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275,517, and the houses 4137.* It is in lat. 59 20 31 N.; lon. 18 9 30 E.

Upsala stands in the middle of an open fertile plain, and is divided into two almost cqual parts by the rivulet Sala. The streets are diawn at right angles; the houses are generally constructed of trunks, smoothed into planks, painted red ; and the roofs are covered with turt. Each house has a court-yard and garden. This is the oldest town in the north, and was till the 17th century, the metropolis, and the royal residence. The inhabitants in 1799 amounted to 4403, and the houses 10 580. It is 45 miles from Stockholm, in lat. 59 51 50 N. and lon. 17 42 39 E.

Carlscrona is the chief road for the royal navy, and stands principally upon a small rocky island in the Baltic, connected with the main by a dyke and two wooden bridges. The town is spacious, the houses principally of wood, is strongly fortified, and difficult of access. Several noble docks have been formed out of the solid rock for repairing the ships of war, most of which are built at this place, and by English workmen. The population in 1795 was 13,800. Lat. 56 11 N. lon. 15 7 E.

Gothenburg, in lat. 57 42 4 N. and lon. 12 3 22 E. stands a small distance from the Cattegat, at the confluence of the Gotha and the Moldal. It is 3 miles in circumference. The houses, 1:100 in number, are principally of wood, painted red. Population 13,218.. The harbor is between two chains of rocks, a quarter of a mile wide, and is fortified.

Nordkioping is built on both sides of the Motala, the outlet of Lake Wetter, 22 miles from the Baltic, in lat. 58 30 N. It is 10 miles in circumference. The houses are small and scattered, and the population in 1795 was 8629. Several valuable manufactories are established here. The river affords a valuable salmon fishery, and is navigable for small vessels to the town,

Fahlun is situated in the midst of rocks and bills, between the Jakes of Run and Warpen. The houses, 1135 in number, are chiefly of wood, and two stories. The inhabitants in 1801 were 6064; many of them are employed in the mines. Lat. 60 35 49 N.

Roads. Great attention has been paid by the government to the roads of Sweden. Though not so broad, they are as good as the English turnpikes. The traveller, journeying many thousands of miles, and in every direction, will find scarce one that deserves the name of indifferent. No toll is exacted. Each landholder is obliged to keep a part in repair, proportioned to his property.

Inland Navigation. Of late a laudable attention has been paid to inland navigation; and the chief effort has been to form a canal between Stockholni and Gothenburg

Manufactures and Commerce. The Swedish manufactures are far from being numerous, consisting chiefly of those of iron and steel ; with cloths, hats, watches, and sail cloth. The manufactures of copper and brass, and the construction of ships, also occupy many hands. In 1785, it was computed that i 4,000 were

* Hassel.

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employed in those of wool, silk, and cotton. Of native products
exported, iron is the most considerable ; and it is said that the
miners in the kingdom are about 25,600.

The commerce of Sweden rests chiefly on the export of their
native products, iron, timber, pitch, tar, hemp, and copper. Her-
rings and train oil also form considerable articles. The chief im-,
port is corn of various kinds, particularly rye, Sweden rarely af-
fording a sufficiency for her own consumption ; with hemp, tobac-
co, sugar, coffee, drugs, silk, wines, &c. The exports in 1781
amounted to 1,368,8301. 138. 5d. and the imports to 1,008,3921.
128. 4 d.

Climate and Seasons. The different parts of Sweden present considerable varieties of temperature, but even in the middle regions winter maintains a long and dreary sway. In the most southern provinces, where the grand mass of the population is centered, the climate may be compared to that of Scotland.

Face of the Country. Soil and Agriculture. No country can be diversified in a more picturesque manner, with extensive lakes, large transparent rivers, winding streams, wild cataracts, gloomy forests, verdant vales, stupendous rocks, and cultivated fields. The soil is not the most propitious; but agriculture is conducted with skill and industry, so as much to exceed that of Germany and Denmark.

Rivers. The Gotha is the only ouilet of the vast lake of Wener. Its length is 70 English miles, and its course W. of S. Its navigation is much impeded by cataracts.

The Motala, the outlet of Lake Wetter, pursues an easterly course of sixty-five miles, to the Baltic. Its estuary is the Bay of Brunic.

The Dahl, the most important in Sweden, after a course of about 260 British miles, enters the Bothnic guif, about 10 miles east of Geffle.

Lakes. Of these the most important is the Wener, which is about 80 miles in length, by about 50 in breadth.

Next is the Wetter, a lake of equal length, but in breadth, about 12 miles.

Tbe lakc Meler, at the conflux of which with the Baltic is founded the city of Stockholm, is about 60 miles in length by 18 in breadth, and is sprinkled with picturesque isles.

Mountains. Sweden may be in general regarded as a moun. tainous country ; in which respect it is strongly contrasted with Denmark proper, or Jutland, and the isles. The chief mountains are in that elevated chain, which divides Sweden and Swedislı Lapland from Norway ; from which successive branches run in a S. E. direction.

Mineralogy. Sweden produces gold, silver, and copper; but iron forms its principal product. It abounds in beautiful granite, and has also marble and porphyry.

Edleto is 10 J, and tories herry

the

SWEDISH ISLANDS.

SWEDEN possesses many islands, scattered in the Baltic sea and gulf of Bothnia. Oland is in length about 70 miles, in breadth 6. The inhabitants are computed at near 8000. The sailors belonging to the crown are generally quartered here. Next occurs the island of Gothland, known to the literary world by the travels of Linnæus, about 70 miles in length, and 24 in breadth ; a fertile district, remarkable for an excellent breed of sheep. Wisbury is the capital, the population of which is 3745.

