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The island of Great Cayman is equidistant from Jamaica and Cuba. It is inhabited by descendants of the old buccaneers, about 160 in number. Their chief business is piloting, and fishing for turtle.

The two Little Caymans, N. E. of this, are not inhabited.

Pedro shoals, or the Bivora bank, lie S. of the western half of Jamaica, extending upwards of 30 leagues from E. to W. The Ciscabel is a rock at the W. end; Pedro keys are near the middle; and the Portland rock, at the E. end, is 10 leagues S. of Portland point.

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PORTO RICO.

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Porto Rico is situated between lat. 17 54 and 18 30 N. and be.
tween lon. 65 30 and 67 8 W. It contains about 4140 square
miles.

Columbus gave the and its present name of Porto, or Puerto
Rico.

The island was discovered by Columbus on his second voyage,
in 1493. Juan Ponce explored it in 1508, and founded the town of
St. John de Porto Rico, in 1514.

The number of inhabitants is now estimated at 200,000.

ST. JOHN DE POR'ro Rico, the capital, is on the N. side, about 15 leagues W. from cape St. Juan. The harbor is spacious and safe, and admits vessels of any burden. The town is well built, and contains about 30,000 inhabitants. The fortifications are strong and commanding. It was long the chief seat of the English contraband trade, and is considerably populous.

There are two other seaports on the island, Maraguand and Miaguesse. Maraguand is on the N. side, a few miles only E. of point Bruquen. The harbor is good and safe. The body of the town is 3 or 4 miles up in the country. It contains about 5000 inhabitants.

Miaguesse is on the W. end, a few miles N. of cape Roxa. The town stands 5 miles up the country, is handsomely built, and contains about 6000 inhabitants.

Hurricanes are not unfrequent. That of 1742 was remarkably destructive. In 1778, there were on the island 5861 plantations and farms of every description. These were then stocked with 23,195 horses, 1515 mules, 77,384 horned cattle, and 49,058 sheep and swine. The produce for that year was 2737 quintals of sugar, 1163 of cotton, 19,556 of rice, 15,216 of maize, 7458 of tobacco, and 9860 of molasses.

Cape St. Juan is the N. E. extremity of the island, cape Mala the S. E. and cape Roxa the S. W. Cape St. Francis is the termition of a promontory on the W. end not far from the N. side, and point Bruquen the Ń. W. extremity of the island.

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CARIBBEAN ISLANDS.

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TIIS range extends from lat. 9 30 to 18 45 N.; and from lon. 59 30 10 65 20 W. The form of the range is the arc of a circle, commencing at Trinidad, the most southern ; and bending N. E. and then N. W. to Bieque, or Crab island, the most western.

The Atlantic is on the E. and the Caribbean sea on the W. The Mosquito shore, the western coast of the Caribbean, lies 500 leagues W. of the middle of the range. The Cape Verd islands, on the African coast, lie 35 degrees of longitude, or 780 leagues, to the eastward, in the same parallels.

These islands have already been mentioned, as consisting of two groups; the Leeward islands in the N. ; and the Windward islands in the S.

The earliest inhabitants of this numerous group were Arrowauks; tribes of the same nation, which occupied the Greater Antilles. At a period, however, long before the discovery of America, this peaceful nation had been chiefly exterminated by the Caraibes, Caribs, or Caribbees, a warlike and ferocious people from Guiana on the continent. They still occupy all the coast of that province.

The Caraibes, therefore, must be considered, like the Mexicans, as one of the great nations of the continent.

The Caraibes of these islands lived in villages that had the appearance of a European encampment. Their cabins were built of poles fixed circularly in the ground, and drawn to a point at the top.

Though not as tall as the generality of Europeans, their frames were robust and muscular; their limbs flexible and active; and their eyes possessed a penetrating quickness and wildness, that seemed an emanation from a fierce and martial spirit. Their natural complexion was that of a Spanish olive.

A few i'emains of the nation are scattered over various parts of the Caribbean Archipelago. But in Spanish and Dutch Guiana they still remain a formidable body, sufficiently numerous to repel the aggressions of the colonists, and possessing the proud independence, the invincible love of liberty, and the ferocious courage, which so strongly characterized their ancestors.

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LEEWARD ISLANDS.

