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the streams are for a while lost. But they break out, a few leagues.
Rio Negro, the Cusu Leuvu, or Black river of the Indians, issues.
Native Tribes. The aborigines distinguish the various tribes by two denominations, MOLUCHES, or warriors ; and PUELCHES, or eastern people.
The MOLUCHES Occupy the country W. of the Andes, and S. of the bay of Chiloe.
The PUELCHES reach from the territories of the Moluches to the Atlantic, and constitute four tribes.
The Tehuelhets, one of these tribes, are the nation known in Europe by the appellation of Patagons ; and are split into many subdivisions. A principal tribe has a town called Huechin, on the banks of the Negro, the caciques of which liave great influence on the surrounding tribes. The Tehuelhets are a restless and roving people, whom neither extreme old age, nor blindness, nor disease, prevent from indulging in their wandering inclinations. They are very strong, well made, and not so tawny as the other Indians. They are courteous, obliging, and goodnatured, but very inconstanta They are warlike and intrepid, and the most numerous of all the Indian nations in these parts. They are the enemies of the Moluches, and very much feared by them. They speak a different language from the other Puelches and the Moluches. They are a large race, some are seven feet and a half in height, but these, it is asserted, are not a distinct race, as others in the same family do not exceede six feet.
IN the progress of our work we have had occasion to give an account of the islands connected with the Western Continent, except the Bermudas, the Falkland islands, Terra del Fuego, and Southern Georgia.
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BERMUDAS, OR SOMERS' ISLANDS,
These are a cluster of small and rocky islands forming the figure of a shepherd's crook, about 400 in number. They lie in the Atlantic, in lat. 32 20 N. and lon. 64 30 W, about 200 leagues E. of Carolina. The great body of them are mere islets and rocks, of too little consequence to have received a name.
The group derived its first name from John Bermudas, a Spaniard, who discovered it in 1527 ; and their second from sir George Somers, who was shipwrecked on the rocks in his passage to Virginia, in 1609, and lived there 9 months. By a mistake in the sound of this latter name they have often been called Summer isle ands.
By the third charter of Virginia, granted in 1612, all islands within 300 leagues of the coast were annexed to that province. The Virginia company sold them 10 120 of its own members, who sent out, the same year, a colony of 60 persons, and another of 540, in 1613.
The religion is that of the church of England. There are 9 Episcopal churches, under the care of 3 clergymen, and I Presby. terian church. The government is vested in a governor, and a council, appointed by the crown; and in a house of assembly, chose en by the people. The number of whites, in 1624, was about 3000. Edwards states the population at 5462 whites and 4919 blacks, total 10,381.
Sr. GEORGE's, the capital, in the island of the same name, contains about 500 houses.
The islands contain from 12,000 to 15,000 acres of very poor land, of which 9 parts in 10 are either uncultivated or reserved in woods for a supply of timber towards building small ships, sloops, and shallops for sale, this being one principal occupation of the in. habitants. The vessels which they furnish, being built of cedar, are light, buoyant, and unexpensive. Maize and vegetables were alone cultivated, till 1785, when cotton was introduced. About 200 acres are now devoted to its culture.
TERRA DEL FUEGO.
Terra del Fuego, or the land of fire, is a name given to a large island, discovered in 1520, which is separated from the southern extremity of the American continent by the straits of Magellan. These straits are about 350 miles in length, and in some places sereral leagues over, and in others not half a league. In these seraits
there are many safe harbors and large bays, with narrow entrances, encompassed with high mountains, sheltering them from every wind.
The face of the country in the island is represented as dreary and inhospitable. The inhabitants are said to be naturally as fair as Europeans. They are of a middle stature, have broad, flat faces, high cheek bones, and flat noses. Those on the S. side are said to be uncivilized, treacherous, and barbarous; those on the N. are simple, affable, and harmless. They cover their bodies in winter with the skins of wild animals. Their tents are made of poles, disposed in a conical form, and covered with skins or the bark of trees. An island lying E. of Terra del Fuego, and called Statenland, 12 leagues in length and 5 in breadth, barren and desolate, has on it a small settlement of English.
FALKLAND ISLANDS. These consist of two large islands, with a great number of small ones surrounding them, and lie between lat. 51 6 and 52 30 S. and between lon. 56 30 and 62 16 W. They were discovered by Davis, in 1592. In 1764, commodore Byron was despatched by the British government to take possession of them and plant a colony at a place called Port Egmont. They consist chiefly of mountains and bogs, have an inhospitable climate, and can never be of any value unless as a watering place for ships bound to the Pacific
SOUTHERN GEORGIA. This island lies in lat. 54 30 S. and lon. 37° W. and is about 100 miles long and from 3 to 15 broad. It is a dismal region, abounding in bays and harbors, and, a great part of the year covered with ice. This island, or rather cluster of islands, was discovered by a Frenchman, and afterwards surveyed by capt. Cook, who found here abundance of sea elephants and sea bear's or fur seals. For some years after, the English visited these islands for the purpose of taking these elephants for their oil, from 3000 to 4000 tons of wbich they have annually procured, and at some seasons sold for 401. sterling a ton. At the same tine they caught from 100,000 to 200,000 seals, whose skins sold from 1 10 2 dollars each. The Americans, chiefly from New England, about the year 1800, perhaps a little carlier, visited these islands with 9 vessels, and the first year caught not less than 151,000 seals. This cluster of islands consists of high peaks, rising above the clouds, in the form of sugar loaves. It is barren of all vegetable productions.*
GALLAPAGOS. These lie in the Pacific ocean, between lat. 3° N. and 40 S. and between lon. 83 40 and 89 30 W. They are very numerous. Only 9 are of any considerable size. Some of these are 7 or 8 leagues long and 3 or 4 broad. They are well wooded and abound in fine turtles.
