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Roar. A seminary is established in the east of France for die education of the Lutheran clergy. These various bodies can assema ble only with permission of the government.
As to the present state of the Catholio church, few of the curés are supplied; and, where curés are found, they are, in most instances, ignorant and profligate. The existing public schools furnish so few of the means of education for the priesthood, the annual stipend of the inferior clergy is s1 little, and so much of that little is withheld, and the morals of the French community are so generally corrupt, that few can be found with the disposition, the courage, or the capacity, to discharge the clerical office.
Government. From the time of Louis XI. to the death of Louis XVI. the French government had been an absolute monarchy, administered sometimes with mildness, often with cruelty. During the 14 years of the revolution, the government passed through almost every conceivable form, and at length settled into an iron despotism, under Napoleon Bonaparte. This despotism is military in its character, and while it lasts, must do
on the army for its support. The imperial dignity is hereditary, in the order of primogeniture, to the exclusion of teniales and their descent. The members of the emperor's family are princes.
France is now subdivided into 110 departments, in each of which is a prefect, and several sub-prefects. Their business is mechanically to execute the various orders of the governmerit, particularly with regard to taxes and the conscription; and to act as spies upon the inhabitants. The departments are divided into communes. The influence of the emperor is absolute and pervades and controls his whole empire.
The great means adopted by the government, to perpctuate this system, has been to corrupt, hopelessly, the morals of all the ollicers, civil and military; and then to appeal forcibly to their avarice and their love of power.
Populaiion. The Imperial Almanac of 1808 states the population of the whole empire, according to the census of 1507, at 36,350,987. Of these, 26,775,397 belong to old France ; and of the remaining 9,575,600, 4, 40,255 belong to the Netherlands ; 3,291,291 to Italy, including that of Geneva ; and 2, 144,054 to Germany. Ifto these be added the population of Holland, that ol the whole French empire, as it was in 1811, will amount 10 38, 552,403.
Dy the official returns of the population of the French empire in 1812, it appears that there were in the ancient provinces of France, 28,786,911 souls ; in and the countries annexeri to France since the revolution, 13,951,466; making a total of 42,738,377. In old France the number to a square mile is 194.5, and in the united countries 228.5. Old France contains 147,973 square miles, and the new departments 61,050.*
Colonies. At the commencement of the revolution France hado very valuable colonies in the West Indies, in South America, in:
**Edinburgh Christian Instructer,
Africa, and in Asia. At present, all, except St. Domingo, arc in the hands of the English. That island forms an independent kingdom.
Army. The following is an abstract of the account of the French army, at the close of the year 1807, as given in the Impeal Almanac of 1898.
2,049 Imperial Guards
15,345 Imperial Gens d'armes 693
11,439 380,290 391,729 Cavalry
22,001 547,929 569,930* The officers of the first column are all cominissioned. The second column includes both non-commissioned officers and privatcs.
The army, since 1798, has been raised by what is called the Conscription. This takes effect every year, and includes all the male population from the age of 20 to 25. All of this description are liable to be called into service whenever the government directs. Those of 20 are drawn out first. The others remain lia. ble, till the end of the 25th year, whenever the quota required is deficient. If these are found insufficient, the conscription age is changed, and youths from 16 to 20, and men of any age, over 25, are demanded.
Navy. Hassel states it, in 1809, at 40 ships of the line, and 30 frigates. It has since been increased. By the annexation of Holland to France shic gained 13 ships of the line, and 10,000 seamen. Revenue, Hassel states the revenue of four years as follows. Francs.
Francs. 1803 664,500,000
1805 710,000,000 1804 700,000,000
1807 720,000,000+ To the present revenue should now be added that of Holland, amounting to £4,375,000 sterling.
The expenditure of that year, as estimated by the same author, equalled the revenue, viz. Interest of national debt
75,159,000 Civil list
28,000,000 Service of the state
* According to Herbin, the army of 1802 contained 600,949 men; the Political Miscellany states that of 1805 at 414,125; and Borch says, that that of 1806 amounted to 610,976 effective men. In June, 1811, France had 800,000
arms.--[Expose of tb: Minister of the Interior, + 30,000,0001, sterling:
The current moncy of France used to be computed at 490,000,000 sterling, when that of Great Britain was estimated at £40,000,000.
Manners and Customs. The French are distinguished for taste and elegance in their houses, furniture, equipage, and dress; for case and gracefulness of manners; for quickness of apprehension ; for vivacity and gaiety of temper; and for a perpetual fondness for amusement and pleasure. This is the bright side of the medal. The reverse, painful and distressing before the revolution, is now loathsome and awful. During the revolutionary period of anarchy, the morals of the nation, distinguished for their corruption before, were rendered immensely more corrupt by profligate rulers and profligate literati. The French, as a nation, are at present, by the confession even of sober and discreet Frenchmen, false and faithless; revengeful and sanguinary. The law of divorces has rendered marriage the mere cover for prostitution; and France presents at this moment the picture of one great common brothel, in which every variety of lewdness is indulged without shame and without restraint. The only liberal education is that for the army ; and the young men of promise and of rank have only this advantage over their inferiors, that they are earlier fitted for scenes of barbarity and bloodshed. This sanguinary education explains the havoc and the ruin, which cvery where mark the progress of French arms; and which have rendered Frenchmen the objects of terror and abhorrence wherever they are kvown.
