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1. The AUSTRIAN HEREDITARY
Cities. Market Towns. Villages. 484 981
24 251 310
5. Austrian Silcsia
3,111,472 (In 1803)
1,363,817 (In 1801) 1,826
276,968 (In 1801)
6,821,909 (In 1787)
1,528,064 (In 1801) 251,610 23,570,000
Divisions. The principal divisions of the Austrian dominions territory of Trieste has a little line of seacoast; and Carniola, east and Bavaria. Austria touches on the Adriatic in two places. The
1. East Gallicia
III. HUNGARIAN STATES,
Ausicia also possessed, before the campaign of 1805,
Population 1. The Tyrol,
7,230 296,415 5. Venetian territories, 9,349 1,630,179 The three first are now attached to Bavaria. Dalmatia and the territories of Venice, under the name of East Lombardy, form two great divisions of the kingdom of Italy. At the commencement of the French revolution Austria also possessed Lombardy, or the dutchies of Milan and Mantua ; and the Austrian Netherlands. These last are now an integral part of France. Milan and Mantua belong to the kingdom of Italy.
Historical Epoche. 1. By the death of the emperor Charles VI. on the 20th October, 1740, without male issue, ihe house of Austria became extinct. The elector of Bavaria scized the kingdom of Bohemia, and was clected emperor in 1742, but died in 1745.
2. Francis of Lorrain, son of Leopold duke of Lorrain, having married Maria Theresa, daughter of the emperor Charles VI. succeeded to the Austrian dominions, which continue to be held by his descendants. In 1745 he was elected emperor, and his successors have enjoyed the imperial crown, as if hereditary,
3. The reign of the emperop Joseph II. a beneficent but im. petuous prince, whose grand desigys of reformation were fruse. trated by his ignorance of the inveteracy of habits and prejudices, which must ever be considered in a due estimate of human affairs.
4. The formation of the Austrian States into an empire on the dissolution of the Germanic body in 1809.
Religion. The established religion of the monarchy is the Roman Catholic. Formerly no others were tulerated. The later emperors have wisely encouraged the settlement of Protestants. Various sects are extensively spread over Bohemia and Moravia ; and Lutherans are found even in Vienna. In Hungary the Protestants and Greeks are thought to constitute a majority of the inhabitants ; though the Catholic religion is also there established In Transylvania Catholics, Lutherans, Calvinists, Socinians, Arians, Greeks, Mahometans, enjoy their several religions. The Mahometans are principally in the eastern parts. The Slavonians are zealous Catholics, though Greeks and Jews are tolerated. This is equally true of the Croatians.
Government. In 1809 Austria was formed into an hereditary empire, with a power nearly absolute, vested in the sovereign. It is divided into 12 circles, in each of which are two head men, apo pointed annually for the administration of government.
Bohemia and Hungary are hereditary kingdoms. Transylvania has its states. Croatia and Slavonia constitute a viceroyalty. The Transylvanians, Slavonians. and Croats, have always been characterized by a love of freedom, and an impatience of control; and
the emperor has found his interest in letting them live in their own
Pupulation. Hassel estimates the population of the Austrian
Army. The Austrian army in 1809, is stated by Hassel at 346,791 men.
This ariny was under the command of 9 field marshals, 21 mas-
Nuvy. Austria has a few armed vessels in the harbor of
Revenue, Expenditure, and Narional Debt. The amount of the
This revenue, exclusive of that from the royal domains, was
Hereditary States 43,000,000
85,000,000 The extraordinary revenue is from 12 10 16,000,000. The expenditure is from 105 to 110,000,000.
The national debt is estimated at from 1,200 to 1,600,000,000, including from 800 to 1,000,000,000 guilders in paper money, capable of being redeemed at half its nominal value. The circulating specie amounts to from 100 to 120,000,000 guilders.
Manners and Customs. The Austrian manners are cold, but civil; the women elegant, but devoid of mental accomplishments. The youth of rank are commonly ignorant, and of course haughiy, being entire strangers to the cultivation of mind, and condescens sion of manners, to be found among the superior ranks of soine other countries. An Austrian nobleman or gentlemen is rarely seen to read, and hence polite literature is almost unknown and uncultivated. The lower orders are sicile addicted to crimes or vices, and punishments are rare : robberies are seldom committed, and murder little known.
The Hungarians remain a spirited people, and affect to despise their masters. Their dress consists of a tight vest, manile, and furred cap, and is graceful; and the whiskers add a military ferocity to their appearance. The Transylvanians are a medley of several different nations, and characterized by nothing but their savage manners, and their impatience of restraint. The Slavonians and Croatians are equally lawless.
Langauge. The languages spoken in these aggregated dominions are numerous and discrepant. Among people of rank at Vienna, the French is prevalent.
Literature. The causcs which have retarded the progress of
letters and philosophy in the Austrian dominions are tbe coarsenese of the German dialect, and the absence of the Slavonic and Hungarian from the learned languages of Europe ; the military education of the nobility, and that metaphysical bigotry, which perveits their rational powers, and blighis every bud of genius and solid knowledge.