• Drigg's MS.
IMBRACING EUROPE, ASIA, AND AFRICA, WITH THEIR ADJA
Extent. THE length of the Eastern Continent, from North Cape, in lat. 71 10 N. to Cape L'Aguillas,* 1069 of latitude, or 7335 English miles. Its breadth, from East Cape to the western coast of Norway, is 173° of longitude; which in the parallel 67°, is 4696 miles. In lat. 38 N. from the Rock of Lisbon, in lon 9 35 W. to the eastern coast of Corea, is 138° 35', or 7557 miles. Cape Verd, the western extremity of Africa, is in lon. 17 31 W.; and East Cape, the remotest limit of Asia, is in 190° E. Cape Taimour, on the northern coast of Asia, is in lat. 77° N.; and Cape L’Aguillas, the southernmost point of Africa, is in lat. 34 50 S. The number of square miles on this continent is usually calculated at 22,600,000. If the islands belonging to it be added, together with those of Australasia and Polynesia, it may probably amount to 28,000,000
Boundaries. The Frozen Ocean bounds this continent on the N.; the Pacific and Indian on the E. ; the Indian and Southern on the S.; and the Atlantic on the W.
Population. From the best data in our possession, we are led to estimate the population of the Eastern Continent, including Aus. tralasia and Polynesia, at 730,000,000, or about 26 to a square mile; viz.
Total 730,000,000 Seas. The MEDITERRANEAN, the largest sea in the world, lies between Spain on the W.; France, Italy, Turkey, and Asia Minor on the N.; Syria on the E.; and Egypt, Tripoli, Tunis, Algiers, and Morocco on the S. Its length, from E. to W. is 2000 miles : its breadth averages about 400, covering a surface of about 800,000 square miles. The Straits of Constantinople, the Thracian Bosphorus, unite it with the Euxine or Black Sea.
The Euxine is bounded by Turkey and Russia W.; by Russia N.; by Mingrelia and Georgia E.; and by Asia Minor S. Its length from E. to W.is 800
miles, and its breadth 400. The large rivers, which fall into the Euxine, are the Danube, Neister, Bog,
Cape L'Aguillas is the most southern point of Africa, being 21' fartber south than Cape of Good Hope. (Barrow.)
and Neiper. The straits of Caffa, the Cimmerian Bosfihorus, connect it on the N. with the Sea Of Azof, the Palus Mæotis of antiquity. This sea, is 210 miles long, from N. E. to S. W.; and 130 broad. It is every where shallow, and within 30 years has been fast and unaccountably filling up with sand.
The Baltic lies wholly in Europe. It opens the into German Sea by a gulf, pointing N. E. called the Skager Rack; and afterwards passes S. through what is called the Cattegat, and farther on through the Sound of Elsineur, the Great Belt, and the Little Belt, straits formed by the Danish Islands ; as far as 53 50 the latitude of Wismar. From the coasts of Jutland and Holstein its direction is eastward, as far as the western coast of Courland. From the northern shores of Prussia it is N. by E. to its northern extremity, in lat. 65 50. Its length from Tornea to Wismar, southward, is about 900 miles, and from Wismar northwestward to the Ocean the breadth is about 450.* Its breadth between Sweden and Germany, is 75 miles ; between, Sweden and Russia, in many places, more than 150. North of lat. 60, it is called the Gulf of Bothnia. The length of this part is about 420 miles.* Immediately below this latitude the Gulf of Finland opens from the east ; the length of which is about 300 miles, and its breadth 80. These two gulfs are frozen over for three months every winter. Between Courland and Livonia, also, the Gulf of Riga opens from the S. E. and is about 60 miles long. The greatest depth of this sea is said not to exceed 50 fathoms; and, according to repeated observations made in Sweden, is steadily decreasing at the of rate 45 inches in a century.†
The Red Sea, is the natural boundary between Asia and Africa ; having Arabia on the E. and Egypt and Abyssinia on the W. Its length, from N. N. W. to S. S. E. is about 1470 miles, and its common breadth 120. The Straits of Babelmandel connect it with a bay of the Arabian Sea.
The Persian Gulf, or Sea of Ormus, lies between Persia on the N. E. and Arabia on the S. W. It is 700 miles long, and from 70 to 180 broad. It receives, from the N. W. the waters of the Euphrates and the Tigris, which unite at Gormo, about 100 miles from the sea, and are discharged by a common channel. This sen opens, through the Straits of Ormus, into a bay which sets up from the Arabian Sea.
The White Sea is in the north of European Russia. It opens from the S. W. into the Frozen Ocean. It extends from lat. 63 to 59 N. and is about 500 miles long. Its shores are generally bold and rocky. The Dwina, from the S. E. falls into it at Archangel.
Bays. The Bay of Bengal is on the E. side of Hindostan, having Ava and Malaya on the E.
The Bay of OKOTSK opens into the Pacific Ocean, between Cape Lepatka and the Island of Jesso ; and into the Sea of Japani, through the Straits of Saghalien. The waters of the Amoor are