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power of England, supreme in every sea, to excite aslonist ment and exultation. Inhabitants, exclusive of Gosport, 32,166.
WORCESTER is situated on the noble river Severn, over which there is a beautiful bridge. The manufactures are chiefly gloves and woolen stuffs; and the porcelain maintains a high reputation. Inhabitants, 11,353.
The next memorable town is Norwich, the capital of Norfolk; from its size and consequence, justly siyled a city. The damasks, camlets, crapes, stuffs, &c. here wrought, have been computed at the yearly value of 700,0001. Inhabitants, 36,850 ; houses, 7500.
YARMOUTH is a noted sea-port, with a beautiful quay. Inhabitants, 14,845.
On the Humber, the wide receptacle of many rivers, stands the great sea-port of Hull, which was founded by Edward I. The harbor is artificial, and is supposed to present the largest dock in the kingdom. The trade is important with America and the south of Europe, but chiefly with the Baltic ; and several ships are employed in the northern xvhale fishery. The coasting traffic is ex. tensive in coals, corn, wool, and manufactures : and Hull supplies the commerce of many northern counties; having not only communication with the Trent, and other branches of the Humber, but with the rivers and canals of Yorkshire.* Its inhabitants amounted în 1801, to 29,516.
LEEDS is the principal port for broad-cloths, or what foreigners term fine English cloth. It is situated on the river Aire, in an extensive vale. The population of the parish amounts 10 53,162, and the houses 10 66916 the cloths are woven in the neighboring villages; but are died, prepared, and sold, at Leeds. The cloth-hall appropriated to the salc, is a vast edifice; and the whole business is transacied within the space of an hour on the market days.
On the river Tyne, stands NEWCASTLE, so termed from a fortress erected by Edward I. This large and populous town, concaining 28,366 inhabitants,t is placed in the centre of the grand coal-mines in the counties of Durham and Northumberland, which bave for centuries supplied London and most of the east and south of England with that fuel; which has, perhaps, contributed more to the manufactures and commerce, and consequent wealth and power of this kingdom, than any other material or circumstance. The coal fleets sometimes amount to five hundred sail ; their station is at Shields. Even as a nursery of scamen, the trade is inval. uabie. In all parts of the neigliborhood are seen large carts laden with coals, and proceeding towards the port, on inclined planes, without the help of horscs or men, to the great surprise of the siranger.
Caermarthen is the principal town in South Wales : it stands upon the river Towy. "Inhabitants, 5548.
Caernarvon is the chief town of North Wales, for the beauty of the situation, regularity of the streets, and above all for the grandeur of the castle, one of the most magnificent in Europe, founded
by Edward I. in 1282. The town has a considerable tradic will London, Bristol, Liverpool, and Ireland, and has a beautiful quay along the side of the Menai, a straight between North Wales and Anglesea.
Inland Navigation. The Duke of Bridgewater is justiy venerated as the grand founder of inland navigation : his spirit and opulence were happily seconded by Brindley, who possessed an uncommon natural genius in mechanics. It was in the year 1758 that the first act was obtained for these great designs. The first canal extends from Worsley mill, about seven computed miles from Manchester, and reaches that town by a course of nine miles. In this short space almost every difficulty occurred that can arise in similar schemes; but mountains and rivers yielded to the genius of Brindley. There are subterraneous passages to the coal in the mountain, of near a mile in length, sometimes cut through the solid rock, and occasionally arched over with brick; with air-funnels to the top of the hill, some of them thirty-seven yards perpendicu-lar. This beautiful canal is brought over the river Irwell, by an arch of thirty nine feet in height, and under which barges pass without lowering their masts. The Duke of Bridgewater soon afterwards extended a canal of twenty-nine miles in length, from Longford-bridge, in Lancashire, to Hempstones, in Cheshire.
The Lancaster canal extends from Kendal, by Lancaster, toWest Houghton, a space of about 74 miles.
The canal from Leeus to Liverpool, directed in a northerly course by Skipton, winds through an extent of 117 miles; and from: this canal a branch also extends to Manchester,
From Halifax to Manchester is another considerable canal, com monly called that of Rochdale ; length 31 miles, begun in 1794.
