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Religion. The religion of the greater part of Germany is the Reformed, first introduced into Saxony by Luther, but variously modified. The south, however, continue$ firmly attached to the Roman Catholic faith, now chiefly supported by the house of Austria.

Literature and Universities. The Germans can boast of a greater number of useful discoverics and inventions in arts and sciences, than any other European nation. They have the honor of discovering the Art of Printing about the year 1450. It would be easy to enumerate nearly one hundred of their inventions, without filling up the list with mere improvements in machines and mechanical arts. Literature and the sciences are arrived in Germany at a very high degree of eminence, both with respect to universality and solidity. Within these fisty years their improvements have been rapid and astonishing. Universal geography, chronology, antiquities, and heraldry owe their perfection to the Germans, and the science of Staiistics its origin.

The number of readers in the German empire, and in the neigh-
boring countries, especially in the north of Europe, where the
German language has an extensive circulation, is large enough to
encourage the publication of no less than 5000* annual literary
productions, of which two thirds are original performances, and
one third translations from other languages. The book trade is no
where equally important; at the Leipsic fair, books are sold and
exchanged to the value of several huvdred thousand dollars.

There are 38 universities in Germany, of which 19 belong to the
Protestants, and 17 to the Roman Catholics.

Government. The government was that of an aristocracy,
which elected a monarch, who may be of any family, Catholic,
Lutheran, or Calvinist. To consider the constitution at length,
which has been called by a German writer 6 a confusion supported
by Providence,” would be foreign to the nature of this work.
There is now no empire of Germany, nor are the states connected
by any common bond.

Population. The states composing the confederation of the Rhine have, according to Hassel, a population of 16,927,600 ; of whom 2,277,000 are in the dutchy of Warsaw ; and 84,000 in the district of Dantzic. The remainder 14,566,600 are in Germany, Of the present Prussian population 3,584,000 are Germans; and of that of Austria 8,660,000 : to which, if that of the dutchy of Hola stein be added, the whole amount of the population of Germany will be, according to Hassel, 27,140,603.

Army. The whole military force of the states, composing the confederation of the Rhine, is stated, hy Hassel, at 205,700 meng of whom they are obliged to furnish 116,750 men as a contingent to the French emperor, the head of the confederacy, whenever its principles are infringed upon by other nations. What proportion

* In the year 1792," at the Easter fair, (there is another not so productive at Michaelmas) were published 2227 new books, inclusive of 468 continuations, 194 new editions, and 154 translations, most of them in the Belle Lettres, Geography, History, and Physic."

Professor Ebeling's later to the author.

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of the Austrian, Prussian, and Danish troops is derived from Germany, we are unable to state.

Revenues. The whole revenue of the confederation of the Rhine is stated by Hassel, at 94,193,000 guilders. The Austrian revenues derived from Germany are not less than 50,000,000; the Prussian 20,300,000, and those of Holstein about 1,300,000; making a total of 165,793,000 guilders annually yielded by Germany.

Face of the Country. To the N. of the Mayn, Germany chiefly presents wide sandy plains, which seem as if they had been, in the first ages of the world, overwhelmed by the sea. A few hills be gin to appear in the neighborhood of Minden ; and in the south of the Hanoverian dominions arise the most northern mountains of Germany, those of Blocksberg, and others in the Hartz. To the S. W. are the mountains of Hessia, and others, extending towards the Rhine : while on the east the rich and variegated country of Saxony, one of the most beautiful and fertile in the empire, extends to the southern limits of the mountains of Erzgeberg, abundant in mines and singular fossils.

The regions to the south of the Mayn may be regarded as ratber mountainous.

Rivers. Both portions are watered by numerous and important rivers. In the north the Elbe is the most distinguished stream, rising in the Sudetic mountains of Silesia; and, after running S. for about 50 miles, it suddenly assumes its destination of N. W. receives the Bohemian Muldo and Eger, the Mulda and Sala of Saxony, and the large river Havel from the east, and enters the sea near Cuxhaven, after a comparative course of more than 500 miles. The chief cities on the banks of the Elbe are Dresden, Meissen, Wittenberg, Magdeburg, from which it runs almost a solitary stream to Hamburg. The tide is perceived to the height of 22 miles ; and, when raised by the north wind, middle sized vessels may arrive at Hamburg, but they are in general obliged 10 anchor a mile below the city.*

Not far to the W. is the mouth of the Weser, which first receives that name when its two sources, the Werra and the Fulda, join near Munden in the principality of Calenburg, about 16 miles S. W. of Gottingen. The principal towns on this river are Bevern, Minden, and Bremen. The inundations of the Weser are terrible, the adjacent towns and villages seeming to form islands in the sea: hence the shores are esteemed unhealthy.

