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2. Proy Jeight. 24 grains (gros) make 1 penny-weight, markicu pul, 20 penny-weights,

1 ounce, 12 ounces, 1 pound,

16 3. Augirdupis Weights 16 drauts (dr.) mako

1 ounce, 16 ounces,

1 pound,

1. 28 pounds, i quarter of a hundred weight, 4 quarters,

1 hundred weig, ce 20 hundred weight, 1 ten,

By this weight are veighed all coarse and drossy goods grocery wares, and all metals except gold and silver.

4. Spoluecaries Weiglus 20 grains (8.) maka 1 scrupie, S scruples,

1 dram, S drants,

1 ounce, T2 ounces,

1 pound,

16 Apothecaries use this weight in compounding their medicines.

5. Clath Measure.

4 mils (nas) make 1 quarter of a gird, gr. 4 quarters,

i fart,

yd. s quarters,

1 El Ficmista i quarters,

1 Ell English E. i quarters,

1 El French,

6. Dry cleasure. 2 pinis (pt.) make

1 quart, 8 quarts,

1 peck,

zl. 4 peckz

2 bushel, This measure is applied to gain, bens, fas-see, ests, oysters, coal,

7. Wine Measure.

at.

4 gills (gi.) make

1 pint, 2 pints,

1 quart, 4 quarts, 1 gallon,

gal. S15 gallons, 1 barrel,

bl. 42 gallons, 1 tierce,

tier. 63 gallons, 1 hogshead,

Ihd. 2 hogsheads,

1.
2 pipes,
1 tun,

I. All brandies, spirits, mead, vinegar, oil, &c. are measured by wine measure. Note.-231 solid inches, make a gallon.

1 pipe,

d.

8. Long Measure, 3 barley corns (b.c.) make 1 inch, marked int. 12 inches,

1 foot,

ft. S feet,

1 yard, 55 yards,

1 rod, pole, or perch, rd. 40 rods,

1 furlong,

fur. 8 furlongs,

1 mile, 3 miles,

1 league,

lea. 69} statute miles,

1 degree, on the earth. 360 degrees, the circumference of the earth.

The use of lor measure is to measure the distance of places, or any other thing, where length is considered, without regard to breadth.

N. B. In measuring the height of horses, 4 inches make 1 hand. In measuring depths, six feet make 1 fathorn, or French toise. Distances are measured by a chain, four rods long, containing one hundred links.

9. Land, or Square Measure. 144 square inches make

1 square foat. 9 square feet,

1 square yard. 50+ square yards, or ? 2724 square feet,

I square rod. 40 square rods,

1 square rood, 4 square roods,

1 square acre, 640 square acres,

I square inile.

10. Solid or Cubic Measure. 1798 solid inches make

1 solid toote
40 feet of round timber, or?

1 ton or load.
50 feet of hewn timber,
128 solid feet or 8 feet long,

1corů of word. 4 wide, and 4 high, All solids, or things that have length, breadth and depti, are measured by this measure. N. B. The wine gallon contains 231 solid or cubic inches, and the beer gallon, 282. A bushel contains 2150,42 solid inches.

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Time. 60 seconds (S.) make 1 minute, marked

S. Mi 60 minutes,

1 hour, 24 hours,

1 day,

à. 7 days,

1 week, 4 weeks,

1 month, 13 months, 1 day and 6 hours, 1 Julian ycar's yr. Thirty days hath September, April,June, and November, February twenty-eight alone, all the rest have thirty-one.

N. B. In bissextile, or leap year, February hath 29 days.

12. circular Motion. 60 seconds (TM) make 1 minute, 60 minutes,

1 degree, S0 degrees,

sign,

S. & signs, or 360 degrees, the whole great circle of the

Explanation of Characters used in this Book

Equal to, as 12d. 1s. signifies that 12 peace arc equal to 1 shilling * More, the sign of addition, as 5+7==19, signites

that 5 and 7 added together are cqual to 12

Minus, or less, the sign of subtraction, as we signifies that 2 subtracted from 6, leaves 4. X Multiply, or with, the sign of Multiplication is

4x3=12, signifies that 4 multiplied by 5, is equai Les 12.

The sign of Division ; 35 3=, signifies that 8 divideit by 2, is equal to of; or thas, =-4, each of which signily the same things

:: Four points set in the muldle of lour numbers, denoies

them to be proportional to cre anothier, by the rule of three; as 2:4::8:16; that is, as 3 to 4. so is a to 16.

✓ Prefixed to any number, supposes that the squaresp. of thatnumber is required.

Prefixed to any number, supposes the cube root of t.. number is required.

Denoles the biquadrile root, er fourth powex *

** AR IT H M ETIC.

A RITHMETIC is the art of computing by numbers, and has five principal rules for its operation, viz. Numeration, Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, and Divi

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Nomeration is the art of numbering. It teaches to foress the value of any proposed number by the following characters, or figures:

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 0–6, cypher.

Yesides the simple value of figures, each has a local waite, which depends upon the place it stands in, viz. toy figure in the place of units, represents only its sim;3 value, or so many ones, but in the second place, or

Note.—Although a cypher standing alone signifies nothing; yet when it is placed on the right hand of figures, it increases their value in a tenfold proportion, by throwing them into higher places. Thus 2 with a cypher annexed to it, becomes 20, twenty, and with two cyphers, thus, 200, two itindred,

3. When numbers consisting of many figures, are given to 'o read, it will be found convenient to divide them into as gally periods as we can, of six figures each, reckoning from file right hand towards the left, calling the first the period of fits, the second that of millions, the third billions, the fourth sińczs, &c. as in the following number:

§ {} 7 3 to 2 5 4 6 2 7 & 9 0 1 2 5 0 6 7 9 2

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', he foregoing number is read thus—Eight thousand and Sooty-three trillions; six hundred and twenty-five thouand, for hundred and sixty-two billions; seven hundred and ine thousand and twelve millions; five hundred and and, seven hundred and ninety-two.

N. B. Billions is substitute i for millions of millions.

'i' ilions for millions of millions ef millions. Quatrillions for millions of mills us of millions of millions, te.

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