Another canal extends from Manchester towards Wakefield ;, and another, called the Peak Forest canal, stretches from the former, southeast, about 15 miles.
Another joins the river Dun, several miles above Doncaster, to the river Calder, near Wakefield.
The Chesterfielil canal extends from Chesterfield to the Trene and another from Horncastle to Sleaford. Grantham canal reaches from that town to the river Trent, a course of 30 miles.
The grand design of Brindley was to join, by inland navigation, the four great ports of the kingdom, Bristol, London, Liverpool, and Hull. Liverpool is accordingly. connected with Hull by a canal from that long navigable river the Trent, and proceeding N. to the Mersey. The canal which joins these two rivers is styled the Grand Trunk ; and was begun in 1766, under the direction of that great engineer ; but was not completed til 1777 : the leng: is 99 miles. It was attended with great difficulties, particularly in passsing the river Dóve, in Derbyshire, where there is an aqueduct of twenty-three arches; the tunnel, through the hill of Hare-castle in Staffordshire, is in length 2880 yards, and more than 70 yards below the surface of the ground, and was executed with great labor and expense. But the utility corresponds with the grandeur of the design : salt from Cheshire, coals and pottery
from Stafforshire, and manufactures from various places, are transported on this canal.
From the Grand Trunk 5 or 6 branches extend in various directions : anong which must not be omitted that to the river Severn, near Bewdley, which connects the port of Bristol with those of Liverpool and Hull; the length is 46 miles ; completed in 1772. The other canals are too numerous to mention.
Manufactures and Commerce. The earliest staple commodity of England was tin, a metal rarely found in other countries. Wool had been regarded as a grand staple of England, but was chiefly exported in a crude state, till Edward Ul. encouraged set. tlements of Flemish manufacturers. Wool soon became the prime article of commerce. The exportation of raw wool was at length prohibited The woollen manufactures preserve great importance, though they no longer attract such particular regard, amidst the exuberance of English manufactures.
In recent times the manufactures of iron and copper, native minerals, have become great sources of national wealth ; nor must the new and extensive exportation of elegant earthen ware be forgotten. The cotton manufacture is diffused far and wide, forming a grand source of industry and prosperity. That of linen, except of sail-cluih, is not much cultivated in England. The manufactures of glass and fine steel, clocks, watches, &c. are deservedly eminent and extensive. As the nation is indebted to Wedgewood for converting clay into gold, so to Boydell for another elegant branch of exportation, that of beautiful prints.
Besides manufactured articles, England exports a number of native products too numerous to be here mentioned.
The English manufactures have been recently estimated at the annual value of 63,500,0001. and supposed to employ 1,585,000 per. sons. Of these the woollen manufacture is supposed to yield in round sums, 15,000,0001. the leather 10,000,0001. the iron, tin, and lead 10,000,0001. the cotton 9,000,0001. The other chief manu. factures, which yield from 1 to 4,000,0001. may be thus arranged, according to their consequence ; steel, plating, &c. copper and brass, silk, potteries, linen and flax, hemp, glass, paper.
The commerce of England is, at the present period, enormons, and may be said to extend to every region of the globe. The trade with the West Indies is one of the most important, and that with the East Indies alone, would have astonished any of the cele. brated trading cities of antiquity.
The following table exhibits the amount of the imports, exports, and toonage of Great Britain every year of the present century.
Year. 1800 1801 1802 1803 1804 1825
Tonnage. 1,924,042 1,958,373 1,895,116 1,788,768 1,802,063 1,857,652
1,897,603 1807 28,854,658 34,566,570
1,791,072 1808 27,186,625 34,554,267
1,425,592 1809 30,406,560 50,301,763
1,993,188 The extent of the commercial shipping of the British empire was, September 30, 1805, as follows:
404 2,581 1,067 3,024
Men and Boys 117,668
2,011 2,336 15,160
The annual income of Great-Britain was estimated in 1799, by Mr. Pili, at 102,000,000 ; and including the money, of which the estimate is far from certain, the whole capital of Great-Britain may perhaps be calculated as more than one thousand two hundred millions.
