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dom of Westphalia. The chief city is Hanover, in the northern part of the principality of Calenburg, situated on the river Leine, amidst numerous gardens and villas. This city is slightly fortifed, containing 21,360 inhabitants.

IV. The House Mecklenburg. The territories of this fam. ily lie between Hanover on the S. W. and Swedish Pomerania on the N. E. The kingdom of Westphalia borders on the S. The country is divided in iwo dutchies, that of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, and that of Mecklenburg-Strelitz The former contains 7000 square iniles, 290,000 inhabitants, furnishes a revenue of 1,800,000 guilders, and an army of 1800 men; the latter contains 800 square miles, 66,000 inhabitants, and yields a revenue of 595,000 guilders. The contingent furnished by both is 1900 men. The whole country is full of lakes, heaths, and marshes, and the soil being sandy, produces little, except rye and oats. The states, consisting of nobility and burgesses, are assembled yearly to regulate the taxation. The religion is the Lutheran, with six superintendents, and an university at Rostock. Rostock, the chief town, is built on a harbor formed by the mouth of the Warne. The town contained in 1803, 13,736 inhabitants. Its commerce is valuable. Schweria is built on a beautiful lake, called Schwerin-Sea, through which runs the Elde. Inhabitants 9801, Wismar, at the mouth of the Elde, is well fortified ; contains 6 churches, and 6254 inhabitants.

V. The grand dutchy of Berg reaches from the Lahn to Holland, and from the Rhine to the kingdom of Westphalia. It is composed of

1. The dutchy of Berg 5. The county of Lingen
2. The dutchy of Cleves 6. The county of Tecklenburg
3. The dutchy of Munster 7. The county of Dortmund,
4. The county of Mark

beside several lordships.
It contains 6900 square miles, and 922,649 inhabitants, with a
revenue of 5,994,000 guilders, an army of 8000, and a contingent
of 5000.

VI. The grand dutchy of Hesse consists of 1, The principality of Starkenburg, which lies S. of the Mayn on the Rhine. 2, The principality of Upper Hesse, and 3, The dutchy of Westphalia. It has the grand dutchy of Wirzburg on the S. that of Berg on the W. the kingdom of Westphalia on the N. and that of Saxony on the E. It covers an extent of 4380 square miles, has a population of 539,000, a revenue of 3,500,000 guilders, an army of 8000, and a contingent of 5000. The country is generally mountainous; but there are many pleasant vales, fertile in corn and pasturage. The religion is the Lutheran. Darmstadt, in Starkenburg, is the capital, and contained, in 1805, 11,350 inhabitants. The Hessians hare been much employed as mercenary soldiers, and were hired by the British in the American War.

VII. The house of Saxe. The territories of this family compose

five dutchies :
Saxe-Weimar

Saxe-Hildburghausen
Saxe-Gotha

Saxe-Coburg
Saxe-Meinungen

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They lie between the grand dutchy of Wurtzburg, on the S. and
the house of Schwarzburg, on the N. and cover an extent of 3045
square miles. The population is 438,000 ; revenues 3,226,000
guilders ; army 3400 ; contingent 2800 men. Gotha, the chief
town, contained, in 1805, 12,400 inhabitants ; Altenburg, 9484 in-
habitants ; Weimar, in 1803, 8500 inhabitants; and Coburg 7096
inh tants.
VIII. The dutchy of Oldenburg is divided into the districts of

Oldenburg Wuhrden Vechta
Delmenhorst Warel

Kloppenburg

and Wildeshausen, and contains 2165 square miles, and 140,000 inhabitants. It lies W. of the Weser. The soil is fertile in pasturage. The revenue is 720,000 guilders, and the army 1000 men. Oldenburg, the capital, contained, in 1800, 4500 inhabitants.

IX. The house of Nassau comprises the dutchy of Usingen and the principality of Weilburg, beside several petty lordships. It is situated near the mouth of the Mayn, and contains 2270 square miles, and 272,000 inhabitants. The revenue is 1,757,000 guilders; the army 3000 men, and the contingent 1680. The country is mountainous, yet not without fine arable and meadow lands. Wisbader contains only 3500 inhabitants.

X. House of Anhalt. The territories of this family, one of the most illustrious in Germany, are the dutchies of Dessau, Bernburg, and Cothen, containing 1052 square miles, and 124,000 inhabitants. The revenue is 1,190,000 guilders, and the contingent 800 men. The religion is Calvinism. The soil is good and fertile in grain. Dessau, on the Muldau, near its mouth, contained in 1802, 9220 inhabitants. Lat. 51 49.

XI. The dutchy of Aremberg lies round the lower part of the river Ems, comprising the counties of Recklinghausen and Meppen, and the lordship of Dulmen. It contains 1107 square miles, and 59,000 inhabitants ; and yields a revenue of 300,000 guilders, and a contingent of 379 men. The town of Meppen, on the Ems, contains 3000 inhabitants.