Language. The French is a corruption of the Latin, with many Gothic and some Celtic words intermixed. It was always a commanding object with the government to extend the French language and French fashions; and at this time the language is more universally diffused than any other in Europe. Its purity has, however, been very much corrupted by the introduction of new and barbarous words and phrases since the revolution.
Literature. The French were long distinguished for their atention to elegant literature: and their researches in mathematical and physical science have been highly respectable. At the presa ent time science is encouraged, only as it has a tendency to promote the views of the government. The attention of the French savans, therefore is chicsly directed to the inathematics and the various branches of natural history. Hardly a man of learning, in the appropriate sense of the word, is to be found in the nation. The study of the Greek and the oriental languages has been bana ished from the public schools, and the writers of antiquity are seen only in a French costume.
Education. By the imperial decree of April, 1808, the various schools, academies, and colleges of France are connected together, and form the Imperial University. This is composed of as many Provincial Academies, as there are courts of appeal in the empire. The schools belonging to each academy are arranged in the following order. 1. The Faculties, for the more profound sciences, and for the conferring of degrees. 2. The Lyceums, or Lycées, for the classics, history, logic, mathematics, and physics.
Colleges, for the elements of the classics, of history, and of the sciences. 4. Schools kept by private masters, in which the instruction approaches that of the colleges. 5. Boarding schools, where it is less severe. 6. Primary schools, where reading, writing, and arithmetic are taught. The members of the faculties aro men of mere science, and those who are soon to be the professors of the inferior institutions. Of the Lyceums there are 45 in the empire. Each has a board of 8 professors, and a library of 1500 volumes, both selected by the government. No books can be introduced without the permission of the minister of the interior. Beside the professors, there is an officer, entitled L'Officier in. structeur, who is charged with the military instruction of the pupils. They are divided into companies of 25 with each a sergeant major, a sergeant, and 4 corporals. They assemble at given hours of the day, and go through with all the military evolutions. The students are composed of the children of the wealthy families of France, and of those who are educated at the public expense. The students educated at the public expense, are said to exceed in number those educated by their parents at the Lyceums. The professors are generally persons of slender abilities, and are very miserably.supported by their salaries. The buildings appropriated to these institutions are in a neglected and mouldering state.
The military academies contain about 1500 young men, all sup ported by the state. They are selected from the alumni of the Lyceums. The term of instruction is two years. They are sup. plied with the ablest professors, and are in every respect admirably organized. They send forth annually a host of accomplished officers, engineers and mechanicians.
Citics and Towns. The number of large and populous towns. in France is so great, that only a small part of them can be particularly described. Exclusive of those in Holland and the Netherlands, there are considerably more than 100 towns in the empire : whose population exceeds 10,000.
Paris, the capital of the kingdom, is built on an extensive plain on both sides of the Seine, and on three islands in that river, in a : healthy and pleasant situation, with delightful environs; and is said to be li miles in circunference. It covers a very large freesione quarry, which has furnished materials for most of the houses,, and has been so extensively excavat that an earthquake might. easily bury the city. The number of houses is 32,000, from four. 10 seven stories bigh, generally handsome, and with uviform fronts.' The population in 1807, was 547,756. There are 12 bridges over the Seine, and 26 fine quays along its banks. There were, before the revolution, 88 churches, 40 chapels, 10 abbeys, 28 priories, and 103 couvents, besides numerous hospitals and seminaries.
Marseilles is seated at the fout of a rocky mountain near the sea, and is divided into the old and new town. 'The harbor, a parallelogram, with buildings on both sides and one of the ends, is well defended, capacious, and one of the best in the Mediterranean; but the entrance has not depth of water enough for men of: war. Here is a large arsenal, and one of the finest armories in the kingdom. The population, in 1807, was 96,413.
Bordeaux is built on the W. bank of the Garonné, about 40 miles
Lyons, at the conflux of the Rhone and the Saone, was the
Rouen, on the Seine, is a large commercial and manufacturing
Nantes, on the Loire, is one of the largest trading citics in
Toulouse, on the Garonne. It had 50,171 inhabitants in 1802.
Strasburg is the thoroughfare between France and Germany, situated at the conflux of the Ile and the Brusch, about a mile from their entrance into the Rbine. Inhabitants, in 1802, 49,056.
Cologne, built in the form of a crescent, on the Rhine, is fortifi-
Orleans, on the Loire, is one of the most agreeable cities in
Montpellier stands upon a rising ground fronting the Mediter-
Meiz stands at the conflux of the Seille and Moselle. In 1807
Rheims is situated on the Vesle. Formerly the archbishop of
*Toulon, on the Mediterranean, a liule east of Marseilles, has an
strong bat. 'teries. Toulon is the only harbor for the navy on the southern coast. lnhabitants, 29,760.
Brest is the chief resort of the navy on the western coast. It has two parish churches, a marine seminary, a court of admiralıy, and 25,865 inhabitants. The harbor, if we except Toulon, is the largest and safest in the kingdom, and capable of containing 500 ships of war, in 8, 10, and 15 fathoms at low water.
Buulogne lies on the English channel, on the declivity, and at the foot of the chalk mountain. It has 10,685 inhabitants. The harbor, formed by the river Liane, is defended at the mouth by a small fort. The entrance is difficult. Here lay the florilla, in 1834 and 1805, prepared for the invasion of Great Britain.