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CLOTH MEASURE.

89. Cloth measure is used for measuring all kinds of cloth. Its denominations are Ells French, Ells English, Ells Flemish, yards, quarters, nails, and inches.

TABLE.

nd.

24 inches, in.
4 nails
4 quarters
3 quarters
5 quarters
6 quarters

make 1 nail, marked

1 quarter of a yard, qr.
1 yard,

yd.
1 Ell Flemish, E. FI.
1 Ell English

E. E. 1 El French E. Fr.

EXAMPLES.

1. In 35yd. 3gr. 3na., how many nails ?

OPERATION. We first reduce the yards to quar

35 ters and add in the 3qr.; we next re

4 duce the quarters to nails and add in

143 the 3 Dails.

4

Ans. 575 na. 2. Reduce 49 Ells English to nails. Ans. 980na. 3. Reduce 51 Ells Flemish, 2qr. 3na. to nails.

Ans. 623na. 4. In 3278 nails, how many yards ?

OPERATION. We first divide by 4, which

4):278 brings the number to quarters, and then again by 4,

4)519 .. 2na. which brings it to yards.

204 . . 3qr.

Ans. 204yd. 3qr. 2na. 5. Reduce 340 nails to Ells Flemish.

Ans. 28 E. Fl. lqr. 6. In 67 quarters, how many yards ? Ans. 16yd. 3qr.

89. For what is cloth measure used? What are its denominations ? Repeat the table.

LIQUID MEASURE. 90. The standard gallon of the United States is the wine gallon of Great Britain, and contains 231 cubic inches. This is the standard for all liquids. The denominations of liquid measure are tuns, pipes, hogsheads, barrels, gallons, quarts, pints, and gills.

TABLE.

1 pipe,

4 gills, gi. make

1 pint,

marked pt. 2 pints 1 quart,

qt. 4 quarts 1 gallon,

gal. 81} gallons

1 barrel,

bar. 63 gallons

1 hogshead,

hhd. 2 hogsheads

pi. 2 pipes or 4 hogsheads 1 tun,

tun. tun. pi. hhd. bar. gal. qt. pt. gi. 1=2=4 = 8.= 252 = 1008 = 2016 = 8064 1=2=4 = 126 = 504 = 1008 = 4032 1-2 = 63 = 252 = 504 – 2016

311 126 = 252 = 1008
1=

32

8 1= 4

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1=

4= 1=

8 = 2 =

EXAMPLES.

1. In 5 tuns 1 hogshead of wine, how many gallons ?

OPERATION.

5
4

We first multiply by 4, the number of hogsheads in a tun, and add in the 1 hogshead, after which we reduce to gallons.

21
63

63

126
Ans. 1323 gal.

90. What is measured by liquid ineasure? What are its denomimations ? Repeat the table. What is the content of the wine gallon ?

2. Reduce 12 pipes 1 hogshead and 1 quart of wine to pints.

Ans. 12602pt. 3. In 1 tun of cider, how many gills ? Ans..8064. 4. In 10584 quarts of wine, how many tuns ?

4)10584

7)2646
63=7X9

9)378
4)42

Ans. 10tuns 2hhd. 5. Reduce 201632 gills to tuns. Ans. 25tuns igal. 6. Reduce 16128 gills of cider to luns. Ans. Atuns.

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ALE OR BEER MEASURE. 91. In the English ale or beer measure 36 gallons make a barrel, and 54 gallons a hogshead. Its denominations are hogsheads, barrels, gallons, quarts, and pints.

TABLE.
2 pints, pt.
make 1 quart,

marked qt.
4 quarts -
1 gallon,

gal. 36 gallons

1 barrel,

bar. 54 gallons

1 hogshead, - hhd.
hhd. bar. gal. qt. pt.
l=l}=54=216=232
1=36=144=288
1= 4= 8

1- 2

.

EXAMPLES.

1. Reduce 47bar. 16gal. 4qt. to pints. Ans. 13672pt.

. 2. In 27hhd. of beer, how many pints? Ans. 11664. 3. In 55832 pints of beer, how many hogsheads ?

Ans. 4. In 64972 quarts of beer, how many barrels ?

Ans. 451bar. 7gal.

91. What are the denominations of ale or beer measure ? Repeat the table.

DRY MEASURE.

92. Dry measure is used in measuring all dry. arti. cles, such as grain, fruits, roots, salt, coal, &c. Its denominations are chaldrons, bushels, pecks, quarts, and pints.

TABLE.

2 pints, pt.
make 1 quart,

marked gt.
8 quarts
1 peck, ·

pk.
4 pecks
i bushel,

bu.
36 bushels

1 chaldron,

ch.
ch. b. pk. gt. pt.
1=36=144=1152=2304
1= 4= 32= 64
1= 8= 16

1 2

Note. A gallon dry measure contains 268.8 cubic inches. A Winchester bushel is 182 inches in diameter, 8 inches deep, and contains 2150.4 cubic inches. This is the standard bushel adopted in the United States.

EXAMPLES.

1. In 372 bushels, how many pints? Ans. 23808. 2. In 5 chaldrons 31 bushels, now many pecks ?

Ans. 3. In 17408 pints, how many

bushels ? Ans. 272. 4. In 4220 pints, how many

chaldrons ? Ans. Ich. 29bu. 3pk. 6qt.

TIME 93. The denominations of time are years, months, weeks, days, hours, minutes, and seconds.

92. For what is dry measure used? What are its denominations? Repeat the table. What is the content of a gallon? How large is a Winchester bushel? What is the standard in the United States?

m.

mo.

Julian year,

yr. wk.

m.

sec.

1=

1 =

=

60 seconds, sec. make 1 minute, marked 60 minutes

1 hour,

hr. 24 hours

1 day,

da.
7 days
1 week,

wk. 4 weeks

1 month, 13mo. Ida. and 6hrs., 1 common or

yr.
or 365da. 6hrs.

da. hr:
1=52=3654=8766=525960=31557600

7 = 168= 10080= 604800

24 = 14405 86400
1= 60= 3600
1=

60 The whole days only are reckoned. The odd six hours, by accumulating for 4 years, make one day, so that every fourth

year contains 366 days. This is called the Bissextile, or Leap year.

Although the year is reckoned at 365da. 6hr., it is in fact but 365da. 5hr. 48m. 48sec., and the difference by accumulating for 100 years makes about 1 day, so that the centennial years are not leap years. The leap years are exactly divisible by 4. They are 1840, 1844, &c.

The year is also divided into 12 calendar months, which contain an unequal number of days.

Names.

No. of Days. 1 month January,

31
February,

28
3
March,

31
4
April,

30
May,

31
6
June,

30
July,

31

31
September,

30
10
October,

31
11
November,

30
12
December,

31

Total 365 The additional day, when it occurs, is added to the month of February, so that this month has 29 days in the Leap year.

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August,

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