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1827 a move was made to No. 67 Lincoln's Inn Fields (Powis or Newcastle House), and in November 1879 new premises in Northumberland Avenue were occupied, having been built at a cost of about £100,000, out of a fund available for that purpose. The society makes grants to promote religious instruction in national schools, and for the training of teachers in such schools. It makes provision for the spiritual care of emigrants, both on the voyage and after arrival at their destination. Although it no longer sends out its own missionaries grants of money are made for the support of foreign missions. During the year 1887-1888, 1776 grants of books were made to various agencies at home and abroad, the total value amounting to £8000. In addition to what may be termed the evangelising work of the society, a large publishing and literary business is carried on, and during 1887-1888 no less than 5,258,000 bound books, other than Bibles and Prayer Books, were circulated. The profits upon this branch of the business, which in 1887-1888 was £6600, is handed over to the general fund of the society. The books deal with a great variety of subjects, including works upon science, literature, history, children's books, and works of fiction, the charter, especially of late years, having been interpreted in an extremely liberal manner. The income of the society during 1887-1888 amounted to £31,520 from subscriptions, donations, legacies, and dividends. The minutes of the society for the years 1698-1704 have been published under the title of "A Chapter of English Church History," edited by the Rev. E. M'Clure (1888).,

Christopher (St.) Le Stocks, THREADNEEDLE STREET, a church in Broad Street Ward, taken down when the Bank of England was enlarged in 1781. Part of the church escaped the Great Fire, and was repaired by Sir Christopher Wren in 1671. It was again "repaired and beautified" in 1696.1 The garden with the fountain within the Bank of England marks the site of the burial-ground attached to this church. The last interment here was that of Jenkins, a bank clerk, 7 feet 6 inches in height. His body was allowed to be buried within the bank to prevent the temptation and possibility of disinterment. church of the parish is St. Margaret's, Lothbury.

Christopher Street, HATTON GARDEN, the extension of that street to Back Hill, so called after Sir Christopher Hatton, Queen Elizabeth's Lord Chancellor. It has been rebuilt and renamed Hatton Garden.

Church Street, CHELSEA, leading up from Chelsea Church to the King's Road, and from the King's Road to Brompton. In its distinguished days, when celebrated men lived in its houses, it was known as Church Lane. Thomas Shadwell (1640-1692), poet-laureate, Dryden's "MacFlecknoe," died in this street. His son, Sir John Shadwell, F.R.S., physician to Queen Anne, George I. and George II. 1 There is a view of the church and the old building for the Bank in Dodsley's London and its Environs, vol. i. p. 234.

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lived in the house inhabited by Dr. Arbuthnot, wit, court physician, and physician to Chelsea Hospital. Swift lived opposite, having gone there in 1711 for the benefit of his health. Dr. Atterbury, Dean of Carlisle, afterwards Bishop of Rochester and Dean of Westminster, lived close by. The rectory was also in the lane.

We can form a tolerable idea of what Church Lane was in Swift's time. It consisted of houses which were not then considered small. Bowack, to whom we are indebted for some topographical notes on the neighbourhood, rented one of them, for which he paid fourteen pounds a year. The road was then much lower than it is at present, so that we now go down one or two steps into some of the houses on the east side.-L'Estrange's Village of Palaces, 1880, vol. ii. p. 165.

Church Street, SOHO, built circ. 1679, and so called after the Greek Church in Soho Fields. [See Greek Street.] Jean Paul Marat, the revolutionary monster assassinated in 1793 by Charlotte Corday, was living here in 1776, in which year he published An Inquiry into the Nature, Cause, and Cure of a singular Disease of the Eye, by J. P. Marat, M.D., which is dated from "Church Street, Soho."

Cider Cellars, MAIDEN LANE. [See Maiden Lane.]

Circus Road, ST. JOHN'S WOOD, from Grove End Road to St. John's Wood Terrace. At No. 26 Douglas Jerrold was living about 1853-from leaving Putney till his removal to Kilburn. No. 23 was the residence of Prince Louis Napoleon for some time before the return to Paris (1848), which eventually made him Napoleon III.

Cirencester Place was the former name of the north end of Great Titchfield Street. The name, which was abolished in 1872, was taken from the Duke of Portland's title of Lord Cirencester.

