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cetrinics and the lake of Thun, to Aarburg; then turning 10 thc N. E. and re

replieceiving the waters of the lake of Neufchatel, and being joined by Tie, Zucket, the Reuss and the Limmat, falls into the Rhine, opposite Waldshut,

after a course of 150 miles. The Reuss issues from Mount St. Eth sides e Gothard, and passing through the lake of Lucern, l'ups N. 10 iho

Aar, a course of 80 miles. The Limmat, l'unning 20 miles, enters Eave 97

the lake of Zurich ; from which it runs about the same distance, level fuldt and joins the Aar, a little below the Reuss.

The Thur runs westward, and joins the Rhine below Schaff· Tle na hausen. The Tessino falls into the lake of Maggiore.

Lakes. The lakes of Switzerland are numerous and intcrestar, ide stad ing. The most considerable are those of Constance on the N. E.

and Geneva on the S. W. The former is about 45 miles in of architos

length, and in some places 15 in breadth. It is a beautiful ex. le owires panse of water. * Facia

The lake of Geneva extends in the form of a crescent, about 40 supericol miles in length, and 9 at its greatest breadth. The beauties of

this lake have been celebrated by Rousseau ; but would be con. cre its

siderably increased if it were sprinkled with islands. toward

Mountains. The Alps, the most celebrated of the mountains of antiquity, pass between Piedmont, on the E. and France and Savoy on the W. through Switzerland, and between Italy on the S. W. and Germany on the N. E. till they terminate at the gulf of Carnero, on the E. of Istria. The whole length of the chain is about 550 miles. Different parts of it bare received different names, but the common name of Alps has been extended to the whole. The highest eminence of this chain is Mont Blanc, separating the N. W. corner of Piedmont from Savoy. Its summit and sides, to the depth of 4000 feet perpendicular, are covered with perpetual ice and snow. The first, who explored its summit, was Mr. De Saussure, of Geneva, in 1787. Sir George Shuckburgh measured its height witb great accuracy, and found it to be 15,662 fect above the ocean, a greater elevation than that of any measur. ed mountain in the old world.

The Helvetic Alps are a ridge north of the Rhone, and running nearly parallel with the principal chain. The chict eminejices be. tween the Rhone and Mount St. Gothard, are Germi, Jungfrau, Schreckhorn, and Finsteraar, 13,218 feet high.

Mineralogy. The mountains contain iron, sulphur, and crys: tal. The last is found in pieces weighing from 7 to 800 weight. Rock salt is found in the canton of Berne. Granite, porphyry, as. bestos, jaspers, and agates are abundant in the Alps. Tremoiite has its name from mount Tremola, near St. Gothard.

GENEVA. GENEVA is situated at the southern extremity of the lake of this name, where, contracting, it forms the Rhone. The inhabitants became christians in the 31 century. In 1535, the doctrines of the reformation were established, and the celebrated Calvin here found a sase retreat from the persecution of the Catholics. The territory belonging to the republic comprised about 60 square

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miles; and the population was 30,000. The city of Genova itsell, contained, in 1802, 23,309 inhabitants. The Rhone divides it into two unequal parts. The town and territory are now an integral part of France,

SPANISH EMPIRE.

THE Spanish, like the British Empire, embraces portions of territory in all the four quarters of the globe.

1. IN EUROPE.
Spain.
Majorca,
Minorca, Islands in the Mediterranean.
Ivica,

2. IN AFRICA.
African Presidencies, Ceuta, Melilla, and a few other cities,
Canary Islands,
Isle of Fernando Po,

in the Atlantic.
Prince's Island,
Annabon Island,

3. IN ASIA.
Philippine Islands.
Calamianes.
Ladrones, or Marian Islands.
Carolinas.
Part of Magindanao.
Bashee Islands (south of Formosa.)

4. IN AMERICA.
Floridas.
Mexico,
Cuba, 1.
Porto Rico, I.
New Grenada, or Western Terra Firma.
Venezuela, or Eastern Terra Firma.
Peru.
Chili.
Buenos Ayres, or Paraguay.
Falkland Islands.