The isles of Aland lie in the entrance of the gulf of Bothnia, between lat. 59 47 and 60 30 N. and lon. 19 17 and 22 71 E. They are 80 in number. The largest, Aland, is 40 miles long, and 16 broad. These islands form 7 parishes, each of which has a church. The inhabitants speak the Swedish language. Those of Aland alone amounted, in 1792, to 11,260.

RUSSIAN EMPIRE.

THIS mighty empire, the largest in ancient or modern history, reaches from the gulf of Bothnia, to the western coast of America ; and from the Frozen ocean to Turkey, Persia, and Independent and Chinese Tartary. On the Frozen ocean, it extends from the mouth of the Enissey, in about lon. 31 E. to East cape, in lon. 190 E. or 170 W. On the Pacific, it extends southward to the mouth of the Amour, in lat. 53 20 N. On the Caspian sea, its most southern limit, is Derbent, in lat. 42 8 N. The Phasis bounds it on the eastern shore of the Black sea, and the Neister on the western. Polangen, in lat. 55 50, is its southern limit on the Baltic. The countries which it comprehends, together with their popula. tion and extent, are stated by Hassel as follows.

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55

Grand Total,

10,456,147 42,444,100*
To this amount should be added the population of Russian A.
merica, which is unknown.

In the whole of the Russian dominions are reckoned 1650 cities,
and 160,000 villages.
Russia contained in 1719 14,000,000 souls.

1743 16,000,000
1761 20,000,000
1781 28,000,000
1794 32,000,000
1795 37,000,0001
1811 46,000,000$

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RUSSIA IN EUROPE.

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Extent. THE length of Russia in Europe, from the southern
extremity of the Crimea, in lat. 44 35, to the northern extremity
of Russian Lapland, in 70 N. is 1470 miles. Its breadth in the
north, from the gulf of Bothnia to the Uralian mountains, is about
38 degrees of longitude, or 1200 miles. Farther south the country
is narrower. The area is estimated by Pinkerton at 1,200,000, or
with the late addition of Finland, at 1,300,000. This estimate is
we believe, more accurate than that of Hassel, who calculates it at
2,006,687. Probably however the truth is between them.

Boundaries. Russia in Europe is bounded N. by the Frozen
ocean; E. by Russian Asia ; S. by the Black sea and Turkey;
W. by Austrian and Prussian Poland, the Baltic, Sweden and
Norway.

Historical Epoche. In 1476, Ivan, Grand Prince of White Rus.
sia, subjugated the Tartar kingdom of Kazan, and in 1477, part of
the principality of Great Russia. Ivan II. subdued Astrachan in
1554, and soon after thic whole of Caucasus. He also began the

Including Swedish Finland,
+ Lithuania and Courland were added to Russia.
See Resources of Russia, p. 8 & 9.

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conquest of Siberia. Alexey reduced Kiow and the Ukraine, in 1655; and Peter the Great, in 1721, acquired the remainder of Great Russia and the Baltic provinces, and several provinces from Persia, on the west of the Caspian. Catharine, in 1783, gained the Crimea, and in 1791 the country between the Bog and the Neister, from the Turks. In 1793, she reduced Little Poland and Lithu. ania ; and, in 1796, the rest of the Russian Polish provinces. At the peace of Tilsit, in 1807, Russia wrested from Prussia a great part of New East Prussia, and formed it into a province, called Byalistock, containing 5379 square miles, and 183,300 inhabitants; and in 1810, she added Swedish Finland to her empire.

Nations. The SLAVONIANS are at present the majority of the Russian population. They compose five distinct classes of inhabitants. 1. The Russian Slavi. 2. The Polish Slavi. 3. The Servians. 4. The Lithuanians. 5. The Lettes, who occupy four of the nine circles of Livonia, the whole of Courland and Semigallia, and the bishopric of Pilten.

The Cossacks, a term signifying armed warriors, are of Slavoniap origin, and are divided into two great branches, the Malo-Russian, or Cossacks of Little Russia, and the Donskoi, or Cossacks of the Don. Their warriors are numerous and noted for their bravery.

The Finns compose. 12 tribes under the government of Russia ;, and one, the Hungarians, under that of Austria.

Religion. The religion of Russia is that of the Greek church. Before the year 1588 the patriarch of Constantinople was the head of the Russian churches. In that year Job, the metropolitan of Moscow, was constituted patriarch. He had ten successors. The Jast, Adrian, died in 1699, and the office was formally abolished by. Peter the Greal, in 1721. Its powers and duties were transferred to a council, called the Sacred Synod, composed of the emperor, who is president ; a vice-president; who is generally the metropolitan archbishop ; and a number of counsellors and assessors.

The clergy are divided into regular and secular. The regular clergy are the bishops ;. the abbots ; and the priors. There are 31 bishoprics, yielding each a salary of from £1000 to £1200 sterling, per ann. There are, in the whole empire, 480 monasteries, superintended by abbots and priors, and containing 7300 monks ; and 74 nunneries, superintended by abbesses, and containing 1509 nuns. The principal wealth of the church is centered in the monasterics. None of the regular clergy are permitted to marry. The number of parish churches, in the empire, is 18,350, beside several thousand chapels, and the numerous churches of the dissenters. The whole number of the clergy, regular and secular, is comput• ed at 67,900, without including their families. They are all exempted from taxation.

Government. The government is imperial. Peter the Great was the first who claimed the name of Emperor The sovereign is despotic in his authority. The throne is heritable by both sexes. The reigning monarch, however, may appoint any one of his own family as his successor. The emperor has a privy council, calleet

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