City (The), the general name for London within the gates and within the bars. Originally the City of London was wholly within the wall, which served at once for defence and boundary. Dwellers within the wall were citizens, those without foreigners. But as the wall became too restricted a boundary for the increased trade and population dwellers within defined districts outside the wall were recognised as citizens. Generally these districts were annexed to the nearest wards, and designated Without, as Farringdon Without, Cripplegate Without, Bishopsgate Without. As the gates marked the boundary wall of the City, bars were set up to mark the limits of the liberties on the great thoroughfares leading from them. Thus, as Ludgate marked the western boundary of the City within the wall, Temple Bar marked the western limit of the City liberties without the wall; with Newgate corresponded Holborn Bar; on the north-west were Smithfield Bars, beyond Aldersgate was Aldersgate Bar, Bishopsgate, the bars at Spitalfields; and Aldgate, Whitechapel Bars, by Petticoat Lane, the boundary of the City on the east. On the south the Thames served as the boundary of the City within the wall; the borough of Southwark being an out-liberty under the designation of Bridge Ward Without. The City is divided into twenty-six wards, each of which is presided

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over by an alderman, elected by the ratepayers. From the aldermen a lord mayor is elected annually by the Common Council; as a rule the senior alderman "below the chair "-i.e. who has not served the officebeing chosen. Two sheriffs-for London and Middlesex-are elected annually by the Livery in Common Hall. A Court of Common Council of 206 members are chosen annually as representatives of the several wards at a wardmote, called for the purpose, the Courts of Aldermen and Common Council serving as the Houses of Lords and Commons for the government of the City. The Corporation of London thus consists of a Lord Mayor, Sheriffs, Aldermen, Common Council and Livery. The chief officers are a Recorder, Common Sergeant, Chamberlain, Remembrancer, Comptroller, Town Clerk, etc. The City returns four members to the House of Commons. From the steadily increasing habit of the citizens having their dwelling-houses in the west end or suburbs of London, and only resorting to the City during business hours, the population as returned by the census officers-that is the number of persons sleeping in the City-has shown a marked decrease in each of the last five decennial periods. In 1841 it was 125,008; in 1851, 122,440; in 1861, 112,063; in 1871, 74,897, and in 1881 only 50,526. But a day census, taken by order of the Corporation about a month after the general census of 1881, showed that the bankers, merchants, traders, clerks and others regularly occupied during the day (5 A.M. to 9 P.M.) in their respective avocations in the City amounted to 739,640. The City has its own police and law courts, and appoints its own judges.

City and Guilds of London Institute, FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION, GRESHAM COLLEGE, and EXHIBITION ROAD, SOUTH KENSINGTON. This institute was founded in 1878 by several of the City companies. The first to take action for the promotion of technical education were the Clothworkers and the Drapers. They were afterwards joined by the Goldsmiths, Fishmongers, Mercers, and many other companies, all of whom subscribed largely out of their funds, and nominated members of their courts to form the governing body of the institute. The Corporation of London also joined the institute and contributed to its funds. The institute was registered under the Limited Liability Companies Act in 1880. Its central office is at Gresham College, the use of which was granted for the purpose by the Corporation of London and the Mercers' Company, to whom the building belongs.

An important part of the institute's operations consists of the organisation of technical classes, and of the holding of technological examinations, which are carried on simultaneously at various centres throughout the country, on the same plan as the Science and Art Department's Examinations. The institute has also founded three schools or colleges of importance. The central institution in Exhibition Road, South Kensington, is devoted to instruction of advanced students in all branches of engineering and of applied science. The

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building was opened by the Prince of Wales on June 25, 1884. The architect was Mr. Alfred Waterhouse, R.A. At the Finsbury Technical College in Leonard Street, Finsbury, instruction is given to junior students in branches of science and art bearing on manufactures. Classes were first opened here on the premises of the middle class schools, Cowper Street, and the success of these led to the erection of a larger building on adjoining ground, which has been admirably fitted up with all the necessary appliances for scientific instruction. These buildings were opened in 1883. The South London School of Technical Art was established soon after the foundation of the institute. Here instruction is given in the application of art to industrial purposes. The school buildings are situated in Kennington Park Road.