The Danube has already been described.

The Necker is a tributary stream of the Rhine, rising in the Black Forest, not far from the Danube, and running a picturesque course of about 150 miles through a country variegated with vineyards.

Lakes. In the dutchy of Mecklenburg, the lake of Plau extendsunder various names about 25 miles in length, by 6 in breadth. The lake of Constance is the most distinguished expanse of water, described under Swisserland. Next is the sea of Bavaria, 16. iniles by 5 in size.

Busching vi. 16.

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Mountains. The most northern mountains in Germany are those of the Hartz. These rise in the form of an amphitheatre, the highest being what is called the great Blocksberg.

But the most celebrated mountains, in that part of Germany which lies to the N. of the Mayn, are the Erzgeberg, or Metallic mountains, runniog between Bohemia and Saxony, but supplying both countries with silver, tin, and other metals.

Among the German mountains to the S. of the Mayn, may be named the Bergstrass, passing from near Manheim to the vicinity of Frankfort, the mountains of Wurtemburg, and those of the Black Forest, whence the source of the Danube.

The southeast of this portion of Germany is bounded by the high mountains of Bavaria and Salzia or Salzburg; being branches of the Swiss Alps.

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GERMANIC STATES.

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THE constitution of the Germanic body, the only semblance of union between its various sovereignties, has lately been dissolved; but its numerous divisions still remain ; and the same disunion will probably prevail, until its various states are united under a common government. Of these Austria and Prussia claim separate heads. The others will be described under the two following divisions.

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GERMAN STATES NORTH OF THE MAYN.

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1. THE kingdom of Saxony is the most powerful state in this division of Germany. It is one of the modern kingiloms, having been merely an electorate, till the peace of Tilsit, when it received a large addition from Prussian Poland, called the dutchy of War

It now comprises 56,970 square miles, with a population of 4,363,000.

Saxony Proper, lies N. W. and N. of Bohemia and reaches from the head of the Weser, to that of the Oder. It is about 220 miles from E. to W. and 130 from N. 10 S. The kingdom comprises the following territories.

1. Old Saxony, containing 11,485 square miles, and 1,612,000 inhabitants, and divided into il counties.

2: Margrave of Lausitz, or Lusatia, containing 4915 square
miles, and 474,000 inhabitants ; and divided into Upper Lusatia,
and Lower Lusatia, with Korbus.

3. Dutchy of Warsaw, containing 40,570 square miles, 2,277,000
inhabitants; and divided into 6 departments.
Posen

Warsaw

Kalwary
New Silesia Plock

Bromburg
This dutchy is in the western part of Poland, and constitutes the
great part of the acquisitions of Prussia, in the division of that
kingdom. The possessions of Prussia cntirely separate this dutch

from Lusatia. The distance across, however, in the narrowest place, is not more than 40 miles. And in the treaty of Tilsit, : communication was stipulated for by means of a military road.

The religion of the electorate is the protestant, which was here introduced by Luther; and there are two bishoprics, Merseberg and Naumburg. That of the dutchy is the catholic. The govern ment is nearly absolute, but conducted with moderation through different councils. The army is 65,000, of whom 30,000 are raised in the the dutchy of Warsaw. The contingent of Saxony, as a member of the confederation of the Rhine, is 20,000 men. The sevenue is staied by Hassel at 17,500,000 guilders, the expenditure a: 16,750,000, and the debt at 35,000,000. The credit of Saxony bas always been high.

The language and literature of Saxony are the most distinguished in all Germany, most of the writers who have refined the language having been born, or having resided in this country. Leipsig is a celebrated mart of German literature. There are many schools, colleges, and academies ; among the latter, the mineralogic academy of Freyberg, instituted in 1765, is esteemed the leading school of that science. Dresden, the capital, is built on the Elbe where the Weissesitz falls into it. It is one of the hand. somest towns in Europe. It contains 61 streets, 40 public schools, and 18 churches. In 1803 the population amounted to 49,094, and the dwelling-houses to 2644.

