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pictures, books, and other property, by public auction. The building and site was bought in 1864 by the Alliance Bank, who sold it to the Estate Company. It was pulled down in 1865, and rebuilt for offices from the design of Edward A. Gruning, architect. The Alliance Bank occupies the ground floor and basement. A new AUCTION MART, Italian Renaissance in style, was built in TOKENHOUSE YARD, Lothbury, from the designs of Mr. S. Clarke, and is now the chief mart in the city for the sale of estates and houses by auction.

There was an Auction-house standing near the Royal Exchange in the reign of James II. Several printed catalogues exist of sales that took place there in that reign. Dr. Seaman's sale, in the year 1676, was the first book-auction, and Samuel Paterson the earliest auctioneer who sold books singly in lots-the first bidding for which was sixpence.

Audit Office, SOMERSET HOUSE, now Exchequer and Audit Department (Office for Auditing the Public Accounts), existed as an office under the name of the Office of the Auditors of the Imprests (or sums imprested, i.e. advanced to and charged against public officers), temp. Henry VIII. The Audit Commission was established in 1785, and the salaries, formerly paid by fees upon the passing of accounts, are now paid out of moneys voted by Parliament, fees of every kind being abolished. Almost all the Home and all the Colonial expenditure of the country is examined at this office. Edward Harley and Arthur Maynwaring were the two auditors of the imprests in the reign of Anne. Robert Harley, Earl of Oxford, obtained many curious public papers from his brother Edward. If he had emptied the office, the nation had been a gainer, for the papers the brother appropriated were bought by Government for the British Museum, and much of what he left-all, indeed, but what Sir William Musgrave, a commissioner, gathered and presented to the British Museum-destroyed by order of another Government.

Audley Square forms a part of South Audley Street. Here Spencer Perceval, Prime Minister 1809-1812, was born in November 1762. The Duke of York had a house in the square at the time of his death (1827). He died at the Duke of Rutland's house in Arlington Street.

Audley Street (North), runs from OXFORD STREET to the west side of GROSVENOR SQUARE. It was so called after Hugh Audley, of the Inner Temple, Esq., who died "infinitely rich" on November 15, 1662. The title of a pamphlet, published at the time, records his history-"The Way to be Rich, according to the practice of the Great Audley, who began with £200 in the year 1605, and died worth £400,000, this instant November, 1662." His land, described in an old Survey (circ. 1710), among King George III.'s maps in the British Museum, as "Mr. Audley's land," lay between "Great Brook Field," and "Shoulder of Mutton Field." He left a large portion of his property to Thomas Davies, a bookseller in St. Paul's Churchyard, and

one of his executors, afterwards Sir Thomas Davies, and Lord Mayor of London in 1677. On the east side is S. Mark's Church, built 18251828, from the designs of J. P. Gandy-Deering, at a cost of about £5550. In it lies Sir Hudson Lowe, Governor of St. Helena (d. 1844), whose name is inseparably connected with the great Napoleon. In a house on the east side, a few doors from the chapel, and since divided into two, the Countess of Suffolk (mistress of George II.) is said to have lived. The house was designed by the Earl of Burlington, and built at the King's expense. Maria Edgeworth, on her later visits to London, resided with her sister, Mrs. Wilson, at No. 1 North Audley Street. At No. 26 the Misses Berry. The ground floor has given place to a pianoforte warehouse; but the private door opens upon the original house staircase, and the drawing-rooms are tenanted by a glover.

Audley Street (South), GROSVENOR SQUARE, extends from the west side of Grosvenor Square southwards to Curzon Street. Built in 1730. Eminent Inhabitants.-Lord Bute lived at No. 73 during his greatest unpopularity, and died there March 10, 1792; in the Wilkes riots, March 1769, the mob made a furious attack on his house. In 1758 Home, the author of Douglas, was in lodgings in this street, "to be near Lord Bute." Holcroft, the dramatist, about 1761, worked for some time with his father in a cobbler's stall in this street. General Paoli, till he had a house of his own. Boswell, when in London, constantly resided at General Paoli's, where he was "entertained with the kindest attention," and when Boswell was ill in bed at Paoli's house, Johnson brought Reynolds to sit with him.-Boswell's Johnson, by Croker, p. 505, etc. Sir William Jones (opposite Audley Square), his widow died here in 1829. In 1814 Charles X. of France, in No. 72. Louis XVIII. lived at one time in this street. No 77 was Alderman Sir Matthew Wood's. Here Queen Caroline took up her abode on her arrival from Italy in June 1820, and used at first to appear on the balcony and bow to the mob assembled in the street. The Alderman

