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Harvest Home, or Thanksgiving to Ceres and Bacchus, shows the agricultural stage of civilisation (the best of the series). 3. Crowning the Victors at Olympia. 4. Commerce: or, the Triumph of the Thames. In this picture Dr. Burney, the musical composer, is seen floating down the Thames among Tritons and Sea-nymphs, in his tie-wig and queue. 5. The Distribution of Premiums in the Society of Arts. This picture contains a portrait of Dr. Johnson, for which the Doctor sat. 6. Elysium: or, the state of Final Retribution.
The Society in 1774 proposed to certain members of the newly instituted Royal Academy to paint the interior of the Great Room, the painters to be reimbursed by the public exhibition of their works when finished. The academicians, apparently led by Reynolds, declined the proposal, and Barry, as a member, signed the refusal with the rest; but afterwards (in 1777) he applied for permission to execute the whole work without asking remuneration for his own labour, and at a time when he had but sixteen shillings in his pocket. The Society, however, gave him in the course of the work several donations, and a gold medal. The Society afterwards indulged him with two exhibitions of his paintings, in 1783 and 1784, which brought him £503 125., the Society paying the cost of the exhibitions, which amounted to £174. He died poor and half mad in 1806, at the age of sixty-five, and was buried in St. Paul's. His body lay in state in the Great Room of the Society on the night of March 7, previous to the burial in St. Paul's. The members of the Society raised £1000 and purchased an annuity of £120 for Barry, but unfortunately only a month before his death. In the Council Room are full-length portraits of Jacob, Lord Folkestone, the first President, by Gainsborough, and of Lord Romney, second President, by Sir Joshua Reynolds, and a characteristic portrait of Barry. The portraits of the two presidents were originally placed at each end of the meeting room, between Barry's pictures, but their places subsequently were filled by a portrait of the late Prince Consort (who held the office of President from 1843 until his death in 1861), painted by Horsley, over the dais, and by a picture of the Queen and the Royal Children by Cope, at the opposite end of the Visitors are admitted to see these pictures between the hours
of ten and four.
The great room of the Society was for several years the place where many persons chose to try or to display their oratorical abilities. Dr. Goldsmith, I remember, made an attempt at a speech, but was obliged to sit down in confusion. I once heard Dr. Johnson speak there, upon a subject relative to Mechanics, with a propriety, perspicuity, and energy which excited general admiration.—Kippis, Bio. Brit., vol. iv. p. 266.
The Society took a leading part in organising the Great Exhibitions of 1851 and 1862; and has been active in promoting commercial and technical education by means of examinations. Out of the technological examinations has grown the wide-spreading action of the City and Guilds of London Technical Institute. A large number of the chief questions of the day, such as the amendment of the Patent Laws; the cheapening of letter, book, and parcel postage; the improvement of
Artillery Ground, between the west side of FINSBURY SQUARE and BUNHILL Row, and extending northward from behind the houses in Chiswell Street and Bunhill Fields Burial Ground; the exercising ground of the Honourable Artillery Company of the City of London. The Honourable Artillery Company is sometimes confounded with the old City Train Bands, but was, from its origin, a distinct and additional company, formed as "A Nursery for Soldiers" for the defence of the city.1 A charter was granted to the Fraternity of Artillery, in great and small ordnance, by Henry VIII.,2 but surrendered for a new charter with larger powers in 1585, during the fear of the Spanish invasion. The City troops mustered in great strength at the camp at Tilbury, when the captains were selected from the Artillery Company and called Captains of the Artillery Garden. But, the danger past, the assemblies and exercises were neglected, the Company fell into decay, and the Artillery Garden was reserved for the practice grounds of the Tower.
April 20, 1669.-In the afternoon we walked to the old Artillery Ground, near the Spitalfields, where I never was before, but now by Captain Deane's invitation did go to see his new gun tryed, this being the place where the officers of the Ordnance do try all their great guns.-Pepys.
About 1610 Philip Hudson, a lieutenant of the Company, set himself energetically to bring about its revival. A considerable number of wealthy citizens, as well as many country gentlemen, joined the Company and undertook to bear the necessary expenses; the King, James I., gave them his patronage, and Prince Charles entered the ranks. It is from the year 1610 that the Honourable Artillery Company itself dates its present existence.
July 3, 1612.-Order in Council that the citizens of London be permitted to exercise arms in the Artillery Garden, or other convenient place, provided their number be not more than 250.-Calendar of State Papers, James I., 1611-1613, p. 137.
January 1, 1616.-Grant to Sir Richard Morrison of the Lieutenancy of the Ordnance and keeping of the storehouses near Aldgate, and the Artillery Garden, for life.-Cal. James I., 1611-1613, p. 342.
