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Cayugu lake is 40 miles long, and from 2 10 4 broad, abounding with salmon, bass, eels, and cat fish.

Senoca lake is 40 miles long, and from 2 to 3 wide. Its outlet, the Scayacc, runs N. of E. 12 milcs, and falls into Cayuga lake near its month. Its length, from that lake to Mua creek, is about four. Crooked lake is 15 miles long and from 1 to 2 wide. A short stream connects it with the Seneca.

Canandagua lake is 15 miles long and nearly 2 broad. Mud lake, Honeyoy, Hemlock, and Canesus lakes are from 5 to 7 miles long.

Chataughque lake lies 9 miles from lake Erie. It is 18 miles long and 3 broad. Its waters flow through Connewango creek in10 the Allegany. Boats go from the head of this lake to New-Or. leans, a distance of 2430 miles.

Otsego and Caniaderago lakes are the two sources of the Sus. quehannah. The first is 9 miles long and I wide. The other is Rearly as large.

Oswegatchie lake is i8 miles long, and nearly parallel with the St. Lawrence.

Bays. New-York bay is 9 miles long and 4 broad, and spreads to the southward of Manhattan island; having Long island on the E. and New Jersey and Staten island on the W. On the N. it opens into the Hudson ; on the N. E. through East river, into the Sound; on the W. between Staten island and Bergen neck into Newark bay; and on the S. between Staten and Long islands, through the Narrows, into Amboy bay and the Atlantic.

South bay is an arm of lake Champlain, at its southwestern ex, tremity. Wood creek flows into the strait which joins it with the lake.

Hungry bay is an arm of the Ontario, 20 miles S. of the St. Law

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Mountains. The Catskill mountains are the highest land in the state. They lie within 2 miles of the Hudson, are estimated to exceed 4000 feet in height, and are said to be the N. E. termination of the Allegany ridge. Roundtop mountain, near Catskill (measured by Licut. Partridge) is 3560 feet above the level of the sca, and High Peak, in the same vicinity, is 3486 feet. A part of Taghconnuc mountain is in Columbia county. The highlands front upon the Hudson for 18 miles, and are between 40 and 60 N. of New-York. They are the N. E. termination of the Blue ridge.

Minerals. Iron ore is spread over the state. Lead is found in Herkimer county, and silver at Philipsburg. Mines of zinc und copper have been discovered. Slate and plaster of Paris are abundant. Coal, sulphur, marble and ising glass have also been found.

Mineral Waters. Ballstown springs, 30 miles N. of Albany, are in the bottom of a dason of about 50 acres in extent. The soil, for 6 miles around, is poor and sandy. The waters are strongly impregnated with iron, soda, common salt, and carbonic acid. Their temperature in summer is 49° of Fahrenheit. They are deemed a specific in loss of appetite and indigestion, and arc highly serviceable in hypochondriac and bilious cases, in obstructions

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and cutaneous disorders, and in the stone and gravel. They are hurtful in inflammatory disorders and consumptions.

Saratoga springs are 10 miles northeast from Ballstown. The ingredients are the same in both springs, but are strongest in those of Saratoga.

New-Lebanon spring is in the township of Canaan, 29 miles S. W. from Albany.

Islands. Long island is separated from Connecticut and the county of Westchester, by the sound; from York island by the East river ; and from Staten island by the Narrows. It is 140 miles long, and from 1 10 15 broad. When first discovered, Wayandance, the principal sachem in Suffolk county, lived at Montauk. The population of the island, in 1790, was 41,782 ; in 1800, 42,097 ; and in 1870, 48,752. It is divided into 3 counties, King's, Queen's, and Suffolk.

King's, at the west end of the island, is 10 miles long, and 8 broad, contains 6 townships, and is inhabited chiefly by Dutch. Its largest town is Brooklyn.

Queen's lics cast of King's, is 30 miles long, and 12 broad, contains 6 townships, and is inhabited partly by Dutch and partly by English. Hempstead, the most populous township, contains 5804 inhabitants. Suffuik is 100 miles long, and 10 broad, and compre. hends two thirds of the island. It contains 9 townships, and is inhabited almost wholly by English. It was first settled by emigrants from Lynn, in Massachusetts. A ridge of hills extends, on the north side of the island, from Jamaica to Southhold. The south sideischiefly flat land, naturally covered with yellow pines. King's county, and the western part of Queen's, have been rendered fertile and productive by husbandry. The greater part of Suffolk has a poor, thin soil, and much of it is not worth cultivaring. The north side is the best. Hempstead plain, in the eastern part of Queen's, is 16 miles long from east to west, and 8 broad. It is a perfect level, covered with nothing but a wild, rank grass, except in three or four places, in which are found a few trees of stinted growth : (these places are called Islands.) South of the plain, lies another, 2 miles wide, called the Shrub-oak plain, from its being every where covered with shrivelled shrub-oaks, none of which are above 4 feet high, and many of them probably 100 years old. An extensive shrub-oak plain also lies on the eastern border of Hempstead plain, but is in Suffolk county.

