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Rial Plate of Spain,
Milrea of Portugal,
Tale of China,
Pagoda of India,
Rupee of Bengal,

1. OF GREAT BRITAIN.

0 10
1 24

48
1 94

0 551

EXAMPLES.

1. In 45l. 10s. sterling, how many dollars and cents ?

A pound sterling being=444 cents, Therefore_As 1l. : 444cts. : : 45,51. : 20202cts. Ans. ;

2. In 500 dollars how many pounds sterling?
As 444cts. : 11. : : 50000cts. : 1121. 12s. 3d.- Aiis,

II. OF IRELAND.

EXAMPLES. 1. In 901. 10s. 6d. Irish money, how many cents ?

11. Irisli=410cts.
£. cts.

toi
cts.

Scts. Therefore-As I : 410 : : 90,525 : 3711515391, 151

%In 168 dols. 10 cts. how many pounds Irish ?
As 410cts. : 11. : : 16310cts. : £41 Irish. Ans.

III. OF FRANCE.
Accounts are kept in livres, sols and deniers.

12 deniers, or pence, make 1 sol, or shilling,

20 sols, or shillings, 1 livre, or pound. 1. In 250 livres, 8 sols, how many dollars and cents?

1 livre of France=18 cts. or 185 mills. £. mn. f

$. cts. 112. As 1 : 185 : : 250,4 : 46324=46, $2 4 Ans. 2. Reduce 87 dols. 45 cts. 7 m. into livres of France.

mills. liv. mills. liv. so. den.
As 185 :1: : 87457 : 472 14 lif Ans.

IV. OF THE U. NETHERLANDS. Accounts are kept here in guilders, stivers, groats and phennings.

8 phennings make 1 groat.
2 groats

1 stiver.
20 stivers

1 guilder, or florin A guider is=S9 cents, or 390 mills.

EXAMPLES.

m.

EXAMPLES.

iteduce 124 guilders, 14 stivers, into federal money.
Guil. cts.
Guil. S

d. c. m.
As 1 : 59 : : 124,7 : 48, 6 3 3 Ans.

wills. G. mills. G.
As 390 : 1 :: 48633 : 124,7 Proof.

V. OF HAMBURGH, IN GERMANY Accounts are kept in Hamburgh in marks, sous anil Jeniers-lubs, and by some in rix dollars.

12 lenjers-labs make 1 sous-lubs.
< 15 sous-lubs,

1 mark-lubs.
Stark-
las

i rix-dollar, NOTE.- mark is

55. cts. or just of a dollar.

RULE. Divide the marks by 5, the quotient will be dollars.

EXAMPLES.

Reduce 641 marks, 8 sous, to federal money.

S)641,5

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$213,835 Ans. But to reduce Federal Money into Marks, multiply the given sum by 3, &c.

IXAMPLES.

Reduce 121 dollars, 90 cts. into marks banco, 121,90

S

365,70=365 imarks 11 sous, 24 den. Sins. /

VI. OF SPAIN. Accounts are kept in Spain in piastres, rials and marvadies.

534 marvadies of plate make 1 wal of plate. 28 rials of plate

1 piastre or piece of 8. To reduce rials of plate to Federal Money. Since a rial of plate is 10 cents, or 1 time, you need only call the rials so many dimes, and it is done.

EXAMPLI.S.
485 ria's S-485 dimes, 48 dols. 50 cts. Secom

But to reduce cents into rials of plate, divide by 100 Thus, 845 cents:-10=84,5=84 rials, 17 inarvadies, &c*

VII. OF PORTUGAL. Accounts are kept throughout this kingdom in milreas, and reas, reckoning 1000 reas to a milrea.

Nore.-A mjirea is 124 cents; therefore, to reduce milreas into Federal Money, multiply by 124, and the product will be cents, and decimals of a cent.

EXAMPLES.

i. In 5-10 uireas how many cents ?