Climate and Seasons. The climate of Great-Britain is perhaps more variable than that of any other country on the globe. Scotland is of a clearer and drier temperature than that of England. The humidity of the climate clothes the meadows with verdure; but is injurious to the health of the inhabitants.
The year might properly be divided into eight months of winter, and four of summer. June, July, August, and September, are usually warm summer months ; but a night of frost is not unknown even in August. The winter may be said to commence with the beginning of October, at which time domestic fires become necessary; but there is seldoin any severe frost till Christmas, and January is the most stern month of the year. March is generaliy the most unsettled month of the year, interspersed with dry frosts, cold rains, and strong winds, with storms of bail and sieet.
Face of the Counity. From the mouth of the Tweed to Bamborough, extends a sandy shore. Thence to Flamborougir-head, are mostly low cliffs, of lime-stone, and other materials. Scarhorough stands on a vast rock, projecting into the waves; but Flamborough-head is a far more magnificent object, being formed of lime-stone, of a snowy whiteness, and stupendous height, visible far off at sea.
Hence to the Humber are commonly clay cliffs. The extensive coast of Lincolnshire is flat, and, probably gained from the soa. The county of Lincoln, and part of six others, are the low countries of Britain, and the coast is distinguistrable by churches, not by hills. The shores of Norfolk and Suffolk present sometimes loainy or clayey precipices, sometimes hillocks of sand, and sometimes low and flat spaces. Hunstanton cliff rises to be height of
about eighty fect, composed of chalk and friable stone, resting 01, a base of what is called iron-colored pudding-sione, projecting into the sea. The coast of Essex is generally low; but to the south of the Thames, arise continued cliffs of chalk, with layers of flint, resembling masonry. The north Foreland is a lofty chalky promontory; and the cliffs of Dover are known to every reader of Shakespeare.
Soil and Agriculture. The soil is greatly diversified, but in gen: eral fertile ; and in no country is agriculture more thoroughly undertood, or pursued in a grander style, except, perhaps, in Flanders and Lombardy.
The cultivated acres in England and Wales are computed at. upwards of 39,000,000, while those uncultivated are 7,888,777. Of these it is supposed that not above half a million is wholly unimprovable, and perhaps a million is only fit for plantations, while of the remainder one quarter is fit for tillage, and three fourths for meadow and upland pasture. The grain of every kind annually consumed in England, for three years ending in 1809, was 20,600,800 quarters ; and in Scotland, 3,988,400 ; total 24,589,200. Of this It part is imported, and is part from Ireland. So that only between t' and it's part comes from foreign countries.
Horticulture, or the art of gardening, is also pursued in England with great assiduity and success. The large supply of the capital in vegetables and fruits, and the high prices given for early produce, occasion such a spirit of cultivation, that each acre thus employed, is supposed to yield about 1201. annually, the yearly consumption in the metropolis being computed at more than 1,000,000 Of ornamental gardens, laid out with a just attention to the beau. ties of nature, and free from the uncouth affectations of art, Enge land is deservedly regarded as the parent country
Rivers. England is intersected by four important rivers, tha Severn, the Thames, the Humber, and the Mersey.
The Severn passes by Shrewsbury and Gloucester, into the Bristol Channel, a progress of about 150 miles, navigable as far as Welch-pook. Its chief tributary streams are the Northern and Southern Avons, the Teme and the Wye.
The Thames maintains a south-easterly direction, to its egress into the German oceaniIts course is computed at 140 miles; navigable to Cricklade.
The Humber is a name almost confined to a large estuary, which receives many considerable rivers, that fertilize the central parts of England.
Mountains. Bennevis, the highest mountain in Scotland, is not much above one quarter of the height of Mont Blanc, the sove. reign of the Alps, and the English and Welch summits aspire to heights still less considerable ; Snowdon being only 3568 English feet above the sea, while Bennevis is 4387. Wharn, in Yorkshire, was estimated at 4050; and Ingleborough at 5280 feet.
The mountains of Cheviot may be said to form a regular ridge, running from the south-west, where they join those of Galloway; to the north-east,