« ΠροηγούμενηΣυνέχεια »
1753, when they met at a house of their own in Chancery Lane. The members were then limited to one hundred; and the terms were, one guinea entrance, and twelve shillings annually.1 George II. granted them a Charter of Incorporation, November 2, 1751, as the "Society of Antiquaries of London," and in it declared himself their "Founder and Patron." In 1777 George III. gave them apartments for their use in the newly built Somerset House, of which they obtained formal possession in February 1781, and which they continued to occupy till 1875, when they removed to the rooms built for their use in the west wing of Burlington House.
The Society consists of a president (the present holder of that office being John Evans, D.C.L., F.R.S.), four vice-presidents, a treasurer, a director, and a secretary, who, with thirteen other members, form the Council, and about 600 Fellows. The Fellows are elected by ballot on the recommendation of at least three Fellows. The letters F.S.A. are generally appended to their names: letters which no other Society is entitled to use. Their Transactions, called the Archæologia, commence in 1770, and contain a vast amount of valuable historical and archæological information. The days of meeting are every Thursday at halfpast eight, from November to June, Anniversary Meeting, April 23. The Society possesses an excellent Library of over 20,000 volumes, and a small but valuable Museum. Among the many objects of interest should be observed :
Household Book of Jocky of Norfolk. A large and interesting collection of Early Proclamations, interspersed with Early Ballads, many unique. T. Porter's Map of London (temp. Charles I.), once thought to be unique. A folding Picture on Panel of the Preaching at Old St. Paul's in 1616. Early Portraits of Edward IV. and Richard III., engraved for the Third Series of Ellis's Letters. Margaret Plantagenet, Duchess of Burgundy. Three-quarter Portrait of Mary I., with the monogram of Lucas de Heere, and the date 1544. Portrait of William Powlett, first Marquis of Winchester, d. 1571 (curious). Portrait of Sir Antonio More by John Schorel, a Dutch painter (More was the scholar of Schorel). Portrait of General Fleetwood, cupbearer to James I. and Charles I. Portraits of Antiquaries: Burton, the Leicestershire antiquary; Peter le Neve; Humphrey Wanley; Baker, of St. John's College; William Stukeley; George Vertue (by Thomas Gibson); Ralph Thoresby; Earl Stanhope (by Mr. Partridge), for nearly thirty years president of the Society; Edward, Earl of Oxford, presented by Vertue. A Bohemian Astronomical Clock of gilt brass, made by Jacob Zech in 1525, for Sigismund, King of Poland, and bought at the sale of the effects of James Ferguson, the astronomer. Spur of Brass gilt, found on Towton Field, the scene of the conflict between Edward IV. and the Lancastrian Forces. Upon the shanks the following posy is engraved : "en loial amour tout mon corr." A very extensive collection of casts of seals, dating from the last century, and largely augmented by the late Mr. Albert Way. A most extensive series of rubbings of English Monumental Brasses, with large augmentations made by the late Director, Mr. A. W. Franks, and presented by him to the Society. In consequence of these additions, it is perhaps the most complete collection extant. Apollo (The). [See Devil. Tavern.]
Apollo Court, FLEET STREET (over against Child's Banking House, and leading into Bell Yard). So called from the Apollo Club,
1 Maitland, ed. 1739, p. 647.
held at the Devil Tavern, in Fleet Street, immediately opposite this court; but the name is now merged in that of Bell Yard.
Apollo Gardens, Lambeth, were situated near the Asylum in Westminster Road. They were fitted up in imitation of Vauxhall, and opened about 1788 by Mr. Claggett, proprietor of the Pantheon in Oxford Street. The gardens being unsuccessful, lasted for a few seasons only, and when they were closed the old orchestra was removed to Sydney Gardens, Bath.
✓ Apothecaries' Hall, WATER LANE, BLACKFRIARS, a brick and stone building, erected in 1670 as the Dispensary and Hall of the Incorporated Company of Apothecaries.
Nigh where Fleet Ditch descends in sable streams,
To wash his sooty Naiads in the Thames,
There stands a structure on a rising hill,
Where tyros take their freedom out to kill.
GARTH, The Dispensary.
The grocers and the apothecaries were originally one Company; but this union did not exist above eleven years, King James I., at the suit of Gideon Delaune (d. 1659), his own apothecary, granting (December 6, 1617) a separate Charter of Incorporation to the Master, Wardens, and Society of the Art and Mistery of Apothecaries. Charter is expressed the desire of the apothecaries to be dissociated from the grocers, and to form an independent body, on the ground "that the ignorance and rashness of presumptuous empirics, and ignorant and unexpert men may be restrained, whereupon many discommodities, inconveniences, and perils do daily arise to the rude and incredulous people." The city authorities seem not to have approved this arrangement, for among the papers calendered by Mrs. Everett Green, under date 1617, is a letter from King James to the Mayor, stating that he understands they refuse to enrol this Charter, and ordering their immediate conformity.1 The arms of the Company-" Azure, Apollo in his glory, holding in his left hand a bow, in his right an arrow, all or, bestriding Python the serpent, argent,"-were probably of the King's suggestion.