XII. The territories of the house of Schwarzburg are the principalities of Sondershausen, and Rudolstadt. The extent is 986 square miles; the population 114,000 ; the revenue 450,000 ; the contingent 650 men ; Sondershausen on the Unstrutt, contains 4000 inhabitants.

XIII. The territories of the house of Lippe lie N. of Paderborn, and S. of the Weser, composing the principality of Detmold, and the county of Schauenburg, and containing 942 square miles, and 95,000 inhabitants. The revenue is 35,000 guilders; the contingent 650 men.

XIV. The New Hanseatic League.
1. Hamburg

132 square miles ; 119,000 inhabitants; reve

nue 1,500,000 guilders ; contingent 1800 men. 2. Lubec

$ 197 square miles ; 45,000 inhabitants; revenue 2 400,000 guilders.

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3. Bremen

88 square miles; 50,000 inhabitants ; revenue

400,000 guilders ; contingent 500 men. Dantzic in 416 square miles ; 84,000 inhabitants ; revenue Poland

700,000 guilders. These territories were called by the French government, the New Hanseatic League, for want of a better name. Each district includes the city, and a part of the adjoining country.

Hamburg is the third city in Germany, and contained, in 1807, 102,000 inhabitants. It was fortified by Charlemagne A. D. 808. The Elbe is here including the islands, near a mile broad. It lies in 53 34 32 N. lat.

Lubec stands on the Trave. It contains 32,000 inhabitants.
Bremen, on the Weser, contains 42,000 inhabitants.

Dantzic, on the Vistula, 4 miles from the Baltic, in 1804 contained 42,273 inhabitants.

XV. The house of Salm, north of the Lippe, on the frontiers of Holland. Extent 680 square miles ; population 56,000 ; revenue 230,000 guilders ; contingent 323 men.

XVI. The territories of the house of Reussen in the southein part of Upper Saxony. Extent 560 square miles; inhabitants 82,000 ; revenue 420,000 guilders ; contingent 450 men. Graitz on the Elster, with 4500 inhabitants, is the capital.

XVII. The principality of Waldec, west of Hesse, containing 475 square miles, and 48,000 inhabitants. Its revenue is 375,000 guilders, and its contingent 400 men.

XVIII. The principality of Isenberg N. E. of Frankfort on the Mayn, containing 251 square miles and 43,000 inhabitants. Revonues 260,000 guilders ; contingent 291 men.

Beside Hanover, already described, there are five other districts north of the Mayn, which are provinces of France. 1. Swedish Pomerania, including the island of Rugen, with Mecklenburg on the S. W. and Saxony on the S. It contains 1446 square miles

, and 116,000 inhabitants. The contribution is 400,000 guilders. 2. The principality of Fulda, N. of Wurzburg, 712 square miles; 91,000 inhabitants; revenue, 600,000 guilders. 3. County of Hanau, E. of Frankfort on the Mayn, 482 square miles ; 66,000 inhabitants; revenue 820,000 guilders. 4. Principality of Erfurt with Blackenheyn, in Thuringia ; square miles 350 ; population 51,000 ; revenue 300,000 guilders. 5. County of Catzenelnebogen on the Rhine and the Mayn; square miles 137 ; inhabitants 18,000 ; revenue 80,000 guilders.

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GERMANY SOUTH OF THE MAYN.

THERE are two kingdoms also in this part of Germany, both of recent origin; but the smaller states are much less numerous than in the other.

1. The kingdoni of Bavaria includes, the old electorate of Bavaria, the principal part of Franconia, one third of Swabia, and the whole of the 'Tyrol. Its length, is 300 miles. It is bounded E. by Bohemia and Austria ; S. by Venice ; W. by Swisserland,

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tants; * Baden, and Wartemburg ; N. by the Mayn, and Bayreuth. It

contains 35,870 square miles, and is divided into 15 circles, which tants; rer

are named from the rivers on which they lie.

The population of Bavaria, in 1807, was 3,231,570 ; and the revenue 17,373,080 guilders. The debt, in 1808, was 80,000,000 guilders. The army 35,894. The contingent 30,000 men. Religion, the

Roman catholic, with some Lutherans. The eastern part of Bavaria Cained in

is plain and fertile; the western mountainous and forested, and inter

spersed with large and small fakes. The Tyrol is almost made broad

up of ranges of mountains, called the Tyrolese Alps. Their
direction is N. E. and S. W. The chief rivers of this kingdom

are the Danube, the Inn, the Iser, the Lech, the Nab, and, in the habitants

Tyrol, the Adige. The lake of Constance forms part of the west

ern boundary. 18046

Munich, the capital, stands upon the Iser, in lat. 48 8 20 N. It is one of the handsomest cities in Germany, and lately contained 48,740 inhabitants.

