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"Wales is a country abundant in mountains, especialiy the northrern provinces.

Mineralogy. The tin mines in Cornwall are, it is supposed, the richest of the kind in the world. That kind of silver, termed by mineralogists horn ore, is also found in that district; but the profound secrecy observed in working it, forbids any investigation of the amount. The Huel rock boasis of what is called bell-metal ore; and of wolfram,

Cornwall also produces copper at Redruth, Alstone, and the Land's End. The same metal is found in Yorkshire and Stafford. shire; but no where in such abundance as in the Parrys mountain, in the northwest of Anglesea.*

Lead is found in the Mendip-hill, Somersetsbire; which also produces calamine and manganese. The lead-mines in Derbyshire are well known, not only for that metal, but for the beautiful veins of fluor, which accomany it, and which is manufactured into sereral ornamental articles. In general the northern central ridge of mountains abounds with lead-ore. The lead mines of Alston, on the eastern verge of Cumberland, employ about 1100.men.

The most remarkable mines of iron, are those of Colebrookdale, Shropshire, Dean-forest in Gloucestershire, with some in the north of England, particularly near Ulverston, in Lancashire.

Zinc is found in Derbyshire, Denbighshire, Cornwall, and other regions. Nickel and arsenic sometimes appear in Cornwall; and recently, what is called menachanite. But one of the most important of this kind is plumbago, or black lead, which is found in the ridge of Borrodale, near Keswic, in Cumberland : the mine is only opened at certain intervals of time.

The mincs of coal are found in the central, northern, and western parts, but particularly the northern around Newcastle. Turf or peat is common, in Hampshire, and other southern counties.

The mines of rock salt, in Cheshire, must not be omitted. The immense mines on the south side of Northwich, were discovered about the beginning of the last century. The quarries with their pillars and crystal roof, extending over many acres, present a beau. tilul spectacle; the stratum of salt, lies under a bed of whitish clay, at the depth of about forty yards. The first stratum is about twenty yards thick, so solid as lo' be blasted with gunpowder; this salt resembles brown sugar candy. Nexi is

bed of hard stone, under which is a second stratum of salt, about six yards thick, in some parts brown, in others as clear as crystal. The Wilton pit is circular, 108 yards in diameter, the roof supported by twentyfive pillars, each containing 294 solid yards of rock salt; the whole covering near two acres of land. The annual produce of rock salt at Northwich, has been estimated at 65,000 tons; of which about two thirds used to be exported to Flanders and the Baltic.

Marbles, and free stone, or calcareous sand-stone of various col. ors and textures, also occur. Fine alabaster appears in Derbyshire ; fullcrs-carth in Berkshire, and somc other countics.

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Aiken's Wales, 199.


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In the Southern, or English channel, first appears the Isle of Wight, of an oval form, 20 miles long, and 12 broad. This isłe is fertile and beautiful, and decorated with many picturesque villas ; the principal haven is that of Newport. The population of the island in 1801, was 24000.

At the distance of about 70 miles from Wight, to the S. W. arises the little island of ALDERNEY ; which is afterwards followed by the more important isles of GUERNSEY and JERSEY. Guernsey, the largest of these islez, is twelve miles long, nine broad. It is a verdant isle, though hilly, and barren of wood. The only town is that of Port St. Pierre.* The population of the island in 1801, was 21,500. Jersey is about twelve miles in length, and six in breadth, a well watered and fertile island, producing exccilent butter and honey. The winters are milder than in England. The northern side of the island is high, but the southern subsides into pleasant vales covered with orchards. The remarkable places are the two towns of St. Helier and St. Aubin, both standing on a bay, opening to the south ; and the castle of Mont Orgueil. The inhabitants of Jersey are computed at 20,000, of whom 3000 are capable of bearing arms. Alderney is a small isle, with a town, and about 1000 iphabitants in all. Sark has about 300 inhabitants.t

About thirty miles to the west of the Land's End, appear the isles of Scilly. This cluster is said to consist of 145 isles, covered with grass or moss, besides jonumerable dreary rocks. The largest isle is that of St. Mary, which is about five miles in circuit, and has a castle and garrison : Inhabitants about 600. That of St. Agnes is rather fertile; inhabitants about 300. The whole inhabitants of the Scilly isles are computed at about 1000. The cattle and horscs small; but sheep and rabbits thrive well. Considerable quantities of kelp are prepared amid these rocks. f

The last English isle worth notice is that of Man; it is about 30 miles in length, and 15 in its greatest breadth ; well stored with black cattle, and sheep; and the population has of late years greatly increased. The chief places are Douglas and Casiletown, and there are some considerable villages. The population in 1801 was, about 30,000.


Extent. SCOTLAND extends from lat. 54 44 to lat. 58 45, a length of 280 miles ; its breadth is 180 miles. The land however, is so indented by arms of the sea, that the breadth is very various, and no part is distant above 40 miles from the coast. The num. ber of square miles is estimated at 27,794.

* Guernsey is chiefly remarkable for its small breed of cattle.

Gough's Camden, iii, 753. Gough's Camden, iii, 753,

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Boundaries. Scotland is bounded W. and N. by the Atlanuic; E. by the German Ocean, and S. by England.

Divisions. Scotland is divided naturally into Highlands and Lowlands. The Highland district is in the N. and N. W. This district is 200 miles long, and from 80 10 100 broad.