In the hall is a small good portrait of James I., and a contemporary statue of Delaune. In 1687 commenced a controversy between the College of Physicians and the Company of Apothecaries; the latterTaught the art
By Doctors' bills to play the Doctors' part-
had by this time ventured out of their assigned walk of life, and to compounding added the art of prescribing. This was thought by the physicians to be an unfair invasion of their province; and, incensed at the intrusion of the druggists, the College of Physicians advertised (July, 1687) that their fellows, candidates, and licentiates would give advice gratis to the poor, and that the College had established a
1 Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, James I., 1611-1618, p. 507.
Dispensary of its own for the sale of medicines at their intrinsic values. All the wits and poets were against the apothecaries.
The Apothecary tribe is wholly blind.
And many deaths from one prescription make:
The shopman sells, and by destruction lives.-Dryden.
The heats and bickerings of this controversy were the occasion of Garth's poem of The Dispensary. This made matters worse; and the physicians, backed by their Charter, brought a penal action against one Rose, an apothecary, for attending a butcher. The fact of attendance was proved in court, but yet the jury hesitated about finding a verdict for the plaintiff; "whereat the Court wondering, the Lord Chief Justice asked them 'Whether they did not believe the evidence?' to which the foreman replied, "The defendant had done only what other apothecaries did.' Whereupon, My Lord set the jury right, and then they brought in a verdict for the plaintiff." The House of Lords, in 1703, reversed this decision; and since then it has been the law of the land that apothecaries may advise as well as administer. In 1722 Sir Hans Sloane gave to the Company his Botanic Garden at Chelsea. [See Botanic Garden.] By the Act 5 Geo. III., c. 194 (1815), all apothecaries and their assistants must be examined and certified by the Court of Assistants of the Company of Apothecaries before they can act as an apothecary or dispense medicines. In the Hall is a well-supported retail shop, for the sale of unadulterated medicines. This was carried on by members in the name of the Society, but for their own personal profit; the trade having, however, ended in loss, the private partnership was dissolved from December 31, 1880, and the Society (as an experiment) carried on the trade at its own risk. The Apothecaries' Act of 1815 made the Society one of the three great medical licensing bodies for England and Wales, and the number of the present licentiates is between 8000 and 9000.
Appletree Yard, ST. JAMES'S SQUARE, on the east side of York Street, derives its name from the apple orchards for which St. James's Fields were famous as late as the reign of Charles I. [See Pall Mall.] By Hatton,1 1708, and in Strype's Map, 1720, it is called Ainger Street. Dodsley, 1761, has both Ainger Street and Appletree Yard.
August 30, 1688.-To the Park [St. James's], and there walk an hour or two; and in the King's garden, and saw the Queen and ladies walk; and I did steal some apples off the trees.-Pepys.
Apsley House, HYDE PARK CORNER, PICCADILLY, the London residence of the Duke of Wellington. The original house was built by Henry Bathurst, Baron Apsley, Earl Bathurst, and Lord High Chancellor (d. 1794), the son of Pope's friend, to whom the site, previously occupied by the Park Lodge, was granted by George III.,
1 New View of London, p. 1.
under letters patent of May 3, 1784. The house, originally of red brick, is said to have been designed by the Chancellor himself, who found, when the first floor was built, that he had overlooked the necessity of a staircase to reach the second! In 1808 it came into the possession of the Marquis Wellesley, eldest brother of its future owner, who resided here in great state while Secretary for Foreign Affairs. The Court Guide shows that it was still in his occupation in January 1815; but next year it is entered for the first time as the Duke's, who, however, did not actually purchase it till about 1820. The house was found to be very inconvenient, and in 1828 the Duke, availing himself of the circumstances of his having an official residence in Downing Street, handed it over for enlargement and ornamentation to Messrs. Benjamin and Philip Wyatt, who added a west wing and portico, and faced the front with Bath stone. The iron Bramah blinds-bullet proof it is said-put up by the Duke during the ferment of the Reform Bill, when his windows were broken by a London mob, were taken down in 1856 by the second Duke. The Crown's interest in the house was sold to the Duke by indenture of June 15, 1830, for the sum of £9530; the Crown reserving a right to forbid the erection of any other house or houses on the site. The alterations made in 1853 were designed by P. Hardwick, R.A.
The room in which the Waterloo banquet was held every anniversary of the battle during the Duke's life, is the great west gallery (90 feet long), on the drawing-room floor, with its seven windows looking into Hyde Park. The Duke occupied a chair fronting the large central fireplace. The Duke's room-his study and sanctum-is preserved intact, as when he used it.