and his family removed to Fladong's Hotel. In No. 14 Sir Richard Westmacott, the sculptor, executed all his principal works, and there' died, September 1, 1856. At No. 8, Archbishop Markham (d. 1807). At No. 15 Baron Bunsen was living in 1841. Curzon House, No. 8, was till 1876 the residence of Earl Howe. In the vaults and cemetery of Grosvenor Chapel, on the east side of the street, are interredAmbrose Philips, the poet, ridiculed by Pope (d. 1749); Lady Mary Wortley Montagu (d. 1762); David Mallet, the poet (d. 1765); William Whitehead, poet (d. 1785); John Wilkes (d. 1797), to whom there is a tablet with this inscription from his own pen, "The remains of John Wilkes, a Friend to Liberty." Lord Chancellor Northington was married in this chapel, 1743, by (the future) Bishop Newton. On June 22, 1749, David Garrick was married to Eva Maria Violette in the Roman Catholic Chapel of the Portuguese Embassy in South Audley Street

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Augmentation Office, DEAN'S YARD, WESTMINSTER, was established in 1704, for the purpose of augmenting the value of poor livings by means of Queen Anne's Bounty. The Queen Anne's Bounty Office still exists, but it is not now known by this name.

Augmentations Court was established in 1535 by Act of 27 Henry VIII., for managing the revenues and possessions of all the religious houses under £200 a year which had been given to the King, and for determining suits relating to them. The full title was "Court of the Augmentations of the Revenues of the King's Crown."

January 31, 1536-1537.-Warrant (with the King's sign manual) to the Treasurer of the Augmentations to pay £662:0:1 to Anthony Dennye, keeper of the King's manor beside Westminster, and Paymaster of the buildings there, for the erection of a house for the officers of the Augmentation, within the old Palace of Westminster. -Appendix to Eighth Report of Historical MSS. Comm., pt. 2, p. 21a.

The Court was abolished by Mary in 1553, and restored by Elizabeth in 1558. This building at Westminster, which projected out nto the roadway, was pulled down in 1793.

Augustine's (St.) Church, at the corner of WATLING STREET and OLD CHANGE, and immediately behind No. 35 St. Paul's Churchyard, in the ward of Farringdon Within, was designed in 1682 by Sir Christopher Wren, and opened for public service September 23, 1683. The old church, anciently denominated Ecclesia Sancti Augustini ad Portam, from its vicinity to the south-east of St. Paul's Churchyard,"1 was destroyed in the Great Fire, and the parish of St. Faith-under-St. Paul's united at the same time to the newly erected St. Augustine's. The steeple, 132 feet 6 inches high, was not finished till 1695, and was much repaired about 1850. The interior of the church, of the Ionic order, is 51 feet long, 45 wide, and 30 high. It was restored in 1829 at a cost of about £2400. The presentation to the conjoined rectory is in the gift of the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's. The Rev. R. H. Barham (Thomas Ingoldsby) died in 1845, rector of the united parishes. In April 1532 a memorable scene took place in the old church. James Rainham, a barrister of the Middle Temple, who had been persuaded by Sir Thomas More and the rack to recant, had no peace of mind until he declared his repentance.

And immediately the next Sunday after he came to St. Augustine's, and made a public confession and abjuration of his recent weakness.-Foxe, Acts and Monuments, vol. iv. p. 702.

Augustine's (St.) in the Wall, in LIME STREET WARD, a parish church so called, says Stow, "for that it stood adjoining to the wall of the City." Also known as St. Augustine's Papey. It was originally a rectory in the patronage of the Prior and Convent of Holy Trinity; but in the beginning of the 15th century it was united to the Parish of All Hallows in the Wall. About the year 1430 the church was conveyed by the Rector of the united parish to the Brethren of the Papey. Upon the suppression of the Fraternity in the reign of


1 Maitland, p. 376.


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Edward VI. the church was pulled down, and a stable and hayloft built in its place. The churchyard was reserved as a garden.

Austin Friars, OLD BROAD STREET, BROAD STREET WARD, the house of the Augustine Friars, founded by Humphrey Bohun, Earl of Hereford and Essex, in the year 1253. Henry VIII., at the Dissolution, bestowed the house and grounds on William Paulet, first Marquis of Winchester, who transformed his new acquisition into a town residence for himself, called, while it continued in his family, by the name of Paulet House and Winchester House (hence Winchester Street adjoining). The church, reserved by the King, was granted by his son "to the Dutch nation in London, to be their preaching place," the "Dutch nation" being the refugees who fled out of the Netherlands, France, "and other parts beyond seas, from Papist persecutors." Edward VI. records the circumstance in his Diary :


June 29, 1550.-It was appointed that the Germans should have the Austin Friars for their church, to have their service in, for avoiding of all sects of AnaBaptists, and such like.

