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In this weight the words gross and net are used. Gross weight is the weight of the goods, with the boxes, casks, or bags in which they are contained. Net is the weight. of the goods only; or what remains after deducting from the gross weight the weight of the boxes, casks, or bags.
According to the old method of weighing, which was adopted from the English system, 112 pounds make what was called one hundred weight. But at the present time the merchants in our principal cities buy and sell by the 100 pounds.
T. cwt. qr.
16 drams dr. make 1 ounce, marked Oz.
qr. 4 quarters 1 hundred weight, cut. 20 hundred weight, 1 ton,
25= 400= 6400
1= 16 Note 1. Read the table across the page downward, thus, 16 drams make 1 ounce, 16 ounces make 1 pound, 28 pounds make 1 quarter, 4 quarters 1 hundred, and 20 hundreds 1 ton.
Note 2.. We can always see from the tables, by read. ing them from the left to the right, the value of any unit expressed in each of the lower denominations. Thus, 1 ounce is equal to 16 drams, 1 pound equal to 16 ounces, equal to 256 drams, &c.
82. What is the standard avoirdupois pound of the United States ? For what is this weight used? What is the meaning of the terms grass and net ?
What is a hundred weight? How are goods now generally bought and sold? How is the table to be read? How can you determine, from the table, the value of any unit in units of the lower denominations?
1. Reduce 5 T. 8cwt. 3qr. 247b. 13oz. 14dr. to drams.
20 We first multiply by 20 and add
108 in the 8 hundred : we next multi
4 ply by 4 and add in the 3qr.; next
435 by 25 and add in the 241b.; next
25 by 16 and then add in the 130%. ;
10899 and finally by 16 and add in the
16 2790366 drams.
2. Reduce 27T. 17cwt. 29qr. 2176. to ounces.
Ans. 9041360z. 3. Reduce 94T. 19cwt. Iqr. to quarters.
Ans. 7597qr. 4. Reduce 3124446 drams to tons.
4)488 ... Oqr. 210)12|2 ... 2cwt.
Ans. 6T. 2cwt. Oqr. 41b. 130. 14dr. 5. Reduce 108910592 drams to tons.
Ans. 212T. 14cwt. 1qr. 71b. 6. Reduce 2998128 ounces to tons.
Ans. 93T. 13cwt. 3qr. Blb.
83. Gold, silver, jewels, and liquors, are weighed by this weight. The standard Troy pound of the United States, as determined by Mr. Hassler, is the weight of 22.794377 cubic inches of distilled water. Hence, it is less than the pound avoirdupois. Its denominations are pounds, ounces, pennyweights, and grains.
24 grains, gr.
make 1 pennyweight, marked pwt. 20 pennyweights 1 ounce 12 ounces
1. Reduce 1676. 110. 15pwt. to pennyweights.
In this example, we first mul
192 tiply by the number of ounces
11 oz. added. in a pound, and then add the
203 ounces; we then multiply by 20, and add the pennyweights.
20 prot. in an oz. 4060
15 pwt. added.
4075 pennyweights. 2. In 25lb. 9oz. Opwt, 20gr., how many grains ?
83. What things are weighed by Troy weight? What is tho standard pound? What are its denominations ? Repeat the table.
3. Reduce 6490gr. to pounds.
We first divide by the number of grains
24) 6490 in a pwt.; then by the 210)2710 10gr. remainder. puts. in an oz.; then 12)13.. 10pwt. remainder. by the ounces in a lb.
1 loz, remainder.
Ans. llb. loz. 10pwt. 10gr. 4. In 678618 grains, how many pounds ?
Ans. 117lb. 9oz. 15pwt. 18gr. 5. Reduce 8794prot. to pounds.
Ans. 361b. 6oz. 14pwt. 6. Reduce 756412pwt. to pounds. Ans. 7. In 8972641b., how many grains ?
84. This weight is used by apothecaries and physicians in mixing their medicines. Its denominations are pounds, ounces, drams, .scruples, and grains. The pound and ounce are the same as the pound and ounce in the Troy weight; the difference between the two weights consists in the different divisions and subdivisions of the
1 ounce, 12 ounces
84. What is the use of the Apothecaries' weight? What are its denominations ? Of what value are the pound and the ounce ? Repeat the table.
1. Reduce 91 83 63 20 12gr., to grains. We first multiply by the num
OPERATION. ber of ounces in a 16., and at
9 the same time add in the ounces.
12 We next multiply by the num
116 ounces. ber of drams in an ounce, and
8 add in the drams: we then mul.
934 drams. tiply by the number of scruples
3 in a dram, and add in the scru
2804 scruples. ples; and lastly, we multiply
20 by 20 and add in the grains.
Ans. 56092 grains. 2. Reduce 2710 93 63 19 to scruples.
Ans. 8011 scruples. 3. Reduce 941 113 13 to drams. Ans. 9113 drams.
85. This measure is used to measure distances, lengths, breadths, heights, depths, &c. Its denominations are barleycorns, inches, feet, yards, fathoms, rods, fur. longs, and miles.
3 barleycorns, bar. make 1 inch, marked in. 12 inches
'1 foot, 3 feet
yd. 5} yards or 16 feet 1 rod, perch, or pole, rd. 40 rods
fur. 8 furlongs or 320 rods
mi. 3 miles
L. 60 geographical or 691
- deg. or statute miles 360 degrees
S a great circle, or circum.
ference of the earth.
85. When is Long Measure used? What are its denominations ? Repeat the table. What is a fathom? What is a hand?