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2. Proy Jeight. 24 grains (gros) make 1 penny-weight, markicu pul, 20 penny-weights,

1 ounce, 12 ounces, 1 pound,

16 3. Augirdupis Weights 16 drauts (dr.) mako

1 ounce, 16 ounces,

1 pound,

1. 28 pounds, i quarter of a hundred weight, 4 quarters,

1 hundred weig, ce 20 hundred weight, 1 ten,

By this weight are veighed all coarse and drossy goods grocery wares, and all metals except gold and silver.

4. Spoluecaries Weiglus 20 grains (8.) maka 1 scrupie, S scruples,

1 dram, S drants,

1 ounce, T2 ounces,

1 pound,

16 Apothecaries use this weight in compounding their medicines.

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5. Clath Measure.

4 mils (nas) make 4 quarters, s quarters, i quarters, i quarters,

1 quarter of a gird, gr.
i fart,

yd.
1 El Ficmista E.M.
1 Ell English E.
1 El French,

6. Dry cleasure. 2 pinis (pt.) make

1 quart, 8 quarts,

1 peck,

zl. 4 peckz

2 bushel, This measure is applied to gain, bens, fas-see, ests, oysters, coal,

n. Wine Measure.

gt.

4 gills (gi.) make

1 pint,
2 pints,

1 quart,
4 quarts,
1 gallon,

gal. 315 gallons, 1 barrel,

El. 42 galions, 1 tierce,

tier. 63 gallons, 1 hogshead,

Nhd. 2 hogsheads,

p.
2 pipes,
1 tun,

T. All brandies, spirits, mead, vinegar, oil, &c. are measured by wine measure. Note.-231 solid inches, make a gallon.

1 pipe,

8. Long Measure.

int.

m.

S barley corns (b.c.) make 1 inch, marked 12 inches,

1 foot, 3 feet,

1 yard,

yd. 54 yards,

1 rod, pole, or perch, rd. 40 rods,

1 furlong,

fur. 8 furlongs,

1 mile, 3 miles,

1 league,

lea. 694 statute miles,

1 degree, on the earth. 360 degrees, the circumference of the earth. The use of long measure is to measure the

stance of places, or any other thing, where length is considered, without regard to breadth.

N. B. In measuring the height of horses, 4 inches make 1 hand. In measuring depths, six feet make 1 fathom, or French toise. Distances are measured by a chain four rods long, containing one hundred links.

9. Land, or Square Measure. 144 square inches make

1 square foat. 9 square feet,

1 square yard. 50+ square yards, or ? 2724 square feet,

I square rod. 40 square rods,

1 square rood, 4 square roods,

1 square acre, 640 square acres,

I square inile.

10. Solid or Cubic Measure. 1798 solid inches make

1 solid toote
40 feet of round timber, or?

1 ton or load.
50 feet of hewn timber,
128 solid feet or 8 feet long,

1corů of word. 4 wide, and 4 high, All solids, or things that have length, breadth and depti, are measured by this measure. N. B. The wine gallon contains 231 solid or cubic inches, and the beer gallon, 282. A bushel contains 2150,42 solid inches.

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11. Time. 60 seconds (S.) make 1 minute, marked

S. Mi 60 minutes,

1 hour, 24 hours,

1 day,

à. 7 days,

1 week, 4 weeks,

1 month, 13 months, 1 day and 6 hours, 1 Julian ycar's yr. Thirty days hath September, April,June, and November, February twenty-eight alone, all the rest have thirty-one.

N. B. In bissextile, or leap year, February hath 29 days.

12. circular Motion. 60 seconds (TM) make 1 minute, 60 minutes,

1 degree, S0 degrees,

sign,

S. & signs, or 360 degrees, the whole great circle of the

Explanation of Characters used in this Book

Equal to, as 12d. = ls. signifies that 12 poncc arc equal to 1 shilling * More, the sign of addition, as 5+7=19, signifies

that 5 and 7 added together are equal to 12

Minus, or less, the sign of subtraction, as die signifies that 2 subtracted from 6, leaves 4. X Multiply, or with, the sign of Multiplication ; 4x3=12, signifies that 4 multiplied by 5, is equai iu 12.

* The sign of Division; as 8-=-=4, signifies that &

divided by 2, is cqual to 4; or thus, 4, each

which signify the same things :: Four points set in the muldle of four numbers, denoie

them to be proportional to one another, by the rule of three; as 2:4::8:16; that is, as 3 to 4, so is a to 16.

Prefixed to any number, supposes that the square media

of that number is required. 3. Prefixed to any number, supposes the cube root of t...

number is required.

Denotes the biquadrále root, or fourth powes,

ARITHMETIC is the art of computing by zumbas, and has five principal rules for its operation, viz. Numevation, Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, and Divi sion,

NUMERATION. Numeration is the art of numbering. It teaches to popress the value of any proposed number by the followil characters, or figures :

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, D Or cypher.

les the simple value of figures, each has a local value, which depends upon the place it stands in, viz. y figure in the place of units, represents only its simde value, or so many ones, but in the second place, or

Note.--Although a cypher standing alone signifies nothing; yet when it is placed on the right hand of figures, itincreases their value in a tenfold proportion, by throwing them into higher places. Thus 2 with a cypher annexed to its becomes 20, twenty, and with two cyphers, thus, 200, two bundred,

2. When numbers consisting of many figures, are given to He read, it will be found convenient to divide them into ag bany periods as we can, of six figures each, reckoning from be right hand towards the left, calling the first the period of inits, the second that of millions, the third billions, the fourth Glicus, &c. as in the following number:

30 7 3 6 5 4 6 2 7 9 0 1 2 5 0 67 9 5. Period of 3. Period of 1 2. Period of 11. Period of

Pritlions. Billioius. Millions. Units.

SC7S
625462
789012

506792 the foregoing number is read thus-Eight thousand and Sporty-thre: trillions ; six hundred and twenty-five thou4, four hundred and sixty-iwo billions ; seven

hundred and "hty-nine thousand and twelve millions; five hundred and Sathousand, seven hundred and ninety-two. X. B. Billions is substitute i for millions of millions. milions for millions of milions of millions.

Quatrillions for millions of millleus of millions of millions. &c.

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