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The islands thus denominated extend from lat. 15 15 to 18 45 N.; and from lon. 60 55 to 65 20 W. On the S. Dominica is the most remote; on the E. Deseada; on the N. Ancgada; and on the W. Bieque or Crab island. This last is only 3 leagues from Porto Rico, one of the Greater Antilles; and Dominica is but 10 from Martinique, the most northern of the Windward islands.

The Virgin islands, Anguilla, St. Martin's, Saba, St. Eustatius, Barbuda, St. Christopher's, Nevis, Antigua, and Montserrat, all constitute a single colonial government, under a governor general. Dominica has its own governor.

VIRGIN ISLANDS.

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This is a small group lying E. of Porto Rico, between lat. 17 40 and 18 45 N.; and between lon. 64 10 and 65 20 W. The extreme island on the N. and E. is Anegada; on the S. Santa Cruz; and on the W. Bieque.

Of these islands the Spaniards claim Bieque or Crab island, and
Colubra, Green, or Serpent island; together with Great and Little
Passage island, and the Tropic keys, all lying between the two first
mentioned. These islands are attached to the government of Por-
to Rico, and are of no consequence.

The following is a list of the principal English islands with their
dependencies.
Islands.

Dependencies.
1. St. Thomas Brass, Little Saba, Great St. James, Little St.
2. St. John Lavango, Cam, and Witch islands.

S Jost, Van Dyke's, Little Van Dyke's, Guano,
3. Tortola

Beef, and Thatch islands.

Anegada, Nicker, Prickly Pear, Mosquito, 4. Virgin Gorda Cammanoes, Dog, Fallen City, Round Rock, Gin

ger,Cooper's, Salt, Peter's and DeadChcstislands. 5. Santa Cruz or St. Croix.

Columbus discovered these islands in 1493, and named them Las Virgines or The Virgins. The Dutch buccaneers took possession of them in 1648, and were driven out by a stronger party of English buccaneers, in 1666.

The immediate government of these islands is vested in a council of 12, appointed by the crown ; and a house of rcpresentatives, The president of the council acts as governor in the absence of the governor general, who resides at Antigua. These islands pay 4001. toward the salary of the governor general.

Four and a half per cent. annually was paid by the inhabitants on all produce, as the price of their government.

These islands are many of them very dangerous to navigators.
There is a bason, however, between Virgin Gorda, Tortola, and St.
Thomas, called Sir Francis Drake's Bay, 7 leagues long and 4.
broad; in which ships may anchor, and be sheltered and landlock-
ed from all winds.

The following is a list of the exports from Tortola and Virgin
Gorda, and their dependencies, in 1787 :
Sugar

cwt. 79,203
Rum

galls. 21,417 Molasses

galls. 2,011 Cotton

lbs. 289,077
Dying woods (value) £6,651 26

Other articles (value) £2,340 13 5
The whole value of the exports of that year was 166,9591. 123. 6d'.
and the various articles were carried in 40 vessels, measuring 6516
tons, employing 436 men. The exports from St. Thomas, St. John's,
and Santa Cruz we have not seen. Those from Santa Cruz exceed
all the other four.

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SPANISu Islands. Bieque or Crab island is 3 ieagues from Porto Rico. It is 14 miles in circumference, has a rich soil, and a good road for shipping on the S. Colubra is of about equal size, lies 4 leagues N. of Bieque, half way between Porto Rico and St. Thomas, and 5 leagues from each. Great Passage island is 12 miles E. of Porto Rico, and between the other two. It is about 7 miles long and 2 wide. Little Passage island is in its neighbor. hood. The Tropic keys are a collection of rocks, a little W. of Great Passage island.

St. Thomas. This island is 9 miles long from E. to W. and 3
broad; and 12 leagues E. of Porto Rico. It has a safe and commo-
dious harbor, guarded by a single fort. It was, while in the hands
of the Danes, a well known resort of smugglers. Sugar, tobacco,
potatoes, millet, and maniac are the chief objects of cultivation.
The soil is sandy, and is badly watered.

St. John. This is 5 miles long and i broad, and 2 leagues E.
S. E. of St. Thomas. It is well watered, and has a harbor, called
Crawl Bay, the best between Antigua and Porto Rico. The soil®
is indifferent, and the exports trifling.
TORTOLA.