The eastern end of the island opens like a shark's mouth. The southern promontory, in the township of Easthampton, is 20 miles long and rarely more than I wide. The extremity is a cape, well known to mariners, called Montauk point; on which a light-house is erected. The northern promontory is chiefly in the township of Southhold, and is 12 miles long, and every where narrow. Its cape is called Oyster-pond point.

The principal rivers are Peconic river, which empties into Great bay, Connecticut river which empties on the S. side of the island. Roconkama pond, near the centre of the island, between Smithtown and Islip, is observed to rise and fall every 7 years.

Manhatian island lias already been described.

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Cayuga lake is 40 miles long, and from 2 to 4 broad, abounding with salmon, bass, eels, and cat fish.

Sencca lake is 40 miles long, and from 2 to 3 wide. Its outlet, the Scayace, runs N. of E. 12 miles, and falls into Cayuga lake near its nonth. Its length, from that lake to Muá creek, is about four. Crooked lake is 15 miles long and from 1 10 2 wide. A short stream connects it with the Seneca.

Canandagua lake is 15 miles long and nearly 2 broad. Mud lake, Honeyoy, Hemlock, and Canesus lakes are from 5 to 7 miles long

Chataughque lake lies 9 miles from lake Erie. It is 18 miles long and 3 broad. Its waters flow through Connewango creek into the Allegany. Boats go from the head of this lake to New-Or. leans, a distance of 2430 miles.

Otsego and Caniaderago lakes are the two sources of the Sus. quehannah. The first is 9 miles long and I wide. The other is nearly as large.

Oswegatchie lake is 18 miles long, and nearly parallel with the St. Lawrence.

Bays. New-York bay is 9 miles long and 4 broad, and spreads to the southward of Manhattan island; having Long island on the E. and New Jersey and Staten island on the W. On the N. it opens into the Hudson ; on the N. E. through East river, into the Sound; on the W. between Staten island and Bergen neck into Newark bay; and on the S. between Staten and Long islands, through the Narrows, into Amboy bay and the Atlantic.

South bay is an arm of lake Champlain, at its southwestern es, tremity. Wood creek flows into the strait which joins it with the lake.

Hungry bay is an arm of the Ontario, 20 miles S. of the St. Law. rence.

Mountains. The Catskill mountains are the highest land in the state. They lie within 2 miles of the Hudson, are estimated to exceed 4000 feet in height, and are said to be the N. E. termination of the Allegany ridge. Roundtop mountain, near Catskill (measured by Lieut. Partridge) is 3566 feet above the level of the sca, and High Peak, in the same vicinity, is 3486 feet. A part of Taghconduc mountain is in Columbia county. The highlands front upon the Hudson for 18 miles, and are between 40 and 60 N. of New-York. They are the N. E. termination of the Blue ridge.

Minerals. Iron ore is spread over the state. Lead is found in Herkimer county, and silver at Philipsburg. Mines of zinc und copper have been discovered. Slate and plaster of Paris are abundant. Coal, sulphur, marble and ising glass have also been found.

Mineral Waters. Ballstown springs, 30 miles N. of Albany, are in the bottom of a bason of about 50 acres in extent. The soil, for 6 miles around, is poor and sandy. The waters are strongly impregnated with iron, soda, common salt, and carbonic acid. Their temperature in summer is 49° of Fahrenheit. They are deemed a specific in loss of appetite and indigestion, and are highly serviceable in hypochondriac and bilious cases, in obstructions

and cutaneous disorders, and in the stone and gravel. They are hurtful in inflammatory disorders and consumptions.

Saratoga springs are 10 miles northeast from Ballstown. The ingredients are the same in both springs, but are strongest in those of Saratoga.

New-Lebanon spring is in the township of Canaan, 29 miles S. W. from Albany.

Islands. Long island is separated from Connecticut and the county of Westchester, by the sound; from York island by the East river; and from Staten island by the Narrows. It is 140 miles long, and from 1 10 15 broad. When first discovered, Wayandance, the principal sachem in Suffolk county, lived at Montauk. The population of the island, in 1790, was 41,782 ; in 1800, 42,097 ; and in 1810, 48,752. It is divided into 3 counties, King's, Queen’s, and Suffolk.

