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In 1722 the French colony was freed from the yoke of exclusive trading companies. This was the era of its commencing prosperity. A company was formed at Barcelona, in 1757, to build up the Spanish colony which had always languished ; but the decree of Charles III. in 1765, opening a free trade to all the Windward isiands, first gave it life and activity. A new line of demarcation was run between the two colonies in 1776.

An alarming insurrection of the negroes broke out, in the French colony in 1791; which deluged half of the northern province in blood. The national assembly, in 1792, proclaimed the political equality of the whites and free people of color. The commission: ers of the French government, in 1793, decreed the emancipation of all the slaves in the colony. Spain ceded the eastern part of the island 10 France, July 22d, 1795, and the Spaniards all with. drew 10 Cuba and Porto Rico. Toussaint received the appoint. ment of general in chief, from the French government, in the latter part of 1796. The blacks proclaimed themselves independent, July 1st, 1801. The Spaniards, in 1808, assisted by the English, rctook the eastern part of the island. St. Domingo is now their capital.

The Catholic religion was established in both colonies previous to the late revolution. Christophe has established it since, and has a white archbishop.

The population of the whole island was never exactly ascertain. ed, nor that of the French part but in one instance. That of the Spanish colony was in the year 1717

18,410 1795

125,000 15,000 slaves

73,000 whites and mulattoes 1810

103,000 30,000 slaves That of the French colony was in the year

27,717 whites 1754

21,808 mulat. 455,089 172,000 slaves

405,564 slaves 1767 206,000 slaves

30,831 whites 1775 32,600 whites

1790 24,000 mulat 534,831

480,000 slaves That of the whole island was estimated as follows in the year 40,000 whites

42,000 whites 1797 28,000 mulat. 520,000

1801 44,000 mulat. 686,000 452,000 slaves

600,000 slaves The blacks in the French part of the island have greatly diminished since 1801. Christophe maintains about 10,000 troops; and has 2 correlles, 9 brigs, and several schooners, commanded by a włrite admiral. His ships have made some depredations on American commerce. Pction musicrs about 9000 men, but has no Reet. Philippe Dos has increased his numbers to more than 6000. The whole physical force of the island must be of some moment, for the French army, under Le Clerc, consisted of 20,000 regular troops ; yet the blacks destroyed the greater part of it, and drove the rest out of the island.

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CAPE François before the revolution was the largest town in the west part of the island; and contained between 800 and 900 houses of stone or brick, 8000 free inhabitants, and 12,000 slaves. It lies on a bay on the N. side of the island.

Port AU PRINCE is at the head of the Bite. It was the seat of government, and had an excellent harbor, but was very unhealthy. In 1790, it contained 2754 whites, and about 12,000 negroes. It had a valuable commerce.

St. Domingo, the capital of the Spanish colony, is about 30 leagues from the E. end of the island, on the W. bank of the OzaThe harbor is large but not very secure.

The cathedral is a noble Gothic pile, in which the ashes of Columbus rested, till 1796, when they were removed to the Havanna. The population of the town, was estimated at 20,000, in 1810.

ST. NICHOLAS, or The Mole, was the first European settle-
ment in America.

The average amount of exports from the French colony, in the
years 1787, 1788, and 1789, and the actual amount in 1791, were
as follows:
Average of 3 years.

1791
livres.

livres.
Clayed sugar lbs. 58,642,214 41,049,54970,227,708 67,670,78L
Muscovado lbs. 86,549,829 34,619,933 193,177,512 49,941,567
Coffee lbs. 71,663,187 11,663,18768,151,180 51,890,748
Cotton

Ibs. 6,698,858 2,397,716 6,286,126 17,572,252
Indigo

hhds. 951,607 8,564,463 9.30,016 10,875,120
Cacao
lbs.

150,000 120,000
Molasses

hhds, 23,061 2,757,320 29,502 1,947,132
Tafia
hhds, 2,600 312,0001 303

21,816
Raw hides

No. 6,500 52,000 7,887 78,870
Tanned do.

