward to the road.

Orders have been given from the Secretary of State's Office that the criminals, capitally convicted at the Old Bailey, shall in future be executed at the cross road near the Mother Red Cap—the half-way house to Hampstead, and that no galleries, scaffold, or other temporary stages be built near the place.—Morning Post, 1776 (quoted in Palmer's St. Pancras).

The sign is said to have been set up in 1676, and to be a representation of a noted character known by the name of Mother DamnableSo fam'd both far and near, is the renown Of Mother Damnable of Kentish Town; Wherefore this symbol of the cat's we'll give her, Because so curst, a dog would not dwell with her.

Portraits and Lives of Remarkable and Eccentric Characters, 1819, quoted in Notes and Queries, Ist S. vol. v. p. 255.

The first church built in Camden Town was St. Stephen's, Camden Street, completed in 1824, by Mr. W. Inwood, the architect of the New St. Pancras Church, and like that pseudo-Greek in style, with an Ionic portico. In College Street is the Royal Veterinary College, instituted in 1791. The North London Collegiate School in Camden High Street, and the North London Collegiate School for girls in Sandall Road, Camden Road, are large and flourishing institutions. At the south end of the High Street is a marble statue, 8 feet high, of Richard Cobden, erected by subscription in 1868.

In the burying-ground in Pratt Street, belonging to the parish of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, Charles Dibdin, the song writer, is buried. There is a monument to his memory. Here also were buried Hugh Hewson

1 Lysons, Environs, vol. iii. p. 366.

(d. 1809, aged eighty-five), said to have been the original of Smollett's Hugh Strap in Roderick Random. Roger Payne, bookbinder (d. 1787), in 1801. Michael Angelo Rooker, A.R.A., famous engraver; and (1848) Sir John Barrow, Bart., whose name is intimately connected with the voyages of Parry, Franklin, and Ross. It is now disused, and a portion of it has been built over. The North-Western Railway has its extensive goods depôt and station at the north-western extremity of Camden Town, and there are stations of the Midland and the North London lines.

It will be noticed that the houses on the east side of High Street are of a superior character to those on the west side. The former. were built as a terrace overlooking the country, and no buildings on the other side of the road were allowed to be raised above a certain height, so as to obstruct the view. A large block of old houses on the east side of High Street, and south of the Red Cap, have been pulled down (1888) for rebuilding. Camden Road, the broad road from the Red Cap at the top of High Street to Holloway, was formed under an Act of Parliament (5 Geo. IV. c. 138) passed in 1825.

Camelford House, PARK LANE (Oxford Street end), was inhabited for some time by the Princess Charlotte and her husband, Prince Leopold (afterwards first King of the Belgians). Lord Grenville was living in it at the time of Pitt's death. The entrance from Oxford Street is mean, and the house itself dowdy. There is but one staircase, and that narrow and low. The courtyard is completely exposed to Hereford Street.

Camomile Street, BISHOPSGATE, from opposite Wormwood Street to St. Mary Axe. Follows the line of the old wall of London to the east, as Wormwood Street does to the west. In recent excavations for the foundations of some large warehouses in Camomile Street portions of a bastion and other vestiges of the wall were found; and in the early part of the last century, on taking down some houses in this street, a tessellated pavement was discovered, and 4 feet below it were funeral urns containing bones and ashes. A tablet on the front of the house at the north-east corner of Camomile Street records that here stood Bishops Gate.

Campden Hill, KENSINGTON, midway between Kensington Palace and Holland House, so called from Campden House, built about 1612 by Sir Baptist Hicks, afterwards Viscount Campden. Baptist Noel, third Lord Campden, entertained Charles II. here a fortnight after his restoration. Montague Bertie, Earl of Lindsey, died at Campden House in 1666. It was hired by the Princess (afterwards Queen) Anne in 1691, and she with her son, the Duke of Gloucester, lived in it for about five years. Early in the 18th century it was in the occupation of the Countess Dowager of Burlington and her son, the architect Earl. Savery's engine was shown at Campden House in 1718.— Galloway's Steam Engine, p. 67. Lord Lechmere lived here about

1721.