City Carlton Club, ST. SWITHIN'S LANE. The City Conservative Club. Entrance fee 15 guineas, annual subscription 8 guineas. Members are elected by the committee, at least six members of the committee must be present at the ballot, and one black ball in four excludes. High civic functionaries, peers and the eldest sons of peers and members of the West-end Conservative Clubs may be balloted for at any time, but ordinay candidates must be taken in the order of application.

City Liberal Club, WALBROOK. Founded 1874. The building, a very fine one, which shows to little advantage in this narrow thoroughfare, was designed by Mr. Grayson of Liverpool, and opened by Earl Granville, May 29, 1876. It is of stone, with polished granite shafts, semi-classic in character, the first floor, on which is the great dining-room, having a range of segmental bay windows. The kitchen is on the third floor. The club is essentially political, and has its political council as well as the ordinary committee. Members pay 20 guineas on admission and 10 guineas annually; country members 10 guineas on admission and 6 guineas annually.

City of London Club, No. 19 OLD BROAD STREET, occupies a portion of the site of the old South Sea House. The building was designed 1832-1833 by Philip Hardwick, R.A. Additions consisting of billiard and smoking rooms were made in 1857 by P. C. Hardwick, architect.

The club is non-political; limited to 800 members, who are elected by ballot, pay an entrance fee of 30 guineas, and an annual subscription of 8 guineas.

City of London College, WHITE STREET, MOORFIELDS, an educational and literary institute for young men employed in the City. It was originally established at Crosby Hall, in 1848, as the "Metropolitan Evening Classes for Young Men," and when that hall was given up the College was removed to Sussex Hall, Leadenhall Street, the old hall of the Bricklayers' Company, and for several years used as a Jews' synagogue. [See Bricklayers' Hall.] Lectures are delivered and classes held on history and political economy, art, literature, science,

and modern languages, in which at the end of the annual course examinations are held and prizes given. The new building was erected at a cost of £16,000, and affords accommodation for 4000 students. 60,000 young men have passed through the classes of the College during the forty years of its existence.

L City of London Library and Museum. [See GUILDHALL.]

City of London School, established in 1835 in MILK STREET, CHEAPSIDE, for the sons of respectable persons engaged in professional, commercial or trading pursuits; and partly founded on an income of £900 a year, derived from certain tenements bequeathed by John Carpenter, town-clerk of London, in the reign of Henry V., "for the finding and bringing up of four poor men's children with meat, drink, apparel, learning at the schools, in the universities, etc., until they be preferred, and then others in their places for ever."1 This was the same John Carpenter who "caused, with great expense, to be curiously painted upon board, about the north cloister of Paul's, a monument of Death leading all Estates, with the speeches of Death and answers of every State ;"2 and by causing a transcript to be made of the City Records and Ordinances, in the famous Liber Albus, has laid all London antiquaries and historical inquirers under a lasting debt of gratitude. The building, of which the first stone was laid by Lord Brougham, October 31, 1835, designed by Mr. J. B. Bunning, then City architect, occupied the site of the old Honey Lane Market. The school was opened in 1837. It has been remarkably successful, alike as to the increase in the number of scholars-the applications for many years past being far beyond the vacancies—and in the honours gained by the scholars at the universities. The inadequacy of the building for the constantly growing requirements of the school and the want of a playground at length decided the Corporation to remove the school, and a suitable site having been found at the City end of the Thames Embankment, next the Royal Hotel, the City Lands Committee in 1878 invited architects to send in designs for a new school. The designs of Messrs. Emanuel and Davis, early French Renaissance in style, were selected. The building is of red brick with Ancaster stone dressings, and from its great size and florid architecture forms a conspicuous feature on the Embankment. The school and playground cover about an acre and a half. Boys are eligible for admission from seven to fifteen. Printed forms of application for admission may be had of the secretary, and must be filled up by the parent or guardian, and signed by a member of the Corporation of London. The general course of instruction includes the English, French, German, Latin, and Greek languages, writing, arithmetic, mathematics, book-keeping, geography, and history. Besides several free scholarships on the foundation, equivalent to £35 per annum each, and available as exhibitions to the universities, there are the following exhibitions belonging to the school-The Times Scholarship,

1 Stow, p. 42.

2 Ibid.

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