No. 7,900 118,500 5,186 93,348
Tortoise shell lbs.

5,000 50,000
Guiacum, acajow
lbs.

1,500,000 40,000
and mahogany s

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Livres 171,544,666

or 822,030,260

Livres 200,301,634

or $25,723,312

5534,831

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The amount of duties paid in 1791 was 6,924,166 livres. The imports from France, in 1788, amounted to 86,414,040 livres. The three principal articles were dry goods, wines, and flour. In the same year 98 French vessels imported from Africa 29,506 negroes, which sold for 61,936,190 livres. The imports from foreign countries, in that year, were 16,538,820 livres, in 1023 small vessels, measuring 71,162 tons ; making a total of imports in 1788 of 164,389,050 livres, in 1700 vessels of all descriptions. This is exclusive of the inland trade with the Spaniards.

A part of the interior is mountainous; but in the eastern part of the island are extensive plains or savannas, occupied by immense herds of swine, horses and horned cattle.

The soil, in general, is fertile in the highest degree, well water

00 Amer s no fleet X). The It, for the * troops; the rest

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ed, and producing every variety of vegetable for use and beauty,
The following tables will exhibit the state and progress of agricul-
ture in the French colony :

Produce of the different plantations.
1720.

1788.
Sugar lbs. 22,400,000

163,405,500 Indigo Ibs. 1,200,000

150,000 Coffee

lbs. 6,289,000
Cacao

Ibs. 150,000
Molasses

lbs. 34,453,000

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1789.

792 3,097 2,810

69 705

Inc

anc

Number of the different plantations, &c.

1754. Sogar-plantations

599 Indigo-plantations

3,379 Coffee-plantations Cacao-trees

98,946

plantations Cotton-plants

6,300,367

plantations Cassia-trees

22,000,000 Horses and mules

63,000 Horned cattle

93,000 Banana trees

6,000,000 Potatoe plots

1,000,000 Yam plots

226,000 Trenches of maniac 3,000,000 Cultivated acres

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2,290,000

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Far the greater part of the Spanish province, in 1789, was still a wilderness. At that time they had only 24 sugar works. Their chief business was hunting wild cattle in the plains. About 11,000 head of horned cattle were annually furnished to the French colony, besides great numbers of horses and mules. Immense quantities of hides were also exported.

The Bite, or the Bite of Leogane, is a very large bay, at the W. end of the island, setting up between cape Maria, on the S. and cape Nicholas or the Mole, on the N.

Samana bay sets up at the E end of the island, between cape Samana, on the N. and cape Raphael, on the S. These capes are ? leagues apart. The bay is 20 leagues long, and, on an average, 5 broad.

JAMAICA.

Jamaica lies between lat. 17 40 and 18 30 N; and between lon. 76 18 and 79 57 W. Its length, from Point Morant, in the E. 10 South Negril, in the W.is 170 miles; its greatest breadth is 60. The number of square miles is estimated by Edwards at 6000.

Jamaica is 30 leagues from Cuba; 40 from St Domingo, and 180 from the Musquito shore.

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Total 6

20

27
The aborigines of the island called it Jamaica, and Columbus
preserved the name.

He discovered it on his second voyage, on the 5th of May, 1494
and marked it out as an estate for his family. In May, 1695, an
English expedition, under Penn and Venables, conquered the whole
island. Ever since that time it has remained in possession of the
English

The bishop of London claims this, and the other British WestIndies, as a part of his diocese; but his jurisdicton is renounced and barred by the laws of Jamaica.

The captaingeneral of the island is usually a nobleman of high rank, and is appointed by the crown. His stated salary is 50001.; but the perquisites are very great. The whole is not less than 10,0001. sterling. The legislature consists of a council of 12, nominated by the crown, and holding their places during life ; and of a house of assembly, 43 in number, elected by the freeholders.