Nuremburg contains 30,000 inhabitants. It stands on the Pega

nitz, and is environed with double walls. the sono

Augsburg, between the Lech, and the Wertach, in lat. 48 21 41 N. is in a fertile and delightful country, and is surrounded with ramparts, walls, and ditches. It contained, in 1807, 28,534 inhabitants.

II. The kingdom of Wurtemburg, in the central part of Swabia, reaches from the Taxt, a branch of the Neckar, to within 20 miles of the lake of Constance, about 120 miles in length, and contains 7220 square miles. Bavaria lies on the E.; the same and Baden lies on the S. and W.; and the Taxt and the Neckar on the N. The population of the kingdomn, in 1807, was 1,181,372 ; the revenue 8,000,000 guilders, and the debt 25,000,000. The army was 20,000 men, and the contingent 12,000.

The soil is very fertile. The religion is the Lutheran, with some Calvinists, and some colonies of the Vaudois. The church is ruled by four abbots and 38 deans. Education and ecclesiastical studies are favored by laudable institutions, particularly the seminaries of Tubingen and Stutgard. This last is the chief town, and contained, in

1808, 22,680 inhabitants. furt

III. The grand durchy of Baden, has the kingdoms of Wurtem-
berg and Bavaria on the E.; the lake of Constance and the Rhine,
which divide it from Swisserland, on the S. the Rhine on the W.
and on the N. by Hesse, and the Mayn. The number of square
miles is 6030. The relixion is the Lutheran. The population in
1807 was 922,649. In 1808, the revenue was 2,953,936 yuilders,
the expenditure 3,472,765 ; and the debt 18,000,000. The army
contains 12,000 troops, and the contingent 8000. Manheim, the
chief town, in 1800 had 18.818 inhabitants. It is on the Neckar
near its mouth, and was formerly the capital of the Elector Pala.
tine. It is strongly fortified.

Friburg contains 7916 inhabitants and is the seat of a university.
IV. The grand dutchy of Wurtzburg lies on both sides of the
Mayn, contains 2126 square miles, and 311,000 inhabitants.

The

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revenue. is 2,800,000 guilders. The debt, in 1802, was 3,954,750: The army is 2500 men, and the contingent 2000. Wurtzburg, the capital, is on the Mayn, well fortified, containing 21,350 inhabitants.

V. The United Principalities compose a state similar to the New Hanse-Towns, and consist of the Principalities of Ratisbon, on the Danube, in the heart of Bavaria, containing 90 square miles, 32,200 inhabitants, and Aschaffenburg on the Mayn, containing 460 square miles, and in 1802, 67,711 inhabitants ; of the county of Wezlar on the Lalın, containing 11 square miles, and 4988 in. habitants ; and of the district of Frankfors on the Mayn, containing 88 square miles, and 52,000 inhabitants : besides three hereditary lordships on the north bank of the Mayn, containing 203 square miles, and 18,137 inhabitants. The whole revenue is 1,800,000 guilders; the army ! 500 men.

The city of Ratisbon, on the Danube, an ancient commercial town, was till lately the seat of the diet of the empire. It contains 22,000 inhabitants.

Frankfort-on-the-Mayn, so called to distinguish it from Frank. fort-on-the-Oder, is strongly fortified, contains 37,000 inhabitants. Two fairs are held here annually, and the trade is considerable.

VI. The little principalities of Leyen and Liechtenstein, on the Khine, contain, together, 108 square miles, and 9600 inhabitants.

Here ought also to be mentioned the principality of Bayreuth, north of Bavaria, between Wurtzburg and Bohemia, containing 1225 square miles, and 255,000 inhabitants, and yielding a tribute of 900,000 guilders. Bayreuth, the capital, contains 10,000 inhabitants.

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AUSTRIA.

sq. Milcs.

THE head of the house, of Austria, was siyled, till 1809, emperor of Germany, and king of Bohemia and Hungary. After the termination of the unfortunate campaign of that year, the constitution of the Germanic body was dissolved, and Francis II. not only lost a part of his own hereditary dominions; but also resigned the imperial crown of Germany. His remaining territories, however, were at that time formed into an empire, called the EMPIRE OF AUSTRIA ; and, as its hereditary sovereign, he still possesses suficient power to claim the third place among the sovereigns of the continent.

Erlent. The length of Austria, from the eastern limits of Transylvania, to the western of Carinthia, is 620 miles; the breadth, from the Bug, which separates Gallicia from the grand dutchy of Warsaw, to the Save, the frontier of Turkey, is 520. The area is given in the table.

Boundaries. Bounded W. by Bavaria and Saxony ; N. by Prussia and Saxony; E. by Russia; S. by Turkey, the Adriatic, Istria

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