SPAIN.

Extent. SPAIN lies between lon. 9 17 30 W. and 3 45 E. and between lat. 36 6 30, and 43 46 30 N. Its greatest length, is 620 aniles; and its greatest breadth 530. The number of square miles, according to Hassel, is 195,510.

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Boundaries. Spain is bounded N. by the bay of Biscay and France; E. by the Mediterranean; S. by the same and the Atlantic; W. by Portugal and the Auantic.

Divisions. The following we believe to be an accurate account. of the divisions and subdivisions of Spain, with the extent and the population of each in 1787 ; together with the number of cities, boroughs, villages, and parishes.

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Kingdoms

Province

Extent. Population. Cit. Bor. Villa.
Gallicia,

14,030 1,343,803 1 1201 187) 306
Asturia,
Santillana,

5260 347,776 3 290 47 57 1284
Biscay,
1430 116,092

124
Biscay,
Alava,
11001 71,349

432
Guipuscoa, 800 120,716

76 Navarre,

3930 227,382 Arragon,

15,550 623,308fil Catalonia,

12,7 10 814,410
Valencia,

10,740 932,150
Mallorca,
Mallorca, Minorca,

1890): 179,066
Ivica,
Murcia,

54801 337,686,7 230 133 365
Granada,

7
Granada,

12,710
19,638

67
Seville, 9250 754,2931 1 591 185) 249
Andalusia, Cordova, 6490 236,016 2 134 502 766
Jaen,

52601 177,136 2 179 554 499
Estremadura,

14,950 416,922.! 83 229 329
[Leon,

261 219
Palencia,
112,514 4 55

63
Toro,

92,404) 5 58 Leon,

Zamora,

17,640

74,669 17 11821 172 397 Salamanca,

2:0,389 1 Valladolid,

196,8391 5 601 1 108 Burgos,

465,410 6 58811911828

174,289 1 100 302 410
Segovia,
Old Castille,

16,220
Soria,

170,565 4 (132| 482 639 Asila,

115,172 1 961 207 286 Madrid,

216,226 73 17 92 Toledo,

337,078 2 22: 1001 327" New-Castille, Guadalaxara 37,940 114,379 2 187 110 319 Cuenza,

266,182 2 23 186 431 Mancha,

214,07812 931 93 114

350,139 15 1160

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Historical Epoche. The following are the chief epochs in Spanish history.

1. The original settlement by the Celts, and then by the Mauri.

2. The Carthagenian conquest of Spain about the time of the first Punic War.

3. The Roman dominion, which lasted from B. C. 196 to A. D.

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4. The domination of the northern barbarians.
5. The domination of the Saracens.

6. The union of the crowns of Castille and Arragon by the mans riage of Isabella and Ferdinand, in 1474.

7. The reign of the enıperor Charles V. which began in 1517. The power of Spain was now at its zenith.

8. The conquest of Portugal by Philip II. of Spain, and I. of Portugal, in 1580, soon after the defeat of the Portuguese, in Afri. ca, by Muley Moloch. The Spaniards found their conquest an unquiet possession during the 60 years of its subjugation. In 1640, John, duke of Braganza, put himself at the head of the Portuguese, who unanimously shook off the Spanish yoke, and bravely achieved their independence.

9. The termination of the Austrian dynasty by the death of Charles II. November 1, 1700: and the accession of the house of Bourbon, in the person of Philip, grandson of Louis XIV.

10. The kidnapping of the Spanish royal family at Bayonne, in the spring of 1808, by the French emperor, and the subsequent attempt to impose his brother Joseph on the Spaniards, in the room of Ferdinand VII. the lawful monarch.

