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10 Mills marked (m) make 1 Cent, marked ct.
10 Cents

1 Dime,

d. 10 Dimes

1 Dollar, 10 Dollars

1 Eagle, - E.

67. The above table is read, ten mills make one cent, ten cents one dime, ten dimes one dollar, ten dollars one eagle. It is thus seen, that ten units of each denomina. tion make one unit of the denomination next higher, the same as in simple numbers. Therefore,

The denominations of Federal money here expressed may be added, subtracted, multiplied, and divided, by the same rules that have already been given for simple numbers.

NUMERATION TABLE.

Tens of dollars or eagles.
Tens of cents or dimes.
Dollars.

1 6 4,

O

57, is read, 5 cents and 7 mills, or 57 mills.

16 cents and 4 mills, or 164 mills. 62,1 20, 62 doli 12 cents and no mills. 27,6 23, 27 dollars, 62 cents and 3 mills. 40,0 41, 40 dollars, 4 cents and 1 mill.

67. Repeat the table. How many units of either denomination make one of the next higher? How do simple numbers increase from the right to the left? How may Federal money be added, subtracted, multiplied, and divided ?

68. In numerating Federal money, what is the figure on the right called ? The second ? The third ? The fourth ? How do you separate the dollars from the cents? How is Federal money generally read ?

68. As dimes are tens of cents, the second line may either be read 16 cents and 4 mills, or 1 dime 6 cents and 4 mills. And as the eagles are tens of dollars, the third line may be read 62 dollars and 12 cents, or 6 eagles 2 dollars and 12 cents.

The comma, or separatrix, is generally used to separate the cents from the dollars. It is not usual to place the comma between the cents and mills. Thus, $67,25 6 is read 67 dollars 25 cents and 6 mills.

Federal money is generally read in dollars cents and mills.

REDUCTION OF FEDERAL MONEY.

69. Reduction of Federal money consists in changing its denominations without altering its value. It is divi. ded into two parts.

1st. To reduce from a higher denomination to a lower, as from dollars to cents.

2d. To reduce from a lower denomination to a higher, as from mills to dollars.

From the table it appears,

1st. That cents may be changed into mills by annexing a cipher.

Thus, 8 cents are equal to 80 mills.

2d. That dollars may be changed into cents by annexing two ciphers, and into mills by annexing three.

For example, 12 dollars are equal to 1200 cents, or to 12000 mills. The reason of these rules is evident, since 10 mills make a cent, 100 cents a dollar, and 1000 mills a dollar.

69. What is reduction ? How many kinds of reduction are there? Name them. How may cents be changed into mills? How may dollars be changed into cents? How into mills ? To how many cents are 12 dollars equal ? To how many mills are they equal ? How many cents in 4 dollars? How many in 6 dollars ? How many mills in 9 dollars? How many mills in 5 dollars? How many cents in 3 dollars? In 8 dollars? In 7 dollars?

EXAMPLES.

1. Reduce 25 eagles 8 dollars 65 dimes and 35 cents, to the denomination of cents.

OPERATION

25 10

Eagles the highest denomination
Dollars make one eagle
Product in dollars
Add the number in the denomination of dollars

The number of dimes in a dollar
Product in dimes
Add the number in the denomination of dimes

250

8 258

10 2580

65 2645

10 26450

35 26485

Number of cents in a dime
Product in cents
Cents to be added
Total number of cents

2. In 3 dollars 60 cents and 5 mills: how many mills ? 3 dollars=300 cents,

60 cents to be added, 360=3600 mills, to which add the 5 mills.

Ans. 3605. 3. In 37 dollars 37 cents 8 mills: how many mills ?

Ans. 37378. 4. In 375 dollars 99 cents 9 mills: how many mills ?

Ans. 375999. 5. How many mills in 67 cents ?

Ans. 6. How many mills in $54 ?

Ans. 54000. 7. How many cents in $125 ?

Ans. 12500. 8. In $400, how many cents ? How many mills ? 9. In $375, how many cents ? How many mills ? 10. How many mills in $4 ? In $6 ? In $10,14 cents ? 11. How many mills in $40,36 cents 8 mills ? 12. How many mills in 71,45 cents 3 mills?

70. As we change dollars into cents by adding two ciphers, and cents into mills by adding one, it follows that, to change mills into dollars cepts and mills, we have the following

RULE. Cut off the right-hand

figure for mills, and the figures to the will be cents. Then cut off the two next figures for cents, and the remaining figures to the left will be dollars.

The reason of the rule is this : by cutting off the first right-hand figure, we in fact divide by 10, and thus re. duce the mills to cents. Then by cutting off the next two figures, we divide by 100; and thus reduce the cents to dollars.

EXAMPLES.

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1. How many dollars cents and mills, are there in 67897 mills ?

Ans. $67,89 7. 2. Set down 104 dollars 69 cents and 8 mills.

Ans. $104,69 8. 3. Set down 4096 dollars 4 cents and 2 mills.

Ans. 4. Set down 100 dollars 1 cent and 1 mill.

Ans. $100,01 1. 5. Write down 4 dollars and 6 mills.

Ans. 4,00 6. 6. Write down 109 dollars and 1 mill. Ans. 7. Write down 65 cents and 2 mills. Ans. $0,65 2. 8. Write down 2 mills.

Ans. $0,00 2. 9. Reduce 1607 mills, to dollars and cents.

Ans. 10. Reduce 170464 mills, to dollars. Ans. $170,46 4. 11. Reduce 8674416 mills, to dollars. 12. Reduce 94780900 mills, to dollars. 13. Reduce 74164210 mills, to dollars.

70. How do you change mills into cents? How do you change cents into dollars ? How do you separate the mills from the cents ? How the cents from the dollars ?

71. The parts of a dollar are sometimes expressed fractionally, as in the following

TABLE.

=100 cents, of a dollar=121 cents, } of a dollar= 50 cents, to of a dollar= 10 cents,

of a dollar=33] cents, jo of a dollar= 61 cents, of a dollar= 25 cents, zo of a dollar= 5 cents, of a dollar= 20 cents, ! į of a cent = 5 mills.

ADDITION OF FEDERAL MONEY.

1. Charles gives 91 cents for a top, and 31 cents for 6 quills : how much do they cost him? Ans. 13 cents.

2. John gives $1,371 for a pair of shoes, 25 cents for a penknife, and 12 cents for a pencil : how much does he pay for all ? We first recollect that half a cent is

OPERATION. equal to 5 mills. We then place the $1, 37 5 mills under each other, the cents under

25 cents, and the dollars under dollars. We

12 5 then add as in simple numbers.

$1, 75

3. James gives 50 cents for a dozen oranges, 124 cents for a dozen apples, and 30 cents for a pound of raisins : how much for all ?

OPERATION. $0, 50

12 5

30

$0, 92 5

72. Hence, for the addition of Federal money, we have the following

71. How many cents in a dollar? In half a dollar? In a third of a dollar ? In a fourth of a dollar ? In the fifth of a dollar ? In the eighth of a dollar? In the tenth of a dollar.? In the sixteenth of a dollar? In the twentieth of a dollar? How many mills in half a cent?

72. How do you set down Federal money for addition? How do you add up the columns ? How do you place the separating point ?

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