The grant was confirmed by several successive sovereigns, and is enjoyed by the Dutch to this day. Originally the church was cruciform, had choir, chapels, and "a most fine spired steeple, small, high, and straight." Stow, who tells us this, adds, "I have not seen the like." But the church was then in a bad state, the steeple especially. The Mayor and Corporation "drew up a large letter," August 4, 1600, to the Marquis of Winchester, "in the most pathetic words and moving arguments, exciting him to go in hand with the work" of repairing the steeple, the fall of which, they say, "must needs bring with it not only a great deformity to the whole City, it being for architecture one of the beautifullest and rarest spectacles thereof; but also a fearful eminent danger to all the inhabitants next adjoining." But instead of repairing, the Marquis pulled down the spire and demolished the choir and transepts, leaving only to the Dutch congregation the nave of the old church. This, which Sir Gilbert Scott affirms is "a perfect model of what is most practically useful in the nave of a church," continued to be so used till November 1862, when all but the outer walls and the columns dividing the nave and aisles was destroyed in an accidental fire. The church was carefully and thoroughly restored (1863-1865), at a cost of £12,000, under the direction of Messrs. Edward l'Anson and William Lightly, architects, and is now in a more satisfactory condition than it has been since its threatened demolition in 1600.

For nearly three centuries the Austin Friars was a favourite burial place for the greatest nobles and the wealthiest citizens. Strype (Survey, B. ii. p. 115) names many distinguished personages; but a longer enumeration is preserved in Harl. MS., 6003, and in No. 544 of the same collection. John Vere, Earl of Oxford, beheaded 1643, and others who suffered on Tower Hill, and "many of the barons slain at Barnet Field, 1471," were buried there. A volume containing the marriage, baptismal, and burial registers from 1571 to 1874, edited

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by W. J. C. Moens, was privately printed and issued to subscribers in 1885. The church contains some very good decorated windows, restorations, or rather careful copies, of the originals. The interior is 150 feet long, divided into nine bays. The extreme width is 79 feet 7 inches, the nave being 34 feet 11 inches between centres of the shafts, and each side 22 feet 4 inches. The inner walls are of hard chalk, the exterior of Kentish rag.

The fittings are of course arranged

in accordance with the practice of the Dutch Church.

On the west end over the skreen is a fair library, inscribed thus: "Ecclesiæ Londino-Belgica Bibliotheca, extructa sumptibus Mariæ Dubois, 1659." In this library are divers valuable MSS., and Letters of Calvin, Peter Martyr, and others, foreign Reformers.-Strype, B. ii. p. 116.

Happily this collection of books was saved from the Fire, and shortly after was presented by the congregation to the City, and deposited in the Guildhall Library.

Lord Winchester died in 1571, and was succeeded by his son, who sold "the monuments of noblemen, buried there, for £100; made fair stabling for horses, in place thereof, and sold the lead from the roofs and laid it anew with tile.”1 In 1602 the necessities of the fourth Marquis of Winchester were such, that he was compelled to part with his house and property in Austin Friars to John Swinnerton, a merchant, afterwards Lord Mayor. Sir Philip Sidney's friend, Fulke Greville, then an inhabitant of Austin Friars, communicates his alarm about the purchase to the Countess of Shrewsbury, another tenant of the Marquis of Winchester, in that quarter:

Since my return from Plymouth, I understand my Lord Marquis hath offered his house for sale, and there is one Swinnerton, a merchant, that hath engaged himself to deal for it. The price, as I hear, is £5000, his offer £4500; so as the one's need, and the other's desire, I doubt will easily reconcile this difference of price between them. In the mean season I thought it my duty to give your ladyship notice, because both your house and my lady of Warwick's are included in this bargain; and we, your poor neighbours, would think our dwellings desolate without you, and conceive your ladyship would not willingly become a tenant to such a fellow.-Letter, September 23, 1602 (Lodge's Illus., 8vo ed., vol. ii. p. 580.


In 1612 a petition was presented to the Lord Treasurer from the "Dutch Church in London, called the Austin Friars, or Jesus Temple," begging "that the tenure of the land which they have bought of the Marquis of Winchester for a churchyard may be changed into free soccage, it being now held in capite." 2 Lady Anne Clifford (Ann Pembroke, Dorset, and Montgomery) was married to the Earl of Dorset in her mother's chambers in Austin Friars House, February 25, 1608-1609.3 Erasmus, during one of his visits to London (1513), lodged in Austin Friars, and took his meals in the Convent. Malt liquor did not agree with him, and he complains of the difficulty of procuring good wine.* Sir Thomas Wentworth (Lord Strafford) writes to Lord Darcy from Austin Friars, January 9, 1621: Dr. Mead gave up his house in

1 Stow, p. 67.

2 Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, 16111618, p. 133.

3 Birch's Prince Henry, p. 140.

4 Johnson's Life of Erasmus, vol. i. p. 42.

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