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value £30 per annum; three Beaufoy Scholarships, the Salomons Scholarship, the Travers Scholarship, and the Grocers', £50 per annum each; the Rothschild Scholarship of £50 per annum; the Carpenters' of £36 per annum, with a premium of £50 if held for three years; the Tegg Scholarship, nearly £20 per annum; and several other valuable prizes.

City Prison, HOLLOWAY (now Holloway prison, at the east end of the Camden Road), erected 1845-1852 to provide for the debtors and criminals previously confined in Giltspur Street and Borough Compters, Bridewell, and the House of Correction. With the connected buildings and grounds the prison occupies an area of about It is designed on the radiating plan, and has six arms or wings. The road front, with all its elaborate medieval military appliances, is of Kentish rag and Caen stone, the remainder of brick. The cost of the original structure, which contained 430 cells, exceeded £100,000. The architect was Mr. J. B. Bunning, then City architect (see Holloway Prison).

10 acres.

City Road, a thoroughfare running from the Angel at Islington to Finsbury Square. It was opened for passengers and carriages on June 29, 1761; Mr. Dingley, the projector, who gave it the name of the City Road, modestly declining to have it called after his own name. Robert Bloomfield, after the publication of the Farmer's Boy, took a cottage near the Shepherd and Shepherdess in the City Road, where he worked for some years at his trade of a shoemaker. He also "made admirable Æolian harps, of which circumstance many liberal persons availed themselves by purchasing harps at large prices, and thus delicately diminishing the obligation which a pecuniary gift might have been supposed to create.” 1 The Wesleyan Methodist ChapelJohn Wesley's chapel with his grave-is immediately opposite Bunhill Fields Burial-ground [which see].

Great multitudes assembled to see the ceremony of laying the foundation, so that Wesley could not, without much difficulty, get through the press to lay the first stone, on which his name and the date were inserted on a plate of brass: "This was laid by John Wesley, on April 1, 1777." Probably, says he, this will be seen no more by any human eye, but will remain there till the earth, and the works thereof, are burnt up. Southey's Life of Wesley, vol. ii. p. 385.

The chapel was built on ground leased from the City, and the opening sermon was delivered November 1, 1778. Charles Wesley used to officiate here, and in order, as it was said, to exclude lay-preachers, served the chapel twice on each Sunday. John Wesley died at his house in the City Road, March 2, 1791, in his eighty-eighth year, having preached his last sermon here on Wednesday, February 23.

At the desire of many of his friends, his body was carried into the Chapel on the day preceding the interment, and there lay in a kind of state becoming the person, dressed in his clerical habit, with gown, cassock, and band; the old clerical cap on his head, a Bible in one hand, and a white handkerchief in the other. Mr.

1 Ann. Biog., 1823.

Richardson, who performed the service, had been one of his preachers almost thirty years. When he came to that part of the service, "Forasmuch as it hath pleased Almighty God to take unto himself the soul of our dear brother," his voice changed and he substituted the word father; and the feeling with which he did this was such that the congregation, who were shedding silent tears, burst at once into loud weeping. -Southey's Life of Wesley.

His grave was in the yard at the back of the chapel. The tomb which covers it was erected in 1791, and reconstructed and enlarged in 1840, during the centenary of Methodism. In 1870 a white marble monument was erected in the chapel yard to the memory of Susannah Wesley, the mother of John. In the chapel are tablets to Dr. Adam Clarke (d. 1832) and Charles Wesley (d. 1788). In October 1878 the Wesleyan body celebrated with much solemnity the "centenary" of the opening of John Wesley's Chapel, the services being continued for a week. John Wesley's house immediately adjoins the chapel, and is numbered 47 City Road.

Nearly opposite the Chapel are the Artillery ground, with the extensive armoury and other buildings belonging to the Artillery Company; the Headquarters of the Royal London Militia, 1856-1857, Joseph Jennings, architect. Farther on, on the same side of the way, are the City of London Lying-in Hospital, 1770-1773, by Robert Mylne, architect, and St. Mark's Hospital for Fistula, erected in 1852, by J. Wallen, architect. On the right hand, proceeding northwards, observe the great vinegar works; St. Mark's Church; the Grecian Theatre, of old the Eagle Tavern tea-gardens and music-rooms, now Salvation Army; St. Luke's Workhouse, Infirmary, and Vestry Hall; the Hospital for Diseases of the Chest; the Dispensary for Diseases of the Skin; and St. Matthew's Church, Oakley Crescent, 1847-1848 by Sir G. G. Scott. The New River, which used to cross the City Road in an open channel, is now covered over.

