1. Divide a5+5a1x+10a3x2+10a2x3 +5ax1+x5 by a2+2ax+x2. Ans. a3+3a2x+3αx2+x3. 2. Divide a5-5a4+10a3—10a2+5a-1 by a3-3a2 +3a-1. Ans. a-2a+1. 3. Divide 24-a4 by x+x2a+xa2+a3. Ans. x-a. 4. Divide x5+y5 by x4x3y+x2y2—xy3+y^. Ans. x+y. 5. Divide 9x6-46x5 +95x2+150x by x2-4x-5. Ans. 9x4-10x+5x2-30x. 6. Divide 25x6-x1—2x3-8x2 by 5x3-4x2. Ans. 5x+4x+3x+2. 37. Verify by division the truth of the following expressions: (1.) -=x3 + x2α+xa2+a3. x4_a4 (2.) =x3 —x2 α + xα2 —a3. (3.) =x1+x3a+x2a2+xa3+a1. 25+a5 2a4 -=x3+x2α+xa2+a3+, -—x3—x2a+xa2—a3 + 2a. x+a (7.) = x2+x3a+x2 a2 + xa3 + a2+: x-a 25+a5 (8.) · = x + — x 3 a + x2a2—xa3 +a1. x+a 2a5 x+a The eight expressions given above are particular illustrations of the four following Theorems: 38. THEOREM I. The difference of the same powers of two quantities is always divisible by the difference of the quantities themselves, whether the exponents be even or odd. See 1st and 3d. 39. THEOREM II. The difference of the same powers of two quantities is divisible by the sum of the quantities without a remainder, if the exponent be even, but not if the exponent be odd. See 2d and 4th. 40. THEOREM III. The sum of the same powers of two quantities is never divisible by the difference of the quan tities without remainder, whether the exponents be odd or See 5th and 7th. even. 41. THEOREM IV. The sum of the same powers of two quantities is divisible without remainder, by the sum of the quantities, if the exponent be odd, but not if it be even. See 8th and 6th. ALGEBRAIC FRACTIONS. 42. The Rules for the management of Algebraic Fractions are the same with those in common arithmetic. CASE I. To reduce a mixed quantity to the form of a fraction. RULE. Multiply the integral part by the denominator of the fraction, and to the product annex the numerator with the same sign as the fraction; under this sum place the former denominator, and the result is the fraction required. Here 2a, the integral part, is multiplied by b, and x, the numerator, is added to the product, the sum of which forms the numerator; under which we write the former denomi2ab+x nator b, which gives the fraction required. , b 43. If the numerator be a compound quantity, and the fraction be preceded by the sign minus, the signs of all its terms must be changed by the rule for subtraction, (Art. 3. Reduce 15a2+x—— to the form of a fraction. 3a2+x2 Ans. a ab 15a3b+abx-x Ans. ab 44. CASE II. To reduce improper fractions to whole or mixed quantities. RULE. Divide the numerator by the denominator, as far as an integral quotient can be obtained; then write the remainder for the numerator, and the former denominator for the denominator of the fraction. Here 12a2 divides by 4a, and gives an integral quotient, so also does 4a divided by 4a; but 3c will not give an integral quotient when divided by 4a, therefore it is written as a fraction at the end with its proper sign. Ans. x+a. 45. LEMMA. To find the greatest common measure of two algebraic quantities; that is, the greatest quantity that will divide them both without leaving a remainder. RULE. Arrange the quantities according to the powers of the same letter, as in division, then divide that which contains the highest power of that letter by the other, and the last divisor by the remainder continually, till there be no remainder, the last divisor used is the greatest common measure. NOTE 1. If all the terms of one of the quantities be divisible by any simple quantity which does not divide every term of the other, since it cannot form a part of the common measure, it may be struck out of all the terms by dividing by that simple quantity before the general division is performed. NOTE 2. If the coefficient of the leading term of the dividend be not divisible by the coefficient of the leading term of the divisor, every term of the dividend may be multiplied by such a number as will make its coefficient divisible by that of the divisor without remainder; by this means fractions are avoided. NOTE 3. Place the quantities in two columns, so that the one which is to be the divisor may stand in the left hand column, and the other in the right; then divide the right hand column by the left, and place the quotient after the right hand column; then divide the left hand column by the remainder, (reduced, if necessary, by Note 1), and place the quotient before the left hand column; proceed in this manner till there be no remainder. EXAMPLE. Required the greatest common measure of the quantities a2+2ax+a2, and x3-a2x. 46. The process of finding the greatest common measure can often be much more elegantly performed, by reducing the quantities into factors by the theorems, at the end of multiplication and division; then the product of all the factors that are common to both quantities is the greatest common measure sought. The above example wrought in this way would be as under, x3—a2x—x(x2—a2)=x(x+a)(x—a), x2+2ax+ao =(x+a)(x+a). Thence x+a being the only factor common to both, is the greatest common measure. 1. Find the greatest common measure of a1-x1, and a3-2a2x+ax2-2x3. Ans. a2+x2. 2. Find the greatest common measure of x3+y3, and xx3y-xy3—y4. Ans. x+y. 3. Find the greatest common measure of 48x2+16x—15, and 24x3-22x2+17x-5. Ans. 12x-5. 4. Find the greatest common measure of x¤—ɑ6, and x2+4x3a+бx2a2+4xa3 +aa. Ans. x+a. 47. CASE III. To reduce fractions to their lowest terms. RULE. Divide both numerator and denominator by their greatest common measure, and the quotients will be the fraction in its lowest terms. 1. Reduce Here it will be found, that x-a is the greatest common measure; therefore we have the following:x3-a2x ÷ (x-a) 22+ax x3-3x2a+3xa2—a3 ÷ (x—a) ax+x2 3bx- -CX : = Ans. x2-2ax+a2° to its lowest terms. Ans. a+x 3b-c 48. CASE IV. To reduce fractions with different denominators, to equivalent ones having a common denomi nator. RULE 1. Multiply both numerator and denominator of each fraction by the product of the denominators of all the others; the resulting fractions will have a common denominator. RULE 2. Multiply the terms of each fraction by the quotient arising from dividing the least common multiple of all the denominators by its denominator; the resulting fractions will have the least common denominator. 49. NOTE. The least common multiple of several quantities is the least quantity that is divisible by each of them, without leaving a remainder. It may be found by resolving each of the quantities into its simplest factors, and then multiplying together all the separate factors that appear in the whole, using the highest power of each that appears in any one quantity. For example, let us find the least common multiple of (x3—a3)=(x2+xa+a2)(x—a), (x2—2ax+a2), =(x—a)2, x2—a2=(x+a)(x—a), it will be the product of (x2+xa+a3) (x-a)(x+a), because these are all the different factors which appear in the whole, and (x—a) is used in the second power, because appears in that power in one of them. EXAMPLE. it Reduce to a common denominator 3x 2a 4a' 12x' |