Back in the dark, by Brompton Park

He turned up thro' the Gore,
So slunk to Campden House so high,
All in his coach and four.

Swift's Ballad of Duke and no Duke.

At the end of the century it is spoken of as having "been for many years an eminent boarding-school for young ladies," 1 and was perhaps the most celebrated in the neighbourhood of London. In 1775, when George Selwyn was making inquiries about a school for Mie Mie, Mrs. Stevenson's in Queen Square was highly recommended; but Mrs. Terry's at Campden House carried the day. The children of Topham. Beauclerk and Lady Di were also here. During its tenure as a school the old mansion was greatly altered. The pierced parapet and other Jacobean ornaments were for the most part removed and the front covered with stucco, and all that was most characteristic in the interior was swept away or covered over. The house was burnt down on Sunday, March 23, 1862. The fire was the cause of a long action between Mr. Woolley, the owner, and the Sun Fire Office. It was rebuilt by the office in facsimile as near as possible. Argyll Lodge is the London residence of the Duke of Argyll. Holly Lodge, close by it, was the last dwelling of Lord Macaulay.

Holly Lodge occupies the most secluded corner of the little labyrinth of byeroads, which, bounded to the east by Palace Gardens and to the west by Holland House, constitutes the district known by the name of Campden Hill. The villa, for a villa it is, stands in a long and winding lane. The only entrance for carriages was at the end of the lane farthest from Holly Lodge; and Macaulay had no one living beyond him except the Duke of Argyll, who loved quiet as much as himself. . . The rooms in Holly Lodge were for the most part small. . . . But the house afforded in perfection the two requisites for an author's ideal of happinessa library and a garden. The library was a spacious and commodiously adapted room, enlarged after the old fashion by a pillared recess. It was a warm and airy retreat in winter; and in summer a student found only too irresistible an inducement to step from among his bookshelves on to a lawn whose unbroken slope of verdure was worthy of the country-house of a Lord-Lieutenant.-Trevelyan, Life of Lord Macaulay, vol. ii. p. 296.

In this pleasant library, his almost constant abode in these last years, he died, December 28, 1859. The name was changed to Airlie Lodge on becoming the residence of the late Earl of Airlie, but since Lord Airlie's death it has again became Holly Lodge. At Little Campden House lived Alfred Wigan, the actor. In the modern villas on the summit and slopes of the hill nestle a little colony of artists. Here was the observatory of Sir James South, and here were carried out the observations and investigations which gave South a high place among contemporary astronomers. He died here, October 19, 1867, aged eighty-two. On the hill-top are the Grand Junction Water

Works.

Canbray, or Cambray House, a vulgar name for Canonbury

House.

VOL. I

1 Lysons, vol. ii. p. 506.

Y

Cancer Hospital, FULHAM ROAD, established in 1851 to relieve and cure poor persons suffering from cancer. There is accommodation for 120 in-patients; and upwards of 28,000 persons have been treated since the foundation of the hospital. The original building was erected 1858-1859 by Messrs. Young and Son. It was reconstructed and enlarged in 1884-1885 under the superintendence of Mr. Alexander Graham, architect.

Candlewick Street, now Cannon Street, City [which see].

Candlewright, or Candlewick Street, took that name, as may be supposed, either of chandlers, or makers of candles, both of wax and tallow; for candlewright is a maker of candles-or of "wick," which is the cotton or yarn thereof or otherwise “wike,” which is the place where they used to work them, as Scalding Wike, by the Stock's Market, was called of the poulterers scalding and dressing their poultry there; and in divers countries, dairy houses or cottages wherein they make butter and cheese, are usually called wicks.-Stow, p. 82.

Candelwykestrete occurs in a Coroner's Roll of 4 Edw. I. 1276. May 23, 1611.-Grant to Thomas Brugg and his heirs of the King's reversion of a messuage in Candlewick Street, near Eastcheap.-Cal. State Pap., 1611-1618. [See Cannon Street.]