540x2=42100 cents,==8101, 60cts. Ans. 2. in 21! mirens, & reas, how many cents :

Nont.--"When the reas are less than 100, place a cypher before them.---Thus, 211,048x124=26169,952 cts. or 261 dols. (9 cents, 9 mills. + Ans.

But to reduce cents into milreas, divide them by 124; and if decimals arise, you must carry on the quotient as far as three decimal places; then the whole numbers thereof will be the milreas, and the decimals will be the

reas.

EXAMPLES.

1. In 4195 cents, how many milreas ?

4195-124=33,830+ or 63milr. 830reas. Ains, 2. In 24 dois. 92 cts. how many milccas of Portugal ?

Ans. 20 miilreas, 096 reas.
VIII. EAST INDII MONEY.
To reduce india zimney to Federal, viz.
( Tales of Cirna, multiply with 148
Pagodas of India,

194
Rupec of Bengal

55+
EXKMI'LES.
1. In 641 Tales of China, how many cents ?

Ans. 94868 2. In 50. Pagodas u India, how many cents ?

Ans. 9700 3. In 98 Rupees of Bengal, low many cents ?

Ans. 5439

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VULGAR FRACTIONS.

LGARA HAVING briefly introduced Vulgar Fractions immediately after reduction of whole numbers, and given some general definitions, and a few such problems therein as were necessary to

prepare

and lead the scholar immediately to decimals; the learner is therefore requested to read those general definitions in page 74.

Vulgar Fractions are either proper, improper, single, compound, or mixed.

1. A single, simple, or proper fraction, is when the numerator is less than the denominator, as } } , &c.

2. An Improper Fraction, is when the numerator exceeds the denominator, as $}

$}, c. 3. A Compound Fraciion, is the fraction of a fraction, coupled by the word of, thus, of it, i of of i, &c.

4. A Wired Number, is composed of a whole number and a fraction, thus, 8], 141, &c.

5. Any whole number may be expressed like a fraction by drawing a line under it, and puiting 1 for denominator, thus, š=, and 12 thus, 19, &c.

6. The common measure of two or more numbers, is that number which will divide each of them without a remainder; thus, 3 is the common measure of 12, 24 and S0; and the greatest number which will do this, is called the greatest common measure.

7. A nunver, which can be mcasured by two or more qunbers, is called their common multiple : and if it be the Jeast number that can be so measured, it is called the least common inultiple: thus, 24 is the common multiple of 2, 3 and 4; but their least common multiple is 12.

To find the least cominon multiple of two or more numbers.

RULE. 1. Divisie by any nuinber that will divide two or more of the given numbers without a remainder, and set the quotients, together with the undivided numbers, in a line hentati.

2. Divide the second line as before, ani so oa ??? there are no two ocubers !lint can be divided; tha

continued product of the divisors and quotients, will give the multiple required.

1. What is the least common multiple of 4,5,6 and 107 Operation, x5)4 5 6 10

EXAMPLES.

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5 X 2 X 2 XS=60 Ans. 3. What is the least common multiple of 6 and 8?

Ans. 24 S. What is the least number that 3, 5, 8 and 12 will measure ?

Ans. 120 4. What is the least number that can be divided by the 9 digits separately, without a remainder ? Ans. 2520

REDUCTION OF VULGAR KRACTIONS, IS the bringing them out of one form into another, in order to prepare them for the operation of Addition, Subtraction, &c.

CASE I. To abbreviate or reduce fractions to their lowest terms.

RULE. 1. Find a common measure, by dividing the greater term by the less, and this divisor by the remainder, and so on, always dividing the last divisor; by the last remainder, till nothing remains, the last divisor is the common measure. *

2. Divide both of the terms of the fraction by the coinmon measure, and the quotients will make the fraction required.

*Fo find the greatest common measure of nore than two numbers, you must find the greatest common measure of two of them as per rule above; then, of that common ineasure and one of the other numbers, azid so on through ell the numbers to the last; then will the greatest CAMERON GLGISUTE last for de the outer.

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