City Temple, HOLBORN VIADUCT, the largest Congregational Church in the City, built in place of the Poultry Chapel, swept away along with the neighbouring church of St. Mildred, in the course of City improvement. The City Temple was opened May 22, 1874. The building is classic Italian in character, and is remarkable as having a substructure, comprising a lecture hall, schools, etc., 20 feet high, with entrances from the streets below. The chapel is internally a spacious hall, 160 feet by 63, and 54 feet high, with deep galleries, seats radiating from the pulpit, and providing accommodation for a congregation of 2500. The pulpit, imitated from the Italian ambon, is of white marble inlaid with coloured marbles; it was the gift of the Corporation of London, and cost £300. The pulpit has been altered of late, and a permanent platform erected at a lower level. of the chapel cost £25,000; the building about £35,000. Lockwood and Mawson were the architects.

The site


Clare Court, or Clare House Court, on the east side of Drury Lane, next Blackmoor Street, was so called after John Holles, second



Earl of Clare, whose town house stood at the end of this court. Here was Johnson's Hotel, celebrated for upwards of seventy years for its à la mode beef. Towards the end of the last century the fortunes of Drury Lane Theatre being very low, a melodrama called The Driver and his Dog was put into rehearsal, and a wonderfully trained dog of Jack Bannister's was expected to astonish the town by its acting. The animal acquitted himself to perfection in the rehearsals up to the night of performance, but, on being suddenly introduced to the footlights and the crowded and expectant audience, was seized with stage fright and bolted. The management was in dismay, when one of the biped actors remembered that Mr. Johnson, the proprietor of the à la mode house, was possessed of a very sagacious dog named Carlo. Johnson and Carlo were hurried off to the theatre, "cast" at the shortest notice for their parts, and the piece went off with the utmost éclat, ran for ninety-nine nights, and replenished the treasury. Tavern licences were not then easy to be obtained, but Sheridan's gratitude induced him to procure one for Mr. Johnson, and he and his descendants occupied the tavern until quite recently, preserving as a cherished treasure a portrait of the dog that had laid the . foundation of their prosperity.

Clare Market, LINCOLN'S INN FIELDS, between Lincoln's Inn Fields and the Strand. It was so called after John Holles, created Baron Houghton, of Houghton, in the county of Nottingham, 1616, and Earl of Clare, 1624; but was first and for many years known as the New Market. Lord Houghton was living in the parish of St. Clement's Danes as early as 1617.1 A heavy assessment, or rather fine, was imposed upon all new buildings beyond certain limits; and, encouraged by the success of the Earl of Bedford, Lord Clare applied for an abatement, but without avail. On the subject being discussed in the House of Commons (June 9, 1657), "Mr. Pedley took occasion to reflect highly upon my Lord Clare, and said he was one of those that had forsworn building of churches. He had built a house for the flesh (meaning the shambles in New Market), but he doubted he would hardly do as David did, build a house for the spirit: and a great deal of this kind of language."

Then is there towards Drury Lane, a new market, called Clare Market; then is there a street and palace of the same names, built by the Earl of Clare, who lives there in a princely manner, having a house, a street, and a market both for flesh and fish, all bearing his name.-Howell's Londinopolis, fol. 1657, p. 344.

"Mnemonica, or the Art of Memory, drained out of the Pure Fountains of Art and Nature, also a Physical Treatise of cherishing Natural Memory," by John Willis, London, printed and are to be sold by Leonard Sowerby, at the Turn-stile, near New Market, in Lincoln's Inn Fields, 1661.

Clare Market, very considerable and well served with provisions, both flesh and fish; for besides the butchers in the shambles, it is much resorted unto by the

1 Rate-books of St. Clement's Danes.

country butchers and higglers; the market-days are Wednesdays and Saturdays. The toll belongs to the Duke of Newcastle [Pelham Holles] as ground landlord thereof.-Strype, ed. 1720, B. iv. p. 119.

Isaac Bickerstaff was supposed to live in Shire or Sheer Lane, and the neighbouring Clare Market is frequently mentioned in The Tatler. At one time he is roused by a chanticleer "under a coop," and at another he speaks of a "butcher in Clare Market who endeavoured to corrupt me with a dozen and a half of marrow bones."

The Duke of Newcastle built a chapel "at the corner of Lincoln's Inn Fields, near Clare Market," for the use of the butchers. Hither, in February 1729 came, it is said, from Newport Market, John Henley, (Orator Henley) (d. 1756), and erected his "gilt tub," commemorated by Pope :

Still break the benches, Henley with thy strain,
While Sherlock, Hare, and Gibson preach in vain.
O, worthy thou of Egypt's wise abodes,

A decent priest, where monkeys were the gods!

But fate with butchers placed thy priestly stall,
Meek modern faith to murder, hack, and maul.