This island is 15 miles long, and 6 broad, and but a
short distance N. of St. John. The country is mountainous, but
under high cultivation. It is one of the healthiest islands in the
West-Indies, and has a large and safe harbor. Sandy Bay and Road
T'own are the two principal settlements, both well fortified. This
is the most valuable of the Virgin islands, except Santa Cruz.

VIRGIN GORDA. The English call it Penniston, and corruptly Spanishıown. It is 8 miles E. of Tortola. It is badly watered, and has few inhabitants. A mountain in the centre of the island is affirmed to contain a silver mine. Anegada, the largest of its dependencies, is low, and almost covered by water at high tides.

SANTA CRUZ. The French call it St. Croix. It is 30 miles long and 9 broad; and lies 21 leagues S. E. of cape Mala, in Porto Rico, and 12 S. of St. John. Columbus discovered it. The Spaniards, English, and Dutch were by turns masters of it for a long period. In 1651 it was bought for the knights of Malta, who sold it, in 1664, to the French West-India company; and by them it was ceded to Denmark, in 1596. The English took it, with St. Thomas and St. John, in 1808. Its population is estimated at 3000 whites and 30,000 negroes. The soil is very fertile. The annual produce

sugar has been from 30,000 to 40,000 hhds. and other West-India commodities in proportion.

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ANGUILLA.

Anguilla, or Snake island, was so called from its winding tortuous shape. It is about 30 miles long, and 6 broad; and lies 25 leagues E. by S. of Virgin Gorda, and 50 from Porto Rico. The climate is healthy, and the inhabitants strong and vigorous. The exports, in 1770, amounted to near 60001. in sugar, rum, and cotton. Maize is cultivated extensively,

ST. MARTIN'S.
St. Martin's is 15 miles long from S. W. to N. E. ; 12 broad;
and 5 S. of Anguilla. The Spaniards settled it early, but abandon
ed it in 1650. The French then took possession of the northern
half; and the Dutch of the southern. The English plundered the
French division in 1689, and took possession of it in 1744, and of
the whole island soon after the late subjugation of Holland. To-
bacco is the chief article of cultivation. But the island is princi-
pally valuable on account of its salt pits. There is a good harbor
at the N. W. end of the island.

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ST. BARTHOLOMEW.
This is a small island, not more than 24 miles in circumference,
and 5 leagues S. E. of St. Martin's. It was first peopled in 1648,
by Poincy, the French governor of St. Christopher. Adiniral
Thornlıill plundered it in 1689. It was not stored to ance till
1697. For a long period after, it was a mere nest of privateers.
France ceded it to Sweden, in 1785.

to Sweden, in 1785. The population has greatly
increased since that time. It is estimated at 30,000. The only
port is Le Carenage, on the west side, near which stands Gustavia,
the sole town in the island. Le Carenage has excellent moorings
but admits no vessels drawing over 9 feet water. The planters are
chicfly French. The bay of Colombieu is deeper, but has no town.
The chief exports are drugs, cotton, lignum vitæ, and iron wood.
Provisions are procured from the United States, and the nominal
commerce with that country has been very great, since its com
mercial restrictions.

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SABA.

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Saba is 12 miles in circumference, and 30 S. W. of St. Bartholo» mew. The Dutch long possessed it, but the English took it in 1981. The inhabitants are chiefly Dutch. It has no port. The access to it is by a road cut out of the rock, by which only one mad tan mount at a time.

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BARBUDA
Barbuda is 20 miles E. S. E. of St. Bartbolomew, and is 20 miles
long, and 12 broad. It belongs to the Codrington family, to which
it produces 50001. a year. The inhabitants, about 1500 in number,
are employed chiefly in agriculture. Sombrera, a little island, 20
leagues N. N. W. of Anguilla, is a dependency of Barbuda.

ST. EUSTATIUS.
St. Eustatius is 4 leagues S. E. of Saba, and 3 N. W. of St. Chris
topher. It is a huge pyramidal rock, rising out of the wayes, 29
miles in circumference. The Dutch settled it about the year 1600.
It contains about 5000 whites, chiefly Duteh, and 15,000 negroes.
There is but one landing place, and that strongly fortified.

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