Works of Art.-George IV., full length, in a Highland costume, by Sir David Wilkie. William IV., full length, by Wilkie. Sarah, the first Lady Lyndhurst, by Wilkie. This picture was penetrated by a stone in the Reform Riot, but the injury has been skilfully repaired. Emperor Alexander, full length. Kings of Prussia, France, and the Netherlands, full lengths. Marshal Soult, over the entrance door of the drawing-room. Battle of Waterloo, Napoleon in the foreground (Sir William Allan). The Duke bought this picture at the Exhibition; he is said to have called it, "Good, very good, not too much smoke." Many portraits of Napoleon, one by David, extremely good. Wilkie's Chelsea Pensioners reading the Gazette of the Battle of Waterloo, painted in 1822 for the Duke, who watched its progress with great interest. Burnet's Greenwich Pensioners celebrating the anniversary of the Battle of Trafalgar, bought of Burnet by the Duke. Portraits of veterans in both pictures. A colossal marble statue of Napoleon, by Canova, with a figure of Victory on a globe in his hand. This statue was presented to the Duke by the Prince Regent (George IV.) in 1817. Canova got a Hebe out of the block from beneath the right hand of the Napoleon. Bust of Princess Pauline, by Canova, a present from Canova to the Duke. Christ on the Mount of Olives (Correggio), the most celebrated picture of Correggio in this country; on panel, and captured in Spain, in the carriage of Joseph Buonaparte, in the flight from Vittoria; restored by the captor to Ferdinand VII.; but with others, under the like circumstances, again presented to the Duke by that sovereign. Here the light proceeds from the Saviour; there is a copy or duplicate in the National Gallery. An Annunciation, after M. Angelo, of which the original drawing is in the Uffizj at Florence. The Adoration of the Shepherds, by Sogliani. The Water-seller, by Velasquez. Two fine portraits by
Velasquez (his own portrait, and the portrait of Pope Innocent X.) A fine Spagnoletti. A charming little sea-piece, by Claude. Card Players, by Caravaggio. A large and good Jan Steen, dated 1667; and three smaller but excellent works. A Peasant's Wedding, dated 1655 (Teniers). Boors Drinking (A. Ostade). The celebrated Terburg, the signing the Peace of Westphalia (from the Talleyrand Collection). Singularly enough, this picture hung in the room in which the allied sovereigns signed the Treaty of Paris in 1814. A fine Philip Wouvermans (The Return from the Chase). View of Veght, by Vanderheyden. Landseer's Van Amberg with his Lions, painted for the Duke; but not one of Sir Edwin's most successful works. Highland Whisky Still (Landseer). The Melton Hunt, by Sir F. Grant, P. R. A. Several services of Sévres, Prussian and Saxon services, presented by Louis XVIII., the King of Prussia, and the Emperor of Austria; a Silver Plateau presented by the Regent of Portugal; and the magnificent Silver Shield, designed by Thomas Stothard, R.A., and presented to the Duke by the Merchants and Bankers of London.
Aquarium (The Royal), WESTMINSTER, opened January 1876, is a building of great extent, occupying the whole of the north side of Tothill Street, and being nearly 600 feet long and 160 wide. The exterior is of red brick and stone, and sufficiently conspicuous, it not very beautiful. The architect was Mr. A. Bedborough. The interior is lined with tanks, and has an orchestra, concert hall, theatre, and restaurant. It was projected as a summer lounge and winter garden, as well as aquarium, and a place for high-class music and refined entertainments; but its chief attractions have been firing women from cannon, dancing Zulus, swimming ladies, and like elegant and "stimulating" exhibitions. The theatre is now called the IMPERIAL, and
employed chiefly for afternoon performances.
Arabella Row, Pimlico (now incorporated with LOWER GROSVENOR PLACE) led from Grosvenor Place to Buckingham Palace Road, Here, in the house next the public-house, lived Lord Chancellor Erskine after his removal from Lincoln's Inn Fields. The house, small and shabby-looking, had a brass door-plate with "Lord Erskine" engraven on it.
Arch Row, an old name for the west side of Lincoln's Inn Fields.
That ply i' the Temples under trees,
Or walk the Round with Knights o' th' Posts
About the cross-legg'd knights, their hosts;
Or wait for customers between
The pillar rows in Lincoln's Inn.-Hudibras, pt. iii. c. 3.
The archway leads to Duke Street, now Sardinia Street, the first building in which, on the left hand, is a Roman Catholic Chapel, formerly the Sardinian Ambassador's Chapel.
Archer Street, WINDMILL STREET, PICCADILLY.
King Charles I. invited Poelemberg to London, where he lived in Archer Street, next door to Geldorp, and generally painted the figures in Steenwyck's perspectives. -Walpole's Anecdotes, vol. ii. p. 101.
Poelemberg was in London about 1637. He painted several pictures for the King, who, however, "could not prevail on Poelemberg