Henry VIII. gave to the Fraternity of Artillery, for their exercise ground, a field belonging to the dissolved priory and hospital of St. Mary Spital, beyond Bishopsgate, known as the Teazle Close, and this was the original Artillery Garden so often mentioned: the site is now marked by Artillery Lane and Artillery Street, Bishopsgate Street Without. According to Petowe, the poet of the Company, writing shortly after its revival
The Teazle ground . . . by indenture bearing date,
Th' Eighth of that name ;-the convent did conjoin
Cross-bows, hand guns, and of archery,
For full three hundred years, excepting three.
Then is there a large close called Tasel Close, for that there were tasels planted
1 Strype's Stow, B. v. p. 457.
2 Ibid, B. ii. p. 96.
for the use of cloth-workers, since letten to the crossbow-makers, wherein they used to shoot for games at the popingay: now the same being enclosed with a brick wall, serveth to be an Artillery Yard or Garden, whereunto the gunners of the Tower do weekly repair, namely every Thursday; and there, levelling certain brass pieces of great artillery against a butt of earth made for that purpose, they discharge them for their exercise. Present use is made thereof, by divers worthy citizens, gentlemen and captains, using martial discipline, and where they meet (well near weekly) to their great commendation in so worthy an exercise.-Strype's Stow, B. ii. p. 96.
When the Civil War broke out, the citizens of London took up arms against the King; and on all occasions, more especially at the battle of Newbury, the London regiments, Train Bands and Artillery, behaved with admirable conduct and courage.
The London trained-bands and auxiliary regiments (of whose inexperience of danger or any kind of service beyond the easy practice of their postures in the Artillery Garden men had till then too cheap in estimation) behaved themselves to wonder, and were in truth the preservation of that army that day. For they stood as a bulwark and rampire to defend the rest; and when their wings of horse were scattered and dispersed, kept their ground so steadily, that though Prince Rupert himself led up the choice horse to charge them, and endured their storm of small shot, he could make no impression upon their stand of pikes, but was forced to wheel about; of so sovereign benefit and use is that readiness, order, and dexterity, in the use of their arms, which hath been so much neglected.—Clarendon, Hist. of the Rebellion, ed. 1826, vol. iv. p. 236.
London hath twelve thousand Trained-Band Citizens, perpetually in readiness, excellently armed; which when Count Gondomar saw in a muster one day, in St. James's Fields, and the king asking him what he thought of his citizens of London; he answered, that he never saw a company of stouter men and better arms in all his lifetime; but he had a sting in the tail of his discourse; for he told the king, that although his Majesty was well pleased with that sight at present, he feared that those men handling their arms so well might do him one day a mischief; which proved true, for, in the unlucky wars with the Long Parliament, the London firelocks did him most mischief.-Howell's Londinopolis, fol. 1657, p. 398.
Cromwell knew their value, and gave the command of them to Major-General Skippon, under whom and for some years subsequently the strength of the corps was 18,000 Foot and 600 Horse, thus divided: 6 regiments of Trained Bands; 6 Regiments of Auxiliaries; I regiment of Horse. This strong force was disbanded at the Restoration; but the Company still continued to perform their evolutions, though on a less extensive scale, the King and the Duke of York becoming members and dining in public with the new Company. Since the Restoration they have led a peaceable life, and, except in 1780, when their promptness preserved the Bank of England, have only been called out on state occasions, such as the public thanksgiving for the victories of the Duke of Marlborough, when (August 23, 1705) Queen Anne went to St. Paul's, and the Westminster Militia. lined the streets from St. James's to Temple Bar, and the City Trained Bands from Temple Bar to St. Paul's. The Trained Bands have long merged in the Royal London Militia, but the Artillery Company remained a distinct body, though the Artillery Ground serves as headquarters and exercising ground of both. During the first half of the present century the strength of the Company fell gradually off. In 1708 they were
musical education, etc., have been dealt with by the Society in the form of discussion and by addresses to the Government. Several conferences have also been held on sanitary matters and on water supply.
The ordinary meetings are held on Wednesday evenings at 8 P.M., from November to May, when papers are read and discussed on subjects relating to Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce. There are also connected with the Society three sections: 1. Indian; 2. Foreign and Colonial; 3. Applied Art; these hold meetings for the reading and discussion of papers on their respective subjects on other days of the week. Courses of lectures on popular subjects connected with Arts and Manufactures are delivered on Monday evenings, and are styled Cantor Lectures, by reason that they owe their origin to a bequest of the late Dr. Cantor. The Albert Medal, founded in honour of the Prince Consort, is awarded annually to some eminent man who has distinguished himself by promoting arts, manufactures, or comThe first award was to Sir Rowland Hill in 1864, and the list of recipients forms a noble roll of great men. The award in the Jubilee year 1887 was to the Queen, who was graciously pleased to accept the Medal.
