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land, winch lines the coast of the middle and southern states. The greater part of thc 6 southern counties are of this description.

Soil and Agriculture. The mountainous parts of the state have generally a strong soil, and are a fine grazing country. The farmers there raise great numbers of cattle for the markets of NewYork and Philadelphia. They also raise wheat, rye, maize, buckwheat, potatoes, oats, and barley, enough for their own consumption. They keep large dairies, and make great quantities of but. ter and cheese. In the counties that are uneven and hilly, the soil is likewise generally rich, and very productive of the various kinds of grain, particularly wheat and maize. Near New-York and Phi. ladelphia, great attention has been paid to the cultivation of fruit and vegetables. A narrow tract of country on the Delaware, in Burlington and Gloucester counties, is rich and fertile ; as are various sirnilar tracts, in the southern half of the state, on the small rivers and creeks. Iu Salem, Cumberland, and Cape May, there are also very extensive tracts of salt meadow on the river and bay. With these exceptions the greater part, at least four fisths of the 6 southern counties, or two fifths of the whole state, are barren. They produce little else but shrub oaks and yellow pines.

Rivers. The Delaware and Hudson are on the W. and E. sides of this state.

The Rariton is formed by two considerable streams, called the north and south branches; one of which has its source in Morris, the other in Hunterdon county. It passes by Brunswick and Amboy, and mingles with the waters of the Arthur Kull sound, and helps to form the fine harbor of Amboy. It is a mile wide at its mouth, 250 yards at Brunswick, and is navigable about 16 miles.

The Passaic is a very crooked river. It rises in a pond in the county of Orange, (New-York) and runs about 20 miles before it enters New-Jersey. Pursuing a southerly course, it receives the Pegunnoc and the Rockaway from the west, and falls into Newark bay, after a course of about 65 miles. It is navigable 10 miles, and is 230 yards wide at the ferry. The fall in this river at Patterson is one of the most interesting cataracts in the union.

The Hackensac rises in the county of Rockland, in New York, and running in a direction parallel with the Hudson for 40 miles, falls into Newark bay, a little distance east of the Passaic. It is navigable 15 miles.

Great Egg Harbor river rises in Gloucester, and runs southeast 4.5 miles, to the Atlantic, emptying into Great Egg Harbor bay. It It is navigable 20 miles for boats of 200 tons.

Maurice river runs south by east 30 miles, and empties into Delaware bay. It is navigable for sloops of 100 tons, 20 miles ; and, for small craft, nearly to its source. Most of the little crecks on the coast are navigable for boats the greater part of their course.

The Musconecunk runs southwest about 40 miles, and falls into the Delaware, a little below Easton. The other branches of the Delawarc are Flatkill, Paulinskill, the Pequest, and Rancocus.

Baus. Delaware bay is the southwestern boundary of this state ;

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and New-York bay lies east of Bergen neck. Newark bay lies west of Bergen neck, and is about 5 miles deep, and 2 wide.

Amboy bay, between Staten island and Middleton, is about 15 miles deep; and, in the widest part, 12 broad. It is of a triangular shape, and opens between Sandy Hook (on which stands a light house 100 feet high) and Long island, into the Atlantic At the head of the bay, Arthur Kull sound connects it with Newark bay and New-York bay, and at the northeastern angle, it opens through the narrows and New-York bay, into the Hudson and Long Island sound. Arthur Kull Sound is the narrow, crooked, strip of water between Staten island and the Jersey main. The northcastern end opens into New-York bay, between Bergen neck and that island; and the southwestern into Amboy bay, between the same island and Amboy. It is about 22 miles long, and rarely 1 mile wide.

Mouniains. The South mountain, which is one ridge of the great Allegany range, crosses this state in about latitude 41°. The Kittatinny ridge passes north of the South mountain. Several spurs from these mountains are projected in a southern direction. The highlands of Navesink are on the sea coast near Sandy Hook, in the township of Middleton, and are the first lands that are discovo ered by mariners, as they come upon the coast. They rise about 600 feet above the surface of the water.

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DELAWARE.

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Extent. DELAWARE is 96 miles long from N. to S. Its greatest breadth is 35 miles, and its least 10. The area is about 2120 square miles. It lies between lat. 38 29 30, and 39 54 N. and betwecn lon. 74 56, and 75 40 W.