11. The liberation of Spain from the usurped dominion of France, 1813.

Religion. The Catholic is almost the only religion known or tolerated in Spain, and is here exercised in all its ceremonial or. thodoxy. The court of inquisition, instituted in 1478, by Ferdinand the catholic, was long invested with exorbitant power, a pow. er exercised with a degree of intolerance and cruelly known in no other country but Portugal. The high court was at Madrid, and 8 subordinate courts were scattered over the kingdom. This baleful and detestable court was abolished by the government in 1815. There are in Spain 8 archbishoprics, 48 bishoprics, 117 cathedrals, 18,537 parishes, 2146 monasteries, and 1023 nunneries. The revenues of the archbishoprics are very great. That of Toledo is about £90,000 sterlin, The whole number of clergy, in 1787, was 188,625, of whom 22,460 were parish priests, and their assistants ; 69,617 monks ; 33,500 nuns; and 2,705 inquisitors.

Government. The government was a despotic monarchy, balanced lowever by the power of the church, and tempered by many councils, who were responsible for the success of their own

Population. The census of 1787 gave a population of 10,268,150. Hassel cstimated it in 1809, at 10,396,000. Since that time it must have been seriously diminished by the indiscriminate carnage occasioned by the armies of France.

The government of Spain, during her struggle for independence, has undergone several changes, and is still in a revolutionary and unsettled state.

The census of 1787 exceeded that of 1768-), by 960,346 souls.

Army. In 1806, the army amounted to 153,840 men, under the cominand of a generalissimo, 5 captain-generals, 92 lieutenantgenerals, 136 major-generals, and 235 brigadiers. Since the rer

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diation almost every man has become a soldier, and the Spanish
recruits have in many instances exhibited the valor and intrepidity
of veteran troops.

Navy. In 1808, the navy amounted to 218 sail; whereof 42
were of the line, 30 frigates, 20 corvettes, 4 zebecs, 40 brigan-
tines, 15 bomb-vessels, and 67 smaller vessels. These were man-
ned by 2379 marines, 3320 artillery, and 36,000 sailors.

Revenue. Llerena states the Spanish revenue at 616,295,675 rials de vellon, or about 32,575,000 dollars. Others state it at 40

millions of dollars. The first nearly agrees with the estimate of 1234 Hassel, and is probably correct. Of this revenue Ainerica fura

nishes about 2,100,000 dollars. The expenditure usually some-
what exceeded the revenue. The national debt, in 1809, was es-

timated by Hassel at about 311,000,000 dollars. About 41,000,000 the diz

dollars are annually brought hither, of which about 32,000,000

come froin America. The whole amount imported in the register. V.

ed ships alone, from the discovery of the mines to the year 1725,
was 5185 millions in gold and silver. But it merely passes through
Spain, to the residences of industry and enterprize.

Manners and Customs. The Spaniards are generally short,
thin, and well proportioned. Their complexion is olive. Their
manners are grave and slow, but graceful. They are distinguish-

ed for their national and personal pride. These prevent them kreat from stooping to the morc grovelling vices. They are credulous,

superstitious, and bigoted, but at present not intolerant. They
are revengeful; but assassinations are less frequent than formerly,
and are not common except in Andalusia and Granada. Jealousy
was formerly a common characteristic of the nation, but it has been
succeeded by a more criminal indifference. One of the most
striking of the present national munners and customs is the com-
mon practice of adultery, under the mask of religion. The cicisvei
first appeared as a distinct class of men in Italy several centuries
since, and were soon found in Austria, Spain, and Portugal. In
France they were unnecessary. In italy they are usually gentle-

In Spain they are often monks and ecclesiastics. They are called cortrjos, and often discover a singular degree of fidelity and constancy in their criininal attachment.

In general the Spaniards are patient, cautious, distinguished for their subriety and temperance, charitable, friendly, faithful, and strictly honest in their dealings. They are obedient to the laws, and willing to urdergo any sacrifice for the honor of their country.

Language. The Spanish is chillly derived from the Latin, and resembles it more than the French or Italian. Many of the words are of Arabic and some of Gothic origin. The dialect of Castile is by far the purest. The Biscayans speak an entirely different language from the Castilian. It is of Gothic derivation. The Asturian dialect is said to resemble it, and, in a sinaller de. gree, the Gallician. There are serious varieties in those of the other provinces.

Literature. During the long Roman domination Spain received so many colonists from lialy, that she became at length

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