Arts' Club (The) 17 HANOVER SQUARE, was founded in 1863, "for the purpose of facilitating the social intercourse of those connected with or interested in Art, Literature, or Science." The number of members, exclusive of Honorary Members, is fixed at 450. The entrance fee is 15 guineas, and the annual subscription 6 guineas. Members are elected by the Committee. The ceilings of one of the rooms are decorated with paintings by Angelica Kauffmann.
Arundel Buildings, STRAND. Langbaine records that Charles Hoole (d. 1666), translator of Terence, and writer of many excellent school books in the time of Cromwell and Charles II., "taught school in Arundel Buildings, not far from the [New] Royal Exchange ;" and John Evelyn enters in his Diary, under November 16, 1686: "I went with part of my family to pass the melancholy winter at my son's house in Arundel Buildings." Later the name was changed to Arundel Street.
Arundel House, in the STRAND. The old Inn, or town-house, of the Bishops of Bath, from whose possession, in the reign of Edward VI., it passed "without recompence" into the hands of Lord Thomas Seymour (Admiral), brother of the Protector Somerset. Seymour was subsequently beheaded, and his house in the Strand was bought by Henry Fitz Alan, Earl of Arundel, for the sum of £41:6:8, with several other messuages, tenements, and lands adjoining. This Henry Fitz Alan, Earl of Arundel, dying in 1579, was succeeded by his grandson, Philip Howard, Earl of Arundel, son of the Duke of Norfolk, beheaded for his share in the intrigues of Mary Queen of Scots; and this Philip, attainted in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and dying
1 Strype, B. iv. p. 105.
abroad in 1595, his house was in 1603 granted to Charles, Earl of Nottingham, but four years later was transferred to Thomas Howard, the son of Philip, who was restored to the Earldom of Arundel by James I.
December 23, 1607.-Grant to the Earl of Arundel and Robert Cannefield, in fee simple, of Arundel House, St. Clement Danes, without Temple Bar, lately conveyed to the King by the Earl of Nottingham.-Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, James I., 1603-1610, p. 390.
In his time Arundel House became the repository of that noble collection of works of art, of which the very ruins are ornaments now to several principal cabinets. The collection contained, when entire, 37 statues, 128 busts, and 250 inscribed marbles, exclusive of sarcophagi, altars, gems, fragments, and what he had paid for, but could never obtain permission to remove from Rome. A view of the Statue Gallery forms the background to Vansomer's portrait of the earl, and a view of the Picture Gallery to Vansomer's portrait of his countess. Wenceslaus Hollar, "my very good friend," as Evelyn calls him, was brought to England by the Earl of Arundel in 1636, given an apartment in Arundel House, of which he engraved several views. His well-known View of London he drew from the roof. Vanderborcht, the portrait painter, came over at the same time, and was similarly lodged: Evelyn sat to him, "at Arundel House, for his picture in oil," in 1641. During the Protectorate Arundel House appears to have been used for the reception of strangers of distinction. Thomas, Earl of Arundel, died 1646; and at the Restoration, in 1660, his house and marbles were restored to his grandson, who, at the instigation of Evelyn, gave the library to the Royal Society, and the inscribed marbles, still known as the Arundelian Collection, to the University of Oxford.
September 19, 1667.-To London with Mr. Hen. Howard of Norfolk, of whom I obtained ye gift of his Arundelian marbles, those celebrated and famous inscriptions, Greek and Latine, gathered with so much cost and industrie from Greece, by his illustrious grandfather, the magnificent Earl of Arundel, my noble friend whilst he liv'd. When I saw these precious monuments miserably neglected and scatter'd up and down about the garden, and other parts of Arundel House, and how exceedingly the corrosive air of London impaired them, I procur'd him to bestow them on the University of Oxford. This he was pleas'd to grant me, and now gave me the key of the gallery, with leave to mark all those stones, urns, altars, etc., and whatever I found had inscriptions on them that were not statues.-Evelyn.
The donor of the marbles died in 1677. He seems to have contemplated rebuilding Arundel House, but did not do so, and it was taken down by his successor, and the present Arundel Street, Surrey Street, Howard Street, and Norfolk Street erected on the site.
Private Acts, 22 & 23 Charles II. (1671), c. 19.—An Act for building Arundel House and the tenements thereunto belonging.
1. William and Mary (1689), an Act for building into tenements the remaining part of Arundel Ground as now enclosed.
The few marbles that remained were removed to Tart Hall and