Boundaries. Bounded N. by Pennsylvania ; E. by Delaware river and bay, and the Atlantic ; S. and W. by Maryland.

Divisions. This state is divided into 3 counties and 25 townships. Counties. No, of

Population.

Chief towns. towns. 1790. 1800, 1810. Newcastle 9 19,688 25,361 24,429

Newcastle Kent 5 18,920 19,554 20,495

Dover Sussex 11 20,488 19,358 27,750 Georgetown

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59,096 64,273 72,674 It is entitled to 2 representatives to Congress.

Names. This country, when ceded by the duke of York and Albany to William Penn, was called The Territories of Pennsylvania. When it obtained its own assembly (in 1703) it was called The Three Lower Counties on Delaware ; a name, which it retained, till the formation of a constitution, in Sept. 1776, when it took that of Delaware. This name was derived directly from the bay, but, originally, from lord De la War, who completed the settlement of Virginia, and died in the bay, in 1618, on his way to Virginia.

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Hatory. A colony of Swedes and Finns settled at cape Henlopen, which they called Paradise point, in 1627. In 1630 they built a fort at Lewistown; and, a year after, another near Wilmington, and laid out a small town. Soon after the Dutch, at New-York, contested their right to the west bank of the Delaware. The Dutch put up a fort at Newcastle, in 1651, which the Swedes took from them the next year.

In 1655 the Dutch reduced the Swedish colony, sent the principal inhabitants prisoners to Holland, and received the rest under their protection, making the country a part of their colony of NewNetherlands.

When the English took possession of that colony, in 1664, for the duke of York, his governors claimed jurisdiction over the west bank of the Delaware, and continued to exercise it till 1682. In that year, the duke gave William Penn a deed of Newcastle, and of a district 12 miles round it; and another of a tract froin 12 miles S. of Newcastle to Hoarkill.

In 1703, a partial visunion took place between the Three Lower Counties, and the colony of Pennsylvania ; and, by agreement, they were placed under the government of their own legislature.

The boundary line, between the Counties and Maryland, was settled, after a long dispute between the proprietors, in 1760.

In 1765, deputies were sent from the Lower Counties to the first congress at New-York.

In April, 1775, Richard Penn, proprietor of Pennsylvania, resigned his jurisdiction, over the Counties, whereby they became a distinct colony; and, in the September of the following year, a convention of representatives chosen for the purpose, formed a constitution : and the territory, taking the name of Delaware, became a free and independent state. During the revolutionary war, Delaware suffered severely; her citizens were distinguished for their exertions and her troops for their valor. A new constitution was formed for the state in June, 1792.

Religion. In this state there is a variety of religious denominations. Of the Presbyterian sect, there are 24 churches ; of the Episcopal, 14 ; of the Friends, 8; of the Baptist, 7 ; of the Methodist, a considerable number, especially in the two lower counties of Kent and Sussex: the number of their churches is not exactly as- certained. Besides thesc there is a Swedish church at Wilmington, which is one of the oldest churches in the United States.

Government. The legislature consists of a senate and house of represcntatives. The representatives are chosen annually, and by counties. Each member musi he 24 years of age, have a freehold in the county, and have been a citizen and inhabitant of the state, three years, and of the county, one year, immediately preceding the election. The senators are chosen triennially, and by countics ; they must be 27 years of age, have a freehold in the county of 200 acres, or an estate of 10001. and bave resided the same period as the members of the other house. One third of the senators go out annually. The assembly meet in January.

The governor is chosen by the freemen triennially, and can hold

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the office only 5, out of any term of 6, years. He must be 30 years old, and have been a citizen of the United States 12 years, and of Delaware thc 6 preceding his election. He appoints to all offices, the appointment of which is not provided for by the constitution. The speaker of the senate in case of the absence, death, or resignation of the governor, acts in his room.

All persons who have resided in the state two years next before the election and have paid taxes, and the sons of such person's, are votel's.