The Lowland district comprises the E. S. E. and S. W. parts of the country. Scotland is also divided with equal propricty into threc (livisions, the northern, middle, and southern.

Scotland is divided into the following counties, which, in 1801, had the number of inhabitants annexed. COUNTIES

INHABITANTS. Orkney and Shetland

46,894 Caithness

22,609 Northern Sutherland

23,117 Division. Ross

53,525 Cromarty

9,652 Inverness

74,292 Argyle

75,700 Bute

11,791 Nairne

8,257 Murray, or Elgin

26,705 Banff

35,807 Aberdeen

123,071 Midland Mearns, or Lincardine

26,349 Division. Angus, or Forfar

99,127 Perth

126,366 Fife

93,743 Kinross

6,725 Clackıyannan

10,858 Stirling


West-Lothian, or Linlithgow 17,844
Mid-Lothian, or Edinburgh 122,954
East-Lothian, or Haddington 29,986






8,717 Selkirk

5,070 Roxburg

33,712 Dumfries

54,597 Kirkudbright

29,211 Historical Enoche. The original population of Scotland by the Cimbri, and by the Picti.

The introduction of Christianity among the Caledonians, in the reign of Brudi II. A. D. 565.

The reign of Malcolm III. A. D. 1056; from which period greater civilization began to take place, and the history becomes more authentic.

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The extinction of the ancient line of kings, in the person of Margaret, of Norway, grand-daughter of Alexander III. A. D. 1290. This event occasioned the arbitrary interposition of Edward I. king of England, which was the sole source of the enmity which afterwards unhappily prevailed between the kingdoms.

The accession of the house of Stuart to the Scottish throne; a family which produced most ingenious and intelligent, but most unfortunate princes.

The establishment of the Protestant religion, A. D. 1560.

The union of the two crowns, by the accession of James VI. to the English sceptre, A. D. 1603.

The civil wars, and the subsequent disputes between the Presbyterians and the Independents; causes that extinguished all sound literature in Scotland, for the space of twenty years, A. D. 1640-1660.

The revolution of 1688, and the firm establishment of the Presa byterian system.

The union of the two kingdoms in 1707.

The abolition of the hereditary jurisdictions, 1755, which laid the first foundation of the subsequent prosperity of Scotland.

Religion. Protestantism in the Presbyterian form was established in 1560. In 1578, an attempt was made to establish Episcopacy. Scotland was parcelled out into two archbishoprics, St. Andrews, and Gjasgow; and twelve bishoprics. This continued the established religion till 1688. All this time the country was distracted by the quarrels of the Episcopalians, Presbyterians, and Independents. In 1688, Presbyterianism was reestablished and is now the national religion. In 1732, a large body of the Presbyterians seceded from the establishment. They preserved the same form of church government, but were more strict in their sentiments, than those whoin they left behind. In 1747 the Seceders were subdivided into Burghers and Antiburghers. The former allow the oaths taken by the burgesses of the royal boroughs to be legal: the latter object. The former are the most numerous.

Many respectable families embrace the Episcopal form of the church of England. The other sectaries are not numerous. There are few Roman Catholics, even in the remote Highlands; the scheme of education being excellent, and generally supported with liberality.

The Presbyterian form of religion is prevailingly Calvinistic in its doctrines, and establishes an entire equality of ecclesiastical authority among its clergy. The revenues of the clergy also have been nearly equal, none have been more than 200 pounds sterling, and none less ihan 50 pounds per annum. By a late act of parliament the smaller revenues have all been raised to 150 pounds.

There are four grades of ecclesiastical courts, the General As. sembly, Provincial Synods, Presbyteries, and Kirk Sessions. ist. The General Assembly is the highest ecclesiastical court in Scotland, and may with propriety be termed the Ecclesiastical Parlia.

It consists of commissioners, some of whom are laymen, from presbyteries, royal boroughs, and universities. One of the


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commissioners, usually a nobleman of high rank, represents the
king. A moderator is chosen by the assembly, who presides and
regulates the proceedings. This is the high court of appeals from
the other ecclesiastical courts, and its decisions are final. Its au-
thority extends over Scotland. 2d. Provincial Synods are compos-
ed of delegates from a number of adjacent presbyteries, over which
they have power. 3d. Presbyteries are composed of delegates
from a number of adjacent parishes. They inspect the behavior
of the ministers and elders of their respective bounds, ordain pas-
tors,'examine and licence schoolmasters, &c. 4th. The Kirk Ses-
sion, composed of the minister, elders, and deacons of a parish, is
the lowest ecclesiastical court. It has the superintendence of the
poor, visits the sick, and assists the clergyman in his clerical

The following is a view of the ecclesiastical establishment of
Scotland, as divided into synods and presbyteries, with the num-
ber of ministers in each synod, in 1803:

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These 936 clergymen are settled over 877 churches, 31 of the churches being collegiate. The Scotch clergy deserve the highest praise, as men of enlightened minds, and unblemished life.

The Seceders are also very numerous. The Burghers have about 100 ministers, and each has, at a mediuni, a congregation of about 1000. The number of the Antiburghers is less.

Government. The government of Scotland, since the union, has been blended with that of England.

The Scots are represented in the imperial parliament by 19 peers, elected by the nobility by writ at the calling of every parliament, who sit and vote in the house of lords. To the house of commons, Scotland sends 45 members, viz. 30 knights of the shires, and 15 from the royal boroughs.

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