King's, at the west end of the island, is 10 miles long, and 8 broad, contains 6 townships, and is inhabited chiefly by Dutch. Its largest town is Brooklyn.

Queen's lies east of King's, is 30 miles long, and 12 broad, contains 6 townships, and is inhabited partly by Dutch and partly by English. Hempstead, the most populous township, contains 5804 inhabitants. Suffuik is 100 miles long, and 10 broad, and comprehends two thirds of the island. It contains 9 townships, and is inhabited almost wholly by English. It was first settled by emigrants from Lynn, in Massachusetts. A ridge of hills extends, on the north side of the island, from Jamaica to Southhold. The south side is chiefly flat land, naturally covered with yellow pines. King's county, and the western part of Queen's, have been rendered fertile and productive by husbandry. The greater part of Suffolk has a poor, ihin soil, and much of it is not worth cultivating. The north side is the best. Hempstead plain, in the eastern part of Queen's, is 16 miles long from east to west, and 8 broad. It is a perfect level, covered with nothing but a wild, rank grass, except ip three or four places, in which are found a few trees of stinted growth : (these places are called Islands.) South of the plain, lies another, 2 miles wide, called the Shrub-oak plain, from its being every where covered with shrivelled shrub-oaks, none of which are above 4 feet high, and many of them probably 100 years old. An extensive shrub-oak plain also lies on the eastern border of Hempsteal plain, but is in Suffolk county.

The eastern end of the island opens like a shark's mouth. The southern promontory, in the township of Easthampton, is 20 miles long and rarely more than 1 wide. The extremity is a cape, well known to mariners, called Montauk puint ; on which a light-house is erected. The northern promontory is chiefly in the township of Southhold, and is 12 miles long, and every where narrow. Its cape is called Oyster-pond point.

The principal rivers are Peconic river, which empties into Great bay, Connecticut river which empties on the S. side of the island. Roconkama pond, near the centre of the island, between Smithtown and Islip, is observed to rise and fall every 7 years.

Manhattan island lias already been described.

Staten island, 9 miles S. of Manhattan island, is separated by Arthur Kull sound from New Jersey, on the N. and W; has York bay on the N. E. the Narrows on the E. and Amboy bay on the S. It constitutes the county of Richmond, is 18 miles long, and 6 or 7 broad. It contains 4 townships. The population in 1790, was 3835; in 1800, 4563 ; in 1810, 5347. The inhabitants are chiefly of Dutch and French extraction. The land is generally rough and hilly ; but on the south side is a considerable tract of level good land. The chief village is Richmond, in the township of Southfield. Fresh Kill is the name of the largest creek.

NEW JERSEY.

Extent. NEW-JERSEY is situated between lat. 590 and 41 24 N. and between lon. 74° and 75 29 W. It is 160 miles long, from N. to S. Its least breadth, in the centre, is 42 miles; the greatest breadth, in the north, is 70, and in the south, 75. The state contains about 8320 square miles, or 5,324,000 acres.

Boundaries. On the N. is New-York, from which it is separated by a line drawn from the mouth of Mahakamak river, in lat. 41 24, to a point in Hudson river, in lat. 41°; on the E. and S. E. it has Hudson river, New-York bay, and the Atlantic ocean; on the S. W. and W. Delaware bay and river, which separate this state from the states of Delaware and Pennsylvania.

Divisions. The state is divided into 13 counties and 116 towns. Counties. No. of Population,

Chief towns.
towns. in 1790. in 1800. in 1810,
Cape May* 7 3 2,571 3,066 3,632
Cumberland* 8 8,248 9,529 12,670 Bridgetown
Salem*

9 10,437 11,371 12,761 Salem Gloucester* 10 13,360

SWoodbury 16,115 19,744

Gloucester Burlington 12 18,095

Burlington 21,521 24,979

Bordenton Hunterdon* 10 20,253 21,261 24,553 Trenton Sussex* 15 19,500 22,534 25,549 Newtown Bergent 7 12,601 15,155 16,603 Hackinsac

Newark Essext 10 17,785 22,269 25,984

Elizabethtown Middlesext 8 15,956 17,890 20,381 Amboy Monmoutht 7 16,918 19,872 22,150 Freehold Somerset 7 12,296 12,815 14,728 Boundbrook Morris

10 16,216 17,750 21,828 Morristown

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Total 13 116 184,139 211,149 245,562

Name. In the original patent by the dukc of York to lord Berke

* These 7 counties lie from S. to N. on Delaware river. Cape May and Gloucester extend across to the sea.

+ These 4 counties lie from N. to S. on the eastern side of the state,

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