Dunciad, B. iii.; and see the Epistle to Arbuthnot. Henley preached on the Sundays on such Scripture texts or subjects as admitted of a burlesque treatment, and on week days upon the fashions or anything that came uppermost. Each auditor paid one shilling. Over the altar was this extraordinary inscription, "The Primitive Eucharist."

You may find me in a morning at my lucubrations over a quartern pot in a Geneva shop in Clare Market; a house where I propose many learned interviews with Orator Henley, who has removed his stage to that place.-Richard Savage, Author to be Let, p. 271.

The Bull Head Tavern, in Clare Market, was a favourite resort of the famous Dr. Radcliffe. There is a letter of Steele's to his wife dated from this house August 24, 1710. It seems likely that he was hiding there. Tony Aston tells us that Mrs. Bracegirdle, the actress, was in the habit "of going often into Clare Market and giving money to the poor unemployed basket-women, insomuch that she could not pass that neighbourhood without the thankful acclamations of people of all degrees." It was in Clare Market, after his escape from Newgate, that Jack Sheppard obtained the butcher's blue. frock and woollen apron he was wearing when captured at Finchley. Clare Market is a cluster of narrow dirty streets and passages lined chiefly with butchers' and greengrocers' shops, which overflow into the adjacent streets, and are supplemented by long lines of greengrocers', fishmongers', and miscellaneous stalls and barrows-a crowded, noisy, and unsavoury place on market days and Saturday nights.

Claremont Square, PENTONVILLE, on the south side of Pentonville Road. The houses form three sides of a square, the fourth being open to the Pentonville Road, and the centre occupied by a green mound, within which is the great covered reservoir of the New River

Company. For many years after its construction the reservoir remained open, and the residents readily obtained permission to fish then. The New River Head lies a little way south of it.

Clarence House, on the west of St. James's Palace; so called from being the residence of William IV. when Duke of Clarence. It was afterwards the residence of the Duchess of Kent. In 1873-1874 it was remodelled, enlarged by the addition of a new wing and offices, and the erection of a spacious portico and entrance, facing the park, in place of the former entrance opposite the portico of Stafford House. These alterations were made with a view to its appropriation as the residence of H.R.H. the Duke of Edinburgh on his marriage with the Grand Duchess Marie Alexandrovna of Russia.

Clarence Terrace, on the west side of REGENT'S PARK, was built from the designs of Decimus Burton, and named after William IV. when Duke of Clarence.

Clarendon House, PICCADILLY, the town house of Edward Hyde, Earl of Clarendon, "the great Lord Chancellor of Human Nature." It stood on the north side of Piccadilly, exactly fronting St. James's Palace. Charles II. granted the ground, and Pratt, we are told by Evelyn, was the name of the architect. The date of the grant is June 13, 1664. The populace called it Dunkirk House, Holland House, and Tangier Hall.

August 1664.-Over against St. James's House the foundation laid, and a wall made that bounded 8 acres of ground for the intended house builded by the Lord Chancellor. The stones that was intended to repair St. Paul's Church, London, they were bought and this month brought from Paul's to the place appointed to build this great house.-Rugge's Diurnal, vol. i. p. 117.

October 15, 1664.—After dinner, my Lord Chancellor and his lady carried me in their coach to see their palace (for he now lived at Worcester House, in ye Strand) building at the upper end of St. James's Streete, and to project the garden.-Evelyn.

February 20, 1665.-Rode into the beginning of my Lord Chancellor's new house, near St. James's: which common people have already called Dunkirke House, from their opinion of his having a good bribe for the selling of that towne. And very noble I believe it will be. Near that is my Lord Berkeley beginning another on one side, and Sir J. [ohn] Denham [Burlington House] on the other. -Pepys.

Some called it Dunkirk House, intimating that it was built by his share of the price of Dunkirk. Others called it Holland House, because he was believed to be no friend to the war: so it was given out that he had money from the Dutch.— Burnet, ed. 1823, vol. i. p. 431.

January 31, 1666.—To my Lord Chancellor's new house which he is building, only to view it, hearing so much from Mr. Evelyn of it and indeed it is the finest pile I ever did see in my life, and will be a glorious house.-Pepys.

February 14, 1665-1666.-I took Mr. Hill to my Lord Chancellor's new house that is building, and went, with trouble, up to the top of it, and there is the noblest prospect that ever I saw in my life, Greenwich being nothing to it; and in everything it is a beautiful house, and most strongly built in every respect; and as if, as it hath, it had the Chancellor for its master.-Pepys.

Evelyn writes to Lord Cornbury, January 20, 1666, after a visit to "my Lord Chancellor's new house, if it be not a solecism to give a

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