Candlewick or Candlewright Street Ward, one of the twenty-six wards of London, of which the more interesting features were destroyed to make way for the new London Bridge approaches. It is of very irregular outline, but may be roughly said to lie between the west end of King William Street and Clements Lane and Arthur Street West. Stow enumerates five churches in this ward-St. Clement's, Eastcheap; St. Lawrence Pountney (destroyed in the Great Fire, and not rebuilt); St. Mary Abchurch; St. Martin Orgars (destroyed in the Great Fire); and St. Michael's, Crooked Lane, taken down for the new London Bridge approaches.

Canning Town, a populous river-side district of recent growth, formed on the marshy tract known as Plaistow Level, to the east of the Lea river, near its mouth, and between the Barking Road and the Thames. With the construction here (1851, etc.) of the Victoria Docks, the Thames iron works and shipbuilding yards, and various chemical and manufacturing establishments, a large population was rapidly collected on this naturally moist and unwholesome spot, for whose accommodation hundreds of fragile and unhealthy dwellings were hastily run up, and a long, straggling, shapeless town sprang into existence, dirty, ill-built, ill-drained, much as it was described in Dickens's London over the Border. Since then much improvement has taken place. The district is better drained, sanitary supervision has been provided, better houses have been built, and the wellbeing of the inhabitants is more looked after, though it is still, of course, far from being an attractive locality. The Victoria Docks has a water area of 100 acres, with a depth sufficient for ships of the heaviest burden; is encircled by a railway, and has a complete system of hydraulic appliances. [See Victoria Docks.] Connected with the docks are

large graving docks and a custom-house, and the Great Eastern, Great Northern, North-Western and Midland Railway Companies have each their goods department. In the district are iron and engineering works, shipwrights' yards, sulphuric acid, creosote, chemical and artificial manure works, as well as manufactories of electric cables and telegraph appliances, and numerous other works. Three churches and a great many chapels minister to the spiritual wants of the community, and there appears to be an adequate supply of schools. The Victoria Docks and North Woolwich Branch of the Great Eastern Railway with which the North London and the Blackwall lines are in connection-traverses the entire length of Canning Town and has three stations there.

Cannon Street, WATLING STREET-correctly Candlewick Street, from Candlewick Ward-ran originally from Watling Street to near London Bridge, and was the earliest highway through the City. Pursuant to an Act of Parliament, 10 & 11 Vict., it was, in 1853-1854, widened and extended westward to St. Paul's Churchyard, at a cost of £200,000, and is now one of the finest streets in the City. Many of the new warehouses and blocks of offices are very large and fine buildings. On the south side of Cannon Street are the South-Eastern Railway Terminus and Terminus Hotel, and the Mansion House Station of the Metropolitan District Railway. On the north side are Cordwainers' Hall; the churches of St. Mary Aldermary and St. Swithin, and the London Stone. [See the last four headings.] A scene in the second part of King Henry VI. is laid in this street.

Cannon Street Railway Station, Hotel and Bridge. The City Terminus of the South-Eastern Railway has a frontage of 200 feet to the river and somewhat more to Cannon Street, covering the entire site of the ancient Steelyard together with some adjacent property. The platform area is covered with a vast semicircular iron and glass roof of 140 feet span. Beneath are extensive ranges of vaults. The Cannon Street front is occupied by a large and handsome Italian edifice erected in 1865 from the designs of Mr. E. M. Barry, the ground floor being used for the railway booking offices, etc., and the upper part as a first-class hotel. In general character the building closely resembles the Charing Cross Station and Hotel, the chief difference in the arrangements being the provision in the Cannon Street Hotel of a City restaurant, and a great room for meetings of companies, public dinners, etc. The railway signals and telegraphing arrangements at the Cannon Street Station are perhaps the most perfect in the kingdom. The Bridge which here carries the South-Eastern Railway across the Thames is an iron girder bridge of five spans, the three central spans being each 167 feet, the side spans each 135 feet. The platform rests on brick abutments at either end, and sixteen enormous iron cylinders filled with concrete cement below the water level and brick above, in series of fours, set behind each other so as to offer as

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