The courts are a court of chancery, a supreme court, courts of cyer and terminer and general gaol delivery, a court of common pleas, orphans' courts, registers' courts, courts of quarter sessions in each county, and justices' courts. There may be 3 or 4 judges of the supreme court and of the court of common pleas; one of whom must reside in each county. They and the chancellor hold their offices during good behaviour; and together form the highest court, called the high court of appeals, of which the chancellor is president. Population. The number of inhabitants was in

46,310 whites 1790 8,887 slaves $ 59,096

4,177 slaves 72,674 3,899'free bl.

13,136 free bl. 49,852 whites 1800 6,143 slaves

64,273 8,278 free bl. The items of the census of 1810 were as follow :

males.

females. total whites. Under 16 years of age 14,112

13,411

27,523 Between 16 and 45

11,016
11,068

22,084 45 and upwards

2,878
2,876

5,754

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1810 $ 55,361 whites

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Total 28,006

27,355

55,301 Delaware had a smaller population than either of the other states, at each of the national enumerations.

Militia. The militia of this state constitute one division, containing three brigades, one in each county. Each brigade com

prises three regiments. The whole number of the militia, in 1810, including officers, was 8346.

Literature. There is an academy at Wilmington, and another at Newark, incorporated in 1769. The legislature, during their session in January, 1796, passed an act to create a fund for the establishment of schools throughout the state.

Towns. WILMINGTON is a pleasant lown, 27 miles southwest of Philadelphia, containing 700 houses, mostly brick, and about 4200 inhabitants. It is situated two miles west of the river Delaware, between Christiana and Brandy wine creeks, which at this place, are about one mile from each other; but uniting below the town, they join the Delaware in one stream 400 yards at the mouth. The Christiana admits vessels of 14 feet draught of water to the own; and the Brandywine those of 7 feet. There are 6 places of

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public worship, viz. two for Presbyterians, one for Friends, one for Episcopalians, one for Methodists, and one for Baptists.

Dover, in the county of Kent, is the seat of government. It stands a few miles from Delaware river, and consists of about 100 houses, principally of brick.

NEWCASTLE is 33 miles below Philadelphia, and agreeably situated on the west bank of Delaware river. It contains about 100 good houses, and was formerly the seat of government. This is the first town that was settled on Delaware river. It carries on a brisk trade with Philadelphia and Baltimore.

The other towns of importance are Milford, Duck Creek Cross Roads, Port Penn, Newport, Christiana bridge, Lewistown, and Georgetown.*

Canal. The Delaware and Chesapeak canal is to pass between Elk river and Christiana creek. It has already been described. Another canal is to be opened between Levites creek and Rehoboth bay.

Manufactures. Almost the whole of the foreign exports of Delaware are from Wilmington: the trade from this state to PhiJadelphia is great, being the principal source whence that city draws its staple commodity. No less than 150,000 barrels of four, 300,000 bushels of wheat, 170,000 bushels of Indian corn, besides barley, oats, flax-seed, paper, slit iron, snuff, salted provisions, &c. &c. to a very considerable amount, are annually sent from the waters of the Delaware state ; of which the Christiana is by far the most productive, and probably many times as much so as any other creek or river of like magnitude in the union-245,000 barrels of flour, and other articles to the amount of 80,000 dollars more, being from this creek; of which, to the value of 550,000 dollars, are manufactured on its northern bank, within two or three miles of the navigation.

Commerce. The exports from Delaware, in 1894, amounted to $697,396; and, in 1310, to $120,342. Flour is the capital article. Lumber is also exported in large quantities, and is procured chief ly from the Cypress swamp.

Face of the Country. The northern half of the county of New. castle is hilly. The rest of the state is generally level and low. Large tracts of land in the spring and early in the summer are overspread with stagnant water, which renders them unhealthy, and unfit for agriculture. The spine, or height of lund, in the peninsula between the two bays, is in this state. In the south it commences in the Cypress swamp, and preserves a general parallelism with the west coast of Dclaware bay, at the distance of about 15 miles from it. In the upper county it is on the border of Maryland. Its progress is marked by a chain of swamps, in the two lower counties and a part of Newcastle, from which the waters descend on each side to the Delaware and Chesapeak. The height of this ridge between Elk river and Christiana creek is 74 feet.

Soil and Agriculture. Delaware is chiefly an agricultural state.

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For an account of these, see Amer, Gaz.

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