The revenues of the island consist of a perpetual revenue accord. ing to the law of 1728, amounting to 12,0001, of which 8000l. are appropriated ; and of annual funds, provided by the legislature, amounting to 70,0001, of which about 40,0001. is a provision for the troops stationed on the island. The contingent expences, exclusive of the appropriations, in 1788 exceeded 75,0001. The estimated value of all the property in the island, in 1787, was as follows. Plantations and their stock

£25,000,000 Slaves at 50l. per head

12,500,000 Property in lowns and vessels

1,500,000

0,000

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Sterling £39,000,000
The estimates of the population of Jamaica, in 1787, and at pre-
sent, are as follows:

1787.

1811.
Whites
30,000

40,000
Maroons

1,400 Frec negroes 10,000

350,000 Slaves

250,000

Total 291,400

390,000
The number of regular troops in the island is always considera-
ble. The militia are computed at 8000. A respectable naval
force is usually on the coast.

Sr. JAGO, ST. JAGO DE LA VEGA, or SPANISHTOWN, stands
on the river Cobre, 6 miles from its entrance into Port Royal bay.

Kingston lies on the N. side of a beautiful harbor, opening into
Port Royal bay, about 20 miles S. of E. from St. Jago. It contain-

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ed, in 1788, 6,539 whites, 3280 free blacks, and 16,659 slaves ; in all 26,478.

MONTEGO Bay, in Cornwall, in the N. W. is an opulent, floura ishing town, and in 1788 contained 225 houses, of which 33 were capital warehouses.

Port Royal stands near the extremity of a peninsula, which bounds Port Royal bay, on the S. E. It is about 10 miles S. from Kingston ; and, after St. Jago, is the oldest town in the island. It contains about 200 houses, a royal navy yard, the navy hospital, and barracks for a regiment of soldiers. SAVANNA-LA-MAR, in the S. W. contains about 60 houses. FALMOUTH is a very flourishing town in the N. W.

The climate of the coast is hot and sultry, with little variation from January 10 December. This is particularly true of the south coast, where the average temperature, from June to November, inclusive, is 80°, and but little cooler in the other six months. On the tops of the mountains the generał state of the thermometer is from 55° to 63. It has been observed low as 44o.

In the north of the island the country, at a small distance from the shore, rises into hills, which are more remarkable for their beauty than boldness. In the south the cliffs are rough and precipitous, and at the foot of the lower range of hills lie vast plains or savannas, displaying all the pride of the richest cultivation.

The number of acres in the island amount to 4,080,000. Of these only 1,907,589 had been located in December, 1791. Even all this is not improved. The lands in cultivation were then distributed nearly as follows : 767 sugar plantations, averaging 900 acres each

690,000 1000 pens, or breeding and grazing farms, at 700 each 700.000 Plantations of cotton, coffee, pimento, ginger, &c. 350,000

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1,740,000 Edwards supposes that the remaining acres amounting to 2,340,000, are chiefly unfit for cultivation ; not merely on account of the bare renness of the soil, but principally on account of its mountainous situation.

Black river is the deepest and largest in Jamaica. It is navigable for frat bottonied boats and canoes about 30 miles, and empties, about 20 W. of Pedro bluff, in the S. W. part of the island.

Point Morant, or East Cape is the eastern extremiy of Jamaica in lon. 76 10 W. and is the usual point of departure for ships bound through the windward passage.

Portland Point is the most southern cape ; and South-Negril the most western.

A ridge of lofty mountains, called the Blue mountains, traverses, the island from E. 10 W. The Blue mountain Peak, in the main ridge, is 7431 feet above the level of the sca.

Numerous groves of pimento are found every where on the hills, on the N. side of the island. The mountains are, in general, covo ered with excellent timber.

Perhaps no country in the world affords so rich a variety of exa cellent fruits, indigenous and cxotic.

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