Education. The empress Theresa instituted schools for the education of children, but none for the education of teachers. Hence the children are taught metaphysics before they knos Latin; and a blind veneration for the monks forms one of ihe first exertions of the young mind.
Universities. The universities, like those in other catholic countries, little promote the progress of solid knowledge. The sciences taught with the greatest care are those which are of the smallest utility. The university of Vienna has, since the year 3752, been somewhat improved. It was founded in 1237, and that of Prague in 1347; that of Inspruck only dates from 1677, and Gratz from 1585. Hungary chiefly boasts of Buda. A late trav. eller informis us that its university possesses an income of about twenty thousand pounds sterling, only four thousand of which are applied to pay the salaries of the professors.
Cities and Towns. Vienna, the chief city of the Austrian dominions, lies on the S. or rather W. side of the Danube, in a ferile plain, watered by a branch of that river, (beyond which stands the suburb of Leopoldstadt,) and by the litile river Wien. The Danube is here very wide, and contains several woody isles: the country towards the N. and E. is level, but on the S. and W. hilly, and variegated with trees. The number of inhabitants in 1801 was 232,049, and of houses, 6649. The suburbs are far more extensive than the city, standing at a considerable distance from the walls. The louses are generally of brick, covered with durable Stucco.
Praguc is the second city in the Austrian dominions, its popula. tion being 80,317. This metropolis of Bohemia stands on both sides of the river Mulda, over wbich is a noble bridge of stone. This city has had the fatality of being exposed to frequent sieges, commonly fortunate to the aggressors. About a sixth part of the population consists of Jews.
The third city is Lemberg, or Leopold, in Gallicia, on the banks of the Pelicw, just above its entrance into the Bug, being surroundod with hills and mountains, which command the town. The inhabitants in 1808, 50,000.
Next is Gratz, the capital of Stiria, containing 40,000 sculs, on the west side of the Muebr.
Presburg, the capital of Hungary, containing 32,000 inhabitauts, is beautifully situated on the Danube, towards the western extrenity of Hungary, 35 miles cast of Vienna. The Danube is bere very rapid, and about 250 yards in breadth. Jews also abound in this city.
Buda, by the Germans called Offen, the ancient metropolis of Hungary, contained, in 1787, 24,872 inhabitants. In 1784 the seat
of the provincial government was transferred from Presburg to
Brunn, the capital of Moravia, is at the conflux of the Schwar. saw and the Surtawa, tributaries of the Danube.
Trieste lies on the N. E. part of the Adriatic, called the gulf of Trieste. The harbor is well fortified, and the trade considerable. It contained, in 1801, 23,633 inhabitants.
Schemnitz, the largest of the mine-towns in Hungary, lies between hills, in a long valley. The inhabitants are 22,241 in number.
Manufactures and Commerce. Vienna, perhaps, equals any other of the cities in manufactures, which are chicfly of silk, gold and silver lace, cloths, stuffs, stockings, linen, mirrors, porcelain; with silver plate, and several articles in brass.* Bohemia is celebrated for beautiful glass and paper. The linen manufactures of Bohemia amount, annually, according to Hveck, to 16,000,000 florins, beside some in wool and in cotton. The woollen manufacture at Lintz employs 30,000 persons; and in the whole archdutchy there are 7 great manufactures of cotton cloth, which employ 140,000 persons. But the commerce of the Austrian cominions chiefly depends upon their native opulence ; Austria proper and the southern provinces producing abundance of horses and cattle, corn, flax, saffron, and various wines, with several metals, particularly quicksilver from the mines of Idria. Bohemia and Moravia are also rich in oxen and sheep, corn, flax, and hemp; in which they are rivalled by the dismembered provinces of Poland. The wide and marshy plains of Hungary often present excellent pasturage for numerous herds of cattle ; and the more favore) parts of that country produce corn, rice, the rich wines of Tokay, and tobacco of an exquisite flavor, with great and celebrated mines of various metals and minerals. The Austrian territories in general are so abundant in the various necessaries and luxuries of life, to be found either in the north or south of Europe, that the imports seem to be few and inconsiderable. The chief exports are from the port of Trieste, consisting of quicksilver and other met als, with wines and various native products. Dr. Townson gives a table of the exports of Hungary for one year, from which it appears that they consisted chiefly of cattle, bogs, sheep, flvur, wheat, rye, wool, and wine, carried to other Austrian provinces; and only about one seventh part sent to foreign countries.
Climate and Scasons. The climate of Austria proper is commonly mild and salubrious, thougli sometimes exposed to violent winds, and the southern provinces in general enjoy delightful temperature, if the mountainous paris be excepted.
Face of the Country. The appearance of the various regions subject to Austria is rather mountainous than level, presenting a striking contrast in this respect to those of Russia and Prussia. The general face of the Austrian dominions may be pronounced to be highly variegated and interesting; and the vegeiabie products of both the north and south of Europe unite to please the eye ofiha traveller.
Busching, vi. 519. See Hoecke