Warsaw, the former capital of Poland, is built upon the Vistula, partly on a plain and partly on a gentle ascent rising from the river. The town is very extensive, and wears a melancholy appearance. The palaces are numerous and splendid, but the great body of the houses are mean wooden hovels. Population in 1803, 64,421 ; lat. 52 14 23 N.

Leipsig stands on the Plisse, in a pleasant fertile plain. Its university, founded in 1409, has been one of the most celebrated in Europe. There are 8 Lutheran churches, 1 Calvinistic, and ! Catholic. Three annual fairs are held here, and the commerce is very extensive. Inhabitants, in 1801, 30,796 ; lat. 51 20 15 N.

ll. The next kingdom in size is that of Westphalia. It contains 15,130 square miles. Its situation is nearly central in this part of Germany. The Saale, and the Elbe, on the E. separate it from Saxony and Prussia. On the West it reaches to the Ems. It is formed out of the southern part of the circle of Lower Sax. ony, and the castern part of the circle of Westphalia. It is die vided into 3 departments, which are subdivided into 27 districts. I. Elbe,

III. Harze, 1. Magdeburg

Heiligenstadt 2. Newhalden

Drudenstadt 3. Stendal

Nordhausen
4. Salzwedel

Osterode
II. Fulda,

IV. Leine,
1. Cassel

Gottingen
2. Hoxter

Einbeck
Paderborn

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V. Oker,

VII. Werra,
Brunswick

Marburg
Helipstadt

Hersfield
Hildesheim

Eschwege
Goslar

VIII. Weser,
VI. Saaic,

Osnaburg
Halberstadt

Minden
Blankenburg

Bielefield
Hable

Bintein
The departments are named from the rivers on which they lic.
The kingdom, in 1807, contained 1,941,561 inhabitants, 202 cities,
81 market towns, 426 i villages and hamlets, and 322,000 houses.
The revenue is 14,430,502 guilders ; the expenditure the same ;
and the debt 40,000,000 guikers. The army consists of 35,000
men. Its contingent is 25,000 men.

Westphalia was formed into a kingdom immediately after the
Treaty of Tilsit, in 1807. All the territories of Prussia, west of
the Eibe, were allotted to it, together with various small princi-
palities. Jerome Bonaparte was made king ; but for reasons of
state, resigned his kingdom in 1811.

Magdeburg, the capital lies on the Elbc ; and is a large, beautiful, wealthy and strongly fortified city. Its trade is extensive, and its manufactures numerous, particularly of woollens, silks, cottons, linen, stockings, hats, gloves, tobacco and snuff. In 1802 it contained 32,013 inhabitants.

Cassel, in 51 19 20 N. is equally divided by the Fulda. It was
the capital of the Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel before he was driven
from his dominions. In 1800 it contained 18,450 inhabitants.

Brunswick, on the Ocker, contained in 1804, 31,714 inhabitants.
It was one of the Hanse Towns.

Hildesheim, also one of the Hanse Towns, contained in 1802,
11,108 inhabitants.

Gottingen is in a spacious, fertile valley, on a branch of the Leine, and its university has been much celebrated, and was founded by George II. in 1734. It had, in 1807, 8914 inhabitants.

III. The Hanoverian States bound the kingdom of Westphalia,
on the N. W. Since their subjugation by France, they have not
been formed into a distinct government, but are merely colonies
of that country. They consist of the following territories.

1. Principality of Calenburg 5. Dutchy of Bremen
2. Principality of Luenburg 6. Principality of Verden
3. Principality of Lauenburg 7. County of Hoya
4. District of Hadeln

8. County of Diepholz.
They extend in length from E. to W. about 189 miles, and from
N. to S. 100. Their whole contents is 10,132 square miles, and
their population 629,000.

The religion is the Lutheran. The government was conducted
by a council of regency. The revenue is now 3,600,000 guilders,
which is paid into the treasury of ance. T literature of this
country has deserved considerable applause, since the institution
of the university